Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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90 views

What determines whether a regulatory T cell suppresses a naive T cell binding the same antigen-presenting cell?

Here's what I learned about how regulatory T cells work: There is a self-recognising naive T cell around. A regulatory T cell that recognises the same self-antigen binds the same antigen-presenting ...
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What is the difference between an active and inactive T helper cell?

1- Are all inactive T helper cells "T memory cells" ? 2- Is there anything such as active T memory cells ? 3- I have noticed that there is also a third type of T helper cells but i dont know what it ...
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How does the adaptive immune system store information?

I am quite curious about this: Where and how is knowledge that the adaptive immune system accumulates stored? What is the "memory size limit" of this storage method if there is any? Why cant this ...
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Phagocytosis and bacteria

Invading Bacteria are phagocytosed by phagocytes. Phagocytes are specialised white cells. But, if a non-phagocyte cells are infected with bacteria how those cells handle this situation? Do they ...
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Why hasn't there been a serious effort to develop an anti-inflammatory that blocks the responsible genes? [closed]

After numerous years of reading about how to disable inflammation and related treatments, it appears that the common existing approaches are fundamentally wrong. The most popular over-the-counter ...
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Human anti animal antibodies issues in blood testing

Do people have to be exposed to animals to get HAMA antibodies? Can these antibodies impact blood tests with false negatives as well as false positives?
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Are bacteria incapable of producing cytokines such as interleukins?

As far as I understand, bacteria cannot produce cytokines such as interleukins. However, I have not read an explanation as to why they cannot. Perhaps it has to do with an evolutionary limitation. Yet,...
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281 views

What goes wrong in the immune system that leads to autoimmune diseases

As far as I understood so far, B and T cells are produced in the bone marrow, and during their maturing process in the bone marrow or Thymus, the are "programmed" to react to certain proteins. It is ...
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How do prions cross the blood brain barrier?

How does the PrP scrapie protein maintain its confirmation while going through the GI tract? How does the PrP scrapie protein cross the blood brain barrier? Wouldn't the host immune system recognize ...
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Do mosquitoes allow for DNA transfer between unrelated species?

A mosquito can bite individuals of different species and eventually allow for some blood of one species to enter into the bloodstream of another species which I suppose may eventually cause DNA ...
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Immune system initial response

One thing i can not still comprehend about the immune system is the following: A bacteria is first recognized by neutrophiles. But then neutrophiles have to have the ability to release chemotaxines ...
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Why would eating the meat of cows fed with antibiotics trigger an immune response to the antibiotics? [closed]

The document "Antibiotics and Antibiotic resistance" contains the following paragraph: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in feed stuffs means that humans may receive unwanted doses of ...
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Can neutrophils kill bacteria inside other cells?

Are neutrophils able to get inside epithelial cells in order to kill bacteria. Therefore, even if a bacteria gets inside the epithelial cells can the neutrophils get inside the epithelium to kill the ...
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Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
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What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
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Why can Toll-like receptors be found either inside and outside the cell?

Innate immune cells may present Toll-like receptors either inside (TLR3 and TLR9, for instance) or outside (TLR4 and TLR5, for instance) the cell, but is there any beneficial reason for this? If so, ...
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Material(s) That Tissue Can Grow Into And/Or Not Be Rejected?

I once watched a special on Dr. Roger Leir, a doctor made famous for removing supposed ET implants. Whether they were as such or not isn't important for this question. What is important is that he ...
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Predict if a given protein is recognized by antibodies

Assume that i have a 3d-protein structure in a PDB file on a computer. Is there any bioinformatic method to predict if that protein is recognized by all known antibodies of human and cause an immune ...
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Septic Shock: I'll kill myself before you kill me

Most of the deaths caused by extracellular bacteria don't actually result directly form their action. Rather, it results from an overreaction of the immune system to antigens such as LPS and LTA (...
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Fraction of naive T-cells in CD4+ T-cells isolated from whole blood?

Many papers isolate CD4+ T-cells from whole blood. I am wondering approximately what proportion of naive T-cells there will be from such a sample? Are these predominately naive T-cells or are there ...
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How long does immunity to influenza last when contracting the disease vs vaccination

The long term efficacy of flu vaccines are well documented, however I cannot seem to find a good source showing how long immunity lasts when contracting the disease. I suspect it can't be much longer ...
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What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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Can fever cure Ebola disease?

Why is ebola disease does not cured on elevating body temperature by body defense system? Can we cure it either by elevating or reducing body temperature (in ice bath) and creating hostile environment ...
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How can antibodies in rapid antibody tests be kept at room temperature without denaturing?

