Questions tagged [infectious-diseases]

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24
votes
1answer
3k views

Loss of taste and smell during a SARS-CoV-2 infection

In France the loss of taste and smell (la perte du goût et de l'odorat) is considered as one of the key symptoms of a SARS-CoV-2 infection (although googling shows that it is considered less ...
15
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1answer
3k views

Why do diseases in the tap water of developing countries affect people from developed countries more?

My siblings and I went abroad to a country that doesn't have drinkable tap water, but we did not know this at the time as the people who lived there used to drink it all the time with no issues. One ...
9
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2answers
212 views

Risks of latent viruses that reside in ancient genomes under research?

Some interesting research in reactivating mammoth genetic material (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40546-1) made me wonder what risks are inherent (or are not inherent) in reviving older ...
8
votes
2answers
452 views

Why do OX5034 GM mosquitos require the presence of tetracycline to survive? What does the drug do in this case?

I'm confused. Debug Fresno; why are the released mosquitos said to be sterile? from 2017 addresses male mosquitos released with a bacteria that will affect fertility of females after mating. They are ...
8
votes
2answers
434 views

Does avoiding medication that alleviates symptoms shorten the length of a cold?

People use over the counter (OTC) medications to relieve symptoms of the common cold. However, these symptoms are part of the immune response, right? They are driven by the body responding to the ...
7
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1answer
102 views

Why do gram-negative bacteria attack the digestive system more than gram-positive ones?

I was researching for a biology project on the subject of contagious infections of the digestive system (mainly the intestines) and almost all of the bacteria that came up (E.coli, Shigella, Cholera, ...
7
votes
1answer
91 views

Do we know of any "species ending bugs"?

Are we aware of a "bug" (virus, bacterium, prion, ...) that has completely exterminated an entire species? Either through direct observation or maybe some form of archeological evidence? If not, are ...
6
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2answers
143 views

Can an infectious diseases come from a plant?

Coronavirus, HIV, 1918 Flu, etc. They all come from animals. Do any infectious diseases (in humans) come from plants? More specifically, are there viruses that infect plants that can mutate to infect ...
6
votes
1answer
105 views

Don't understand figures in this citizen-science mosquito ID project

The Citizen-based mosquito monitoring system is a Citizen-Science vector tracking project that involves using any of a wide variety of cell phones to capture "sound bites" (sorry!) of ...
5
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2answers
231 views

HPV. How do viruses persist outside the body?

The main route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is generally believed to be sexual. While fomites have been postulated for inexplicable infections, sexual health professionals regularly ...
5
votes
1answer
194 views

Rabies transmission via barking

According to CDC, non-bite exposure includes scratches, abrasion, and contamination of the mucous membrane from a rabid animal's saliva. So, is it possible to catch rabies if a rapid animal barks ...
4
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2answers
142 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
4
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2answers
182 views

Reproduction number of a SIR model with mortality

We know that reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ is $\frac{\alpha}{\beta}$ for the following system, such that if $\mathcal{R}_0>1$, there is an epidemic in the population. Now, assume the system ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

Are there any documented instances of coronaviruses being directly transmitted from bats to humans?

Many human coronaviruses have ancestral host origins in species of bat. However, all instances I am aware of identified other animals as intermediary vectors: SARS-CoV: Human ← Palm Civet / Raccoon ← ...
4
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0answers
91 views

Reason for partially double-stranded DNA of Hepatitis B virus

According to my school biology textbook and also Wikipedia, hepatitis B is the only Hepatitis virus to possess partially double-stranded DNA. I found an image from here What is the reason for the ...
4
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0answers
145 views

How was 2019-nCoV (Wuhan coronavirus) identified so quickly?

It seems that from the first few cases to identifying 2019-nCoV as a new disease happened very quickly. How were they able to identify this as a new disease and not an outbreak of a previously known ...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

Why did Rivers replace Koch's postulates?

In 1937, Rivers introduced a new set of postulates that were meant to replace those formulated by Koch. However, I couldn't find an article (or other scientific literature) that describes why Koch's ...
3
votes
2answers
310 views

what will be the effect of cockroach bite?

I know the cockroaches are creepy for humans. But I want to know why humans are afraid of cockroaches and what will be the effect of there bite on my body. Can I touch them or if they walk over my ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Strange white strings on cherry tree leaves

What could be the cause of these white strings on the leaves of our sour cherry tree? Is it some kind of fungus or an insect? Also, i don't know if it's related or not, but on the other side of the ...
3
votes
2answers
162 views

The role of duration of infectiousness in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. The basic SIR model - as described in Jones' Notes - considers three factors that make up the reproduction number: $\tau$ = the transmissibility (i.e., ...
3
votes
1answer
114 views

How can an infection of lower respiratory tract lead to a skin infection? [closed]

I am interested in the multifactorial process about infectious diseases of the lower respiratory system and their progression to a skin infection. Possible agens are zwitterions, viruses, fungi, ...
3
votes
1answer
599 views

can one be infected with Naegleria fowleri by taking Steam?

will Naegleria fowleri be present in the steam molecules. Many people take steam from hot water to get relief from sinus. I read somewhere that Naegleria fowleri gets killed over 70 C. So steam will ...
3
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2answers
67 views

What effect does taking antibiotics unnecessarily have on future bacterial infections?

I have been told by my biology teacher that you shouldn't take antibiotics unnecessarily because "the body gets used to them" and it reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics against future bacterial ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Is the basic reproduction number unique?

Given any epidemic model of an infectious disease, there are various ways of computing a basic reproduction number($R_0$) such as; the next-generation method, survival function, largest eigenvalue of ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Recommended reading to quickly get up to speed on infectious diseases

I am in the beginning stages of a capstone project for my master's in Data Science. For various reasons, I have landed on the subject of Clostridium difficile infection. My background is in Computer ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Debug Fresno; why are the released mosquitos said to be sterile?

I saw in the news that Verily Life Sciences will participate in an experimental release of sterile male aedes aegypti mosquitos in Fresno, California. Aedes aegypti is considered an invasive species ...
3
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0answers
52 views

How typhoid fever severe case's intestine perforation occur? (non trauma)

In typhoid severe case, intestinal perforation occurs. As stated here [4, 6]. Intestinal perforation is a serious complication of typhoid fever My question here is, how does the bacteria (Salmonella ...
3
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0answers
83 views

Do partial (nighttime) curfews curb the spread of epidemics (and via which mechanisms)? [closed]

Do partial (e.g., nighttime) curfews curb the spread of epidemics? What is the (epidemiological) mechanism by which partial curfews curