Questions tagged [infection]

An infection is caused by the invasion of by pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses or worms) into a host. These pathogenic organisms live and multiply in its host and cause diseases by this.

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Staphylococcus (antibacterial soaps and Traditional Lathering soaps)

I have been working on a biology research assignment regarding the claim: Antibacterial soaps are superior to traditional lathering soaps in minimizing the transmission of disease I have made a ...
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How are latence period and duration of infectiosity defined?

I assume that infectiosity of an individual is not a binary property but a quantity that grows and decays gradually, very much like the number of infected or infectious individuals in a population. ...
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What causes the yellow and brown spots on our sour cherry tree?

So at the end of spring (maybe at the beginning of summer) our sour cherry tree started producing these yellowish/brownish spots on its leaves. Can you help me identify the couse of this? What can we ...
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What fraction of human cells gets infected during a viral infection?

As I understand, if a cell gets infected during a viral infection then it eventually dies. If an individual does not die of an infection, the percentage of cells that gets infected in the course of ...
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Factors of infection rate

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. Preliminaries The standard SIR model consists of a system of three differential equations $$ds/dt = -\beta s i$$ $$di/dt = \beta s i - \nu i$$ $$dr/dt = \nu i$...
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The role of duration of contact in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. The basic SIR model - as described in Jones' Notes - considers three factors that make up the reproduction number: $\tau$ = the transmissibility (i.e., ...
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The role of duration of infectiousness in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. The basic SIR model - as described in Jones' Notes - considers three factors that make up the reproduction number: $\tau$ = the transmissibility (i.e., ...
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Which is more efficient as a germicide: UVC, Ozone or combination and why?

I've read many contradictory info about ozone vs UVC light irradiation and cannot come to a conclusion, I am totally confused. As it commonly known UV germicidal irradiation is very effective against ...
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Difference between infectivity and cell fusion abillity of Virus. (COVID 19)

I'm a computational chemist who have interest in COVID-19. As a physical chemist, I'm lack of basic knowledge for biology. What is the difference between 'infectivity' and 'membrane fusion activity'?...
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How likely is to develop an infection from a single virion entering a single cell? [closed]

Is there any research (including mathematical or computational modelling) regarding how likely it is to infect an organism starting from a single virion entering a single cell? I am interested in any ...
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Has there even been a clinical study where healthy volunteers consented to be infected with a pathogen?

I am curious if there has ever been a (modern) clinical study where a healthy volunteer was purposefully infected with a pathogen in order to test the effectiveness of a therapeutic or preventative ...
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Can virus and bacteria move on the surface? [duplicate]

Do viruses/bacteria have some motive mechanism? I mean if the virus/bacteria reach some surface by touching, can it move on that surface? Life example: suppose the cooler is not so clean and has ...
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Why are victims of Covid19 being wrapped in plastic?

Several articles describe the unique ways Covid-19 patients are being buried. For example, in this Reuters article about Israel: These included decontaminating and hermetically wrapping bodies in ...
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What's the evidence against SARS-CoV-2 being engineered by humans?

A couple of colleagues suggested in a discussion that the virus that causes COVID-19 appears to be made by humans, since nature could not have produced such an efficient virus — that spreads so fast ...
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Do organisms use detergents to fight off viruses?

Common advice against contracting bacteria or viruses is to wash your hands because soap dissolves the viruses' shell. Does any organism exploit this effect to protect against infection, e.g. by ...
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Can plasmodial slime molds be infected by virus?

According to the definition, plasmodial slime mold consist of a "single cell" with thousands of nuclei. How would such a unique type of cell response to viral infection (if any)? Google search yield ...
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Has there ever been an approved viral infection treatment method based on the physical/mechanical properties of virus?

I imagined that typical cells and viruses could have very different physical properties or reactions to mechanical stresses, which makes selective targetting possible. For instance, some major ...
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Is the Common Cold an Immune Overreaction?

It's my understanding that the majority of symptoms associated with the common cold (runny nose, inflamed sinus, slight fever) are essentially the result of the immune system's response. I've never ...
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Why is it so important to avoid infection of lacerations to the scalp?

There is supposedly something unique with regards to infections of the scalp, although I cannot remember, perhaps it was to do with the CSF and its build up? I have scoured the internet for hours but ...
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Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...
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How can Haemophilus influenzae survive and grow alone in the human body?

Haemophilus influenzae gets its name from the fact, that it requires nutrients from blood in order to grow. More specifically, I see it mentioned that in vitro they often exhibit the pheomenon that ...
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Are there any proteins not found in the brain that are affected by prions?

A prion is an abnormally folded protein that is capable of causing otherwise normal proteins to also misfold and become prions. They are responsible for causing diseases such as Kuru and Creutzfeldt–...
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Can germs spread by tissues out of box?

Firstly, I don't know if this is the best site to ask this question. Please guide if its not. Now my question: If we take out a tissue out of its box, a new tissue comes out partially so we can ...
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Are most pathogenic bacteria facultative anaerobes?

I know that S. aureus and most gram-negative rods are facultative anaerobes. In terms of number of species, are most human pathogen-associated bacteria facultative anaerobes?
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What is this toad suffering from? Myiasis or chytridiomycosis?

I found this toad on Aug. 29th at this location: position on osm I think it is a bufo bufo, approx. 10 cm long. The nostrils seemed to be completely filled with a grey matter and from the activity of ...
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How could be the concentration of airborne pathogens in a specific indoor space be measured?

I wonder if it is possible to measure the concentration of airborne pathogens in a specific indoor space in order to extract a percentage value. This value would be helpful to determine specific ...
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what will be the effect of cockroach bite?

I know the cockroaches are creepy for humans. But I want to know why humans are afraid of cockroaches and what will be the effect of there bite on my body. Can I touch them or if they walk over my ...
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What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Infecting yeast with viruses

Is there any virus, either natural or engineered, known to infect yeast through mechanisms similar to phages/human viruses, that is, by horizontal contamination mediated by extracellular viral ...
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Bacteria resistant to antibiotics?

If I use antibiotic on a specific type of bacteria, some will survive because it is resistant. Was this bacteria resistant to this antibiotic before it was even used, or did the bacteria develop ...
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Why are the bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections resistant to many antibiotics?

Why are the bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections resistant to many antibiotics, and why don't hospital acquired infections exist elsewhere ? The infections that are caused in hospitals ...
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Why are vaccines containing attenuated microorganisms preferable to those containing dead microorganisms instead?

My teacher said it more closely resembles a real infection but I didn't get that.
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Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
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Would boiling water kill microorganisms in clothing that had feces spilled on it?

Lets say there is a piece of clothing that had a small amount of human feces that spilled on it. Would placing that clothing in boiling water destroy the microorganisms on that clothing?
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Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
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Epidemic threshold on a directed network

I am trying to understand the equations used in a paper (https://www.nature.com/articles/srep00469.pdf) Mainly I'm trying to understand how the epidemic thershold was calculated using the ...
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Saving lives by “conjoining” people

There are many deaths which occur as a result of a cascade of organ failures triggered by a single event, for example traumatic injuries, severe burns, infections and so on. Since blood transfusion ...
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Is swimming pool water actually a weak topical medication?

I was inspired by this question. Given that the chlorine levels in swimming pool water are so high that they can seriously harm amphibians, it seems logical that the water should also kill various ...
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Activity driven model threshold

So I am trying to figure out a threshold for an activity driven model. That is described in this paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep00469 That is I don't see how the researchers got ...
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What counts as a 'breach of the skin' for infections(like rabies) that spread via wounds?

I've been looking at several sources on how the virus spreads and they all mention that the skin has to be broken, but does it mean broken to the naked eye? A minor scratch where the skin appears ...
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Would the microgravity “shape-shifting” bacteria effect have anything to do with bacteria growing in a host?

Phys.org's news article Why bacteria 'shapeshift' in space describes a recently published study Phenotypic Changes Exhibited by E. coli Cultured in Space, Zea Luis, Z. et al, 2017, Frontiers in ...
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What, other than genetic factors, influence which individual survives a parasite and which perishes?

What factors other than "good genes" are at play in determining whether one individual survives a parasite and another individual in the same species perishes as a result of the same parasite? For ...
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How does the adaptive immune system store information?

I am quite curious about this: Where and how is knowledge that the adaptive immune system accumulates stored? What is the "memory size limit" of this storage method if there is any? Why cant this ...
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Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
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How can a pathogenic bacterium be avirulent?

Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 is a pathogenic bacterial strain but it is avirulent. How can a pathogen be avirulent. What does it mean if a pathogenic bacterium is avirulent?
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Septic Shock: I'll kill myself before you kill me

Most of the deaths caused by extracellular bacteria don't actually result directly form their action. Rather, it results from an overreaction of the immune system to antigens such as LPS and LTA (...
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Why should benzalkonium chloride (an antifungal agent) be used during your laundry machine's “rinse” cycle, not its “wash” cycle?

I'll first provide lots of background information. My actual question is at the very end. Background The spread of athlete's foot Athlete's foot is a fungal infection which is mildly contagious. ...
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What is the benefit of fever during infections?

When people get sick, they often develop a fever. What is the effect of an increased body temperature on viruses and bacteria in the body? Is it beneficial to the infected body? Importantly, often ...
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Can conventional PCR amplify DNA from different organisms from a specimen in a single step?

I've understood so far that in conventional PCR, the most abundant DNA/genotype present in the speciment at the beginning of the reaction is selected and esponentially amplified. So that cPCR are ...
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Reproduction number of a SIR model with mortality

We know that reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ is $\frac{\alpha}{\beta}$ for the following system, such that if $\mathcal{R}_0>1$, there is an epidemic in the population. Now, assume the system ...