The normal temperature for long term antibody storage is around -20 degrees Celsius. However, when developed into rapid antibody tests, they can be kept at room temperature for prolonged periods. How ...
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Where do the antibodies that trigger the specific immune response come from?

In A level Biology, we are taught that in order to trigger the specific immune response of the body, antibodies must first attach to the pathogen. The macrophages contain antibody receptors, and this ...
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Meaning of “primers IL-2” in a scientific article

From an article ("Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Lewis Rats by FTY720 Treatment", 2003): We performed PCR amplification in a 100-μl reaction mixture containing 200 μM ...
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How does the immune system distinguish between commensal and pathogenic bacteria?

There are billions of bacteria living harmlessly in our gut, and in fact most are helpful to us, aiding digestion, producing vitamins and maintaining gut health. The immune system is able to suppress ...
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What industry job am I qualified for with a PhD in virology? [closed]

I'm considering applying for a PhD studying innate resistance to HCV. I enjoy research but I would prefer to have a stable job, instead of moving from contract to contract and writing grants to ensure ...
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401 views

What does the term “recruitment of T-cell” mean?

With respect to the article, what does the term "recruitment of T-cell" mean? Who recruits T- cell? Does recruiting T-cell mean the T-cells get a sense of directionality to get activated by the APC's?
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Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
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Lab experiment: Enumeration of Leukocytes

The images below were obtained in an experiment to enumerate leukocytes in a blood sample using Neubauer counting chamber. The following solution was prepared and added to the Neubauer chamber and ...
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Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
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Does the saliva of a person just recovered from an infectious disease help to cure another persons having the same disease?

I have always had this 'weird' thought (But could never quite test it...). Would the saliva of a just recovered person contains antibodies, or other immuno-boosting substances that can help fight off ...
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Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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How does translational immunotherapy work?

I skimmed an article on a recent experiment which suggested that it was effective to inject induced colon cancer tumors with an attenuated salmonella variant. According to the article, this stimulated ...
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What is the advantage of having multiple pathways to activate complement?

We all know there are three pathways to activate complement: classical pathway, lectin pathway and alternative pathway. What is the advantage of having multiple pathways?
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Terminology for quantitative response of T cells to antigen complexes

In the article, there is a statement which is: Although DCs are remarkably efficient in evoking T cell responses with few antigen– MHC complexes (1–100 per DC) (1–3), they must first ...
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Meaning of proliferation rate of 3 day−1

The abstract of an article in Journal of Virology contains the following line: We find that CD8+ cell proliferation begins 1 to 2 days after infection and occurs at an average rate of 3 day−1, ...
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How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
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Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
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Flow cytometry analysis

I've performed an experiment wherein I have stimulated cells (cell line) with a drug across different time-points - in its unmodified (Drug) or modified form (H-Drug or M-Drug). All cells are seeded ...
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Are there any exceptional cases in which a person with O negative blood group cannot donate?

Are there any exceptional cases in which a person with O negative blood group cannot donate or any case in which compatibility might not be established between O negative an any other blood group?
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Is vermiform appendix no more a vestigial organ?

The appendix has a role in the immune response. So is it therefore recently removed from the list of vestigial organs?
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How do T cells deal with the obstructions in their path of migration?

When T cells move in the blood, are their any obstructions(other cells) while they migrate? If there are then how do the T cells overcome such obstructions in their path? Do they move past them or ...
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Potential immunization against airborn viruses [closed]

I have had an idea based on the principals of a virus and their properties and how they enter the cell by tricking it into believing it is a protein etc. If we coated a copper particle (or another ...
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Does an organism have only certain antibodies for life?

Before birth, in the bone marrow millions of different B-cells are formed. These cells are differentiated and express different antibodies. Are these the only B-cell types you will ever have? Or can ...
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782 views

what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

And as a B cell matures, it develops the ability to determine friend from foe, developing both immunocompetence -- or how to recognize and bind to a particular antigen -- as well as self-tolerance,...
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About sandwich ELISA

In sandwich ELISA the Fc region of primary antibody bind to the polystyrene coated well. But what are the specific interactions (like 'hydrophobic interaction' or 'van der waals force') happen between ...
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Evidence for annual rabies vaccine?

US companies that sell rabies vaccines routinely recommend that they be given annually. Obviously, these companies have a financial incentive to recommend that their vaccines be given as frequently as ...
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Why don't we build up an immunity to sore throat?

We often get sore throats once or twice a year, and it clears in a few days sometimes without any antibiotics. I was wondering why doesn't our body become immune after clearing a sore throat?

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