Questions tagged [infectious-diseases]

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2
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2answers
61 views

Can an infectious diseases come from a plant?

Coronavirus, HIV, 1918 Flu, etc. They all come from animals. Do any infectious diseases (in humans) come from plants? More specifically, are there viruses that infect plants that can mutate to infect ...
5
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1answer
64 views

Do we know of any “species ending bugs”?

Are we aware of a "bug" (virus, bacterium, prion, ...) that has completely exterminated an entire species? Either through direct observation or maybe some form of archeological evidence? If not, are ...
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27 views

How is Covid-19 tested? If I had been infected before and recovered, will I still test positive? [closed]

I suspected I had an infection in December. Theories of its origins aside, if I had been infected and recovered (not sure how it's medically defined or after 14 days, where transmission is highly ...
4
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1answer
50 views

Are there any documented instances of coronaviruses being directly transmitted from bats to humans?

Many human coronaviruses have ancestral host origins in species of bat. However, all instances I am aware of identified other animals as intermediary vectors: SARS-CoV: Human ← Palm Civet / Raccoon ← ...
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1answer
27 views

What is the formula to calculate $R_0$ (basic reproduction number)?

What is the mathematical formula for $R_0$ and what does each variable represent? I have tried searching this to no avail.
0
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1answer
67 views

Is COVID-19 more deadly than swine flu?

I have a question about the novel coronavirus and swine flu. How do the death rates compare between the two diseases? How do the transmissions and rate of transmission compare? Was a vaccine ...
3
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1answer
89 views

What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
2
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0answers
65 views

Is a nightly curfew an effective intervention strategy for limiting the spread of an infectious disease? [closed]

The governing bodies of several geographic areas hit by disease outbreaks will sometimes impose a nightly curfew on their citizens, restricting or limiting the ability of their citizens from going ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Difference between aerosol and droplet transmission for airborne diseases

I've been doing some pandemic reading and can't find why there is a distinction between transmission by aerosols and by droplets. Some articles give a size cutoff of 5 microns; how is that important? ...
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0answers
22 views

How is someone being tested positive for corona virus? [duplicate]

How is it determined that someone is infected with corona virus ? It is my searching for matching DNA sequences of the virus in our cells or is their some other way.
0
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2answers
139 views

Examples of healthy lifelong asymptomatic carrier of a severe infectious disease?

I am curious, is there any known disease/infection that is very severe normally (patient suffers greatly and die easily without medical treatment), but ends up having little to no effect on the lives ...
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1answer
92 views

Why do gram-negative bacteria attack the digestive system more than gram-positive ones?

I was researching for a biology project on the subject of contagious infections of the digestive system (mainly the intestines) and almost all of the bacteria that came up (E.coli, Shigella, Cholera, ...
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0answers
9 views

From a hosts point of view, which comes first, effect of toxins on pathways or identification of toxins by immune system?

From a pure biology perspective, when a pathogen (gram-negative bacteria) affects a host by secreting toxins, what comes first, the effect of the toxin on the pathways or identification of the toxin ...
4
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0answers
127 views

How was 2019-nCoV (Wuhan coronavirus) identified so quickly?

It seems that from the first few cases to identifying 2019-nCoV as a new disease happened very quickly. How were they able to identify this as a new disease and not an outbreak of a previously known ...
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0answers
33 views

Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
0
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1answer
39 views

How can a disease be transmissible animal-to-human but not human-to-human? [duplicate]

I have heard some debate about whether or not the Wuhan virus can be transmitted human-to-human, but this doesn't make sense to me. Why wouldn't it be able to? Are there diseases that can only be ...
2
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1answer
78 views

Where can I find disease diagnosis datasets?

For an epidemiological study, I'm looking for datasets for any kind of vector-borne disease (i.e. West Nile Virus, Malaria, etc.), or any parasites that are dependent on intermediate hosts (i.e. ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Is PrEP used for anything other than HIV?

In the field of HIV prevention, PrEP is an abbreviation of pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is a very generic term. Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using a similar approach? Do they use the ...
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0answers
31 views

Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...
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30 views

Why aren’t PCR test recommended for Herpes testing?

CDC does not recommend testing for Herpes, due to its inability to change patient’s sexual behavior and it’s high false-positive rate (https://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/screening.htm). According to ...
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0answers
26 views

Why is synthesis of tetanospasmin advantageous to C. tetani?

The tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin synthesised by some strains of C. tetani. It is the factor causing tetanus, but what is its role for the bacteria itself? I do not believe the main objective of C. ...
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56 views

Are most pathogenic bacteria facultative anaerobes?

I know that S. aureus and most gram-negative rods are facultative anaerobes. In terms of number of species, are most human pathogen-associated bacteria facultative anaerobes?
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61 views

What disease does Saccharopolyspora erythraea cause?

For an examination assignment I have to find a disease caused by the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora erythraea, but I have searched the internet and have found no report of patients being infected ...
3
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2answers
279 views

what will be the effect of cockroach bite?

I know the cockroaches are creepy for humans. But I want to know why humans are afraid of cockroaches and what will be the effect of there bite on my body. Can I touch them or if they walk over my ...
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0answers
20 views

Viability of Toxoplasmosis oocysts on dry smooth surfaces

This is a weird question. My wife is terrified of contracting toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and I was hoping I could get an expert opinion here to potentially make her feel better. She recently ...
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2answers
205 views

Risks of latent viruses that reside in ancient genomes under research?

Some interesting research in reactivating mammoth genetic material (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40546-1) made me wonder what risks are inherent (or are not inherent) in reviving older ...
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1answer
55 views

Influenza infections and drug design

Why is the neuraminidase used as a target for drugs against influenza virus instead of haemagglutinin? Is there some basic reason that this will make a more effective drug?
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1answer
49 views

Can endemic diseases be acute?

Diseases can be classified as :endemic ,or pandemic,...etc. An endemic disease is an infectious disease which is generally or constantly found among people in a particular area. Disease conditions ...
2
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1answer
235 views

We know that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for at least six weeks. Maybe longer. The infectivity study ended after just six weeks; why?

Background A paper has found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for at least six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy ...
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1answer
34 views

A study found that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for six weeks. Did they end the study before the seventh week began?

A study once found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy clinicians. What happened ...
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1answer
89 views

Why are vaccines containing attenuated microorganisms preferable to those containing dead microorganisms instead?

My teacher said it more closely resembles a real infection but I didn't get that.
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1answer
183 views

Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
3
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1answer
348 views

can one be infected with Naegleria fowleri by taking Steam?

will Naegleria fowleri be present in the steam molecules. Many people take steam from hot water to get relief from sinus. I read somewhere that Naegleria fowleri gets killed over 70 C. So steam will ...
2
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1answer
115 views

Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
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1answer
52 views

How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
3
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1answer
101 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
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2answers
418 views

Does avoiding medication that alleviates symptoms shorten the length of a cold?

People use over the counter (OTC) medications to relieve symptoms of the common cold. However, these symptoms are part of the immune response, right? They are driven by the body responding to the ...
4
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2answers
139 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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0answers
48 views

Which infectious disease would increase global life expectancy the most if eradicated [closed]

In the 1700s it was estimated, by Daniel Bernoulli, that wiping out smallpox would increase global life expectancy by over three years. If we could wipe out one infectious disease today, which would ...
5
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1answer
145 views

Rabies transmission via barking

According to CDC, non-bite exposure includes scratches, abrasion, and contamination of the mucous membrane from a rabid animal's saliva. So, is it possible to catch rabies if a rapid animal barks ...
3
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2answers
65 views

What effect does taking antibiotics unnecessarily have on future bacterial infections?

I have been told by my biology teacher that you shouldn't take antibiotics unnecessarily because "the body gets used to them" and it reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics against future bacterial ...
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0answers
37 views

Is swimming pool water actually a weak topical medication?

I was inspired by this question. Given that the chlorine levels in swimming pool water are so high that they can seriously harm amphibians, it seems logical that the water should also kill various ...
0
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2answers
132 views

Activity driven model threshold

So I am trying to figure out a threshold for an activity driven model. That is described in this paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep00469 That is I don't see how the researchers got ...
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0answers
36 views

Why does botulinum toxin cause only NMJ symptoms?

Botulinum toxin acts by preventing release of ACh by cleaving SNARE proteins. But if it is acting on snare proteins shouldn't all vesicle releases be effected? Why is it limited only to the ...
0
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1answer
221 views

Can disease resistance from vaccination be inherited?

If a person has taken a vaccine against a particular disease and is resistant to that disease, will his/her children will be resistant to that disease??
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0answers
37 views

What happened to pertussis incidence in the US between 1955 and 1974 and why?

The Wall Street Journal ran a great collection of infographics in 2015 superimposing the dates on which vaccination was introduced for various childhood diseases on their incidence: http://graphics....
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1answer
68 views

Which eradicated viruses still have remaining stockpiles? [closed]

Other than smallpox, I'm curious to know if there are any other stockpiles of eradicated or nearly eradicated viruses, and if so where are they located? Thank you.
3
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1answer
43 views

Recommended reading to quickly get up to speed on infectious diseases

I am in the beginning stages of a capstone project for my master's in Data Science. For various reasons, I have landed on the subject of Clostridium difficile infection. My background is in Computer ...
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1answer
317 views

What's the cause of the scars on these cherries?

These cherries have some scars. Are they coming from a disease? Is it correct to call them "Cherry scabs"? Here's the photo: -
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1answer
126 views

Name of this kind of stain on fruits and how do they form

Last year I made some photos with avocados touched by some stains. They were even more delicious than the regular ones. What's the name of such stains and how do they form? My guess is that they form ...