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Questions tagged [infection]

An infection is caused by the invasion of by pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses or worms) into a host. These pathogenic organisms live and multiply in its host and cause diseases by this.

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Does a microwave oven disinfect food?

Imagine I am preparing food -- just about to put it into a microwave oven -- and some of it falls on the floor. Assuming it got some bacteria or other organisms (viruses?) on it, will the microwave ...
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What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Septic Shock: I'll kill myself before you kill me

Most of the deaths caused by extracellular bacteria don't actually result directly form their action. Rather, it results from an overreaction of the immune system to antigens such as LPS and LTA (...
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Infecting yeast with viruses

Is there any virus, either natural or engineered, known to infect yeast through mechanisms similar to phages/human viruses, that is, by horizontal contamination mediated by extracellular viral ...
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Bacteria resistant to antibiotics?

If I use antibiotic on a specific type of bacteria, some will survive because it is resistant. Was this bacteria resistant to this antibiotic before it was even used, or did the bacteria develop ...
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Why are the bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections resistant to many antibiotics?

Why are the bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections resistant to many antibiotics, and why don't hospital acquired infections exist elsewhere ? The infections that are caused in hospitals ...
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Does drinking alcohol having UTI may help to kill the bacteria?

It's well known that ethyl alcohol kills bacteria. And amount of alcohol in urine may be detected by EtG tests (as long as 3-4 days after intake). Does drinking alcohol in reasonable amount by ...
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Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
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Would boiling water kill microorganisms in clothing that had feces spilled on it?

Lets say there is a piece of clothing that had a small amount of human feces that spilled on it. Would placing that clothing in boiling water destroy the microorganisms on that clothing?
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Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
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Saving lives by “conjoining” people

There are many deaths which occur as a result of a cascade of organ failures triggered by a single event, for example traumatic injuries, severe burns, infections and so on. Since blood transfusion ...
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Epidemic threshold on a directed network

I am trying to understand the equations used in a paper (https://www.nature.com/articles/srep00469.pdf) Mainly I'm trying to understand how the epidemic thershold was calculated using the ...
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How the conjunctivitis virus spread just by seeing a person's eye who is infected

Conjunctivitis or 'pink eye'. I have a few questions on conjunctivitis. When I was suffering from conjunctivitis, my doctor advised me to wear sunglasses so that no one else gets infected. I wonder ...
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What counts as a 'breach of the skin' for infections(like rabies) that spread via wounds?

I've been looking at several sources on how the virus spreads and they all mention that the skin has to be broken, but does it mean broken to the naked eye? A minor scratch where the skin appears ...
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Is swimming pool water actually a weak topical medication?

I was inspired by this question. Given that the chlorine levels in swimming pool water are so high that they can seriously harm amphibians, it seems logical that the water should also kill various ...
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Activity driven model threshold

So I am trying to figure out a threshold for an activity driven model. That is described in this paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep00469 That is I don't see how the researchers got ...
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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Would the microgravity “shape-shifting” bacteria effect have anything to do with bacteria growing in a host?

Phys.org's news article Why bacteria 'shapeshift' in space describes a recently published study Phenotypic Changes Exhibited by E. coli Cultured in Space, Zea Luis, Z. et al, 2017, Frontiers in ...
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Why should benzalkonium chloride (an antifungal agent) be used during your laundry machine's “rinse” cycle, not its “wash” cycle?

I'll first provide lots of background information. My actual question is at the very end. Background The spread of athlete's foot Athlete's foot is a fungal infection which is mildly contagious. ...
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What, other than genetic factors, influence which individual survives a parasite and which perishes?

What factors other than "good genes" are at play in determining whether one individual survives a parasite and another individual in the same species perishes as a result of the same parasite? For ...
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How does the adaptive immune system store information?

I am quite curious about this: Where and how is knowledge that the adaptive immune system accumulates stored? What is the "memory size limit" of this storage method if there is any? Why cant this ...
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Is there a period after you have had a cold when you cannot get a cold again?

I always assumed colds ran on a 'no tagbacks' principle: once it's out of your system, it takes a while before you can get a cold again. Is there any truth to this, or can rhinoviruses hit you at any ...
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Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
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How can a pathogenic bacterium be avirulent?

Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 is a pathogenic bacterial strain but it is avirulent. How can a pathogen be avirulent. What does it mean if a pathogenic bacterium is avirulent?
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How do viroids propagate to other hosts?

As viroids are simply non-encapsidated non-coding RNA molecules, it is difficult to imagine a mechanism for their continual infection, other than horizontal transfer which doesn't seem to be the case. ...
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What is the benefit of fever during infections?

When people get sick, they often develop a fever. What is the effect of an increased body temperature on viruses and bacteria in the body? Is it beneficial to the infected body? Importantly, often ...
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How can insects survive without an adaptive immune system?

How can insects survive in a world full of pathogens that are able to defeat the innate immune system?
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Can conventional PCR amplify DNA from different organisms from a specimen in a single step?

I've understood so far that in conventional PCR, the most abundant DNA/genotype present in the speciment at the beginning of the reaction is selected and esponentially amplified. So that cPCR are ...
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Reproduction number of a SIR model with mortality

We know that reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ is $\frac{\alpha}{\beta}$ for the following system, such that if $\mathcal{R}_0>1$, there is an epidemic in the population. Now, assume the system ...
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Is Zika suspected of causing birth defects only if contracted during pregnancy?

There seems to be growing evidence that a recently spreading strain of Zika virus is in fact linked to microencephaly and other birth defects in newborns (see here, here, and here for examples). I ...
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Why isn't direct diagnosis of infectious disease through microscopes a common thing?

I'm not sure if I am being accurate about this but from what I know about diagnostics (watching House MD etc), if a doctor has a suspicion of a pathogenic infection then he/she usually prescribes ...
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Did the Zika virus mutate?

The Zika virus was already present and known to the world (mostly in Southeast Asia) before the current outbreak. Why has the virus caused such an extreme outbreak? Has it mutated from its ...
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Why was disease transfer to the Americas one-way?

It is well known that the European colonists brought many infectious diseases to the Americas, and that these had a deadly effect on the native populations, because they had no immunity to them. Were ...
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What's the probability of a non-pathogenic strain becoming pathogenic from plasmids transmitted through the air?

So the thing is, I was getting a bacterial CRISPR kit for biology class, which is overall pretty simple and I'm just doing this for practice, and my dad was saying he was concerned it would ...
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Age-Dependent STD Infection

It seems that young females (comparing age 15 vs age 24) are 20x more likely to get chlamydia from a single unprotected sexual encounter with an infected male. What are the reasons for this? Are ...
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Why don't animals need filtered water? [duplicate]

Almost 10 years back when I was a kid, we had a picture in our school text of wild buffaloes drinking water from a river - which was visibly muddy. I asked my mother of why we need to drink filtered ...
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Why are treatment periods with antibiotics longer than 1-2 days?

Antibiotics are given prophylactically for several indications (e.g. prior to dental surgery). Why are the treatment periods for prophylactic antibiotics much shorter than when treating an ...
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How can you develop a bacterial infection when taking antibiotics for another area of the body with a bacterial infection? [closed]

How can you develop a bacterial infection when taking antibiotics for another area? For example, "if someone was prescribed an antibiotic for a bacterial infection of the throat and while taking the ...
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Whole gene sequence analysis to determine source infection [closed]

Is it possible to use whole gene sequence analysis to distinguish between a common source infection and a person-person disease transmission?
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What gives diarrhoea caused by Cholera its milky colour?

The diarrhoea caused by the Cholera bacteria is a milky colour, also known as 'rice-water' like. Why is this? I have a fairly good understanding of how Cholera acts on the body.
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Does a specific blood group enhance the Plasmodium growth?

I am maintaining Plasmodium falciparum cultures for past 6 months. For the blood culture, usually we lab members take turns and donate blood for the culture. I observed that the parasite's normal ...
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If ants have an antibiotic gland, how can they spread hospital infections?

Wikipedia describes how antibiotics are produced in ants: "Metapleural glands ... are responsible for the production of an antibiotic fluid that then collects in a reservoir ... also referred ...
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Does having a total gastrectomy (removal of the stomach) cause individuals to be more prone to infections?

If a patient has a complete removal of his/her stomach (i.e. a total gastrectomy), then does that cause a person to be more prone to infections from eating unsanitary food? I'm asking this question ...
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How does the body survive Ebola? [duplicate]

Because Ebola takes over the immune system and uses it to replicate more and more of the virus, how does the body survive? Is it a case of the virus being self-limiting and eventually just getting '...
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Why does a Urinary Tract Infection cause a strong, persistent urge to urinate?

There are plenty of articles on the fact the a urinary tract infection (UTI) causes frequent and urgent urination. For example; on this National Institutes of Health webpage. My question is: Why ...
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1answer
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Basic reproduction number in epidemiology

The basic reproduction number $R_0$ of diseases depends on the population size (or the number of susceptible individuals). The commonly reported $R_0$ is based on what population size (when they do ...
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1answer
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relationship between cytokines

This is for a mathematical research. I am building a model to identify severe dengue patients through the interaction of cytokines S1P,IL1b,TNFa,PAF and IL10. For this I would like to know if there ...
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Transmission of HIV from Mother-to-Child Through Breastfeeding

If a mother is HIV+ and was on medications which would help her deliver a HIV negative baby, can the baby contract the HIV through her breast milk?
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Why is squeezing not recommended after a needle prick?

I've read some interesting things about the risk of infection after a needle prick (30% - hepatitis B, 1.8% - hepatitis C and 0.3% - HIV), but I've also saw that the local squeezing is not recommended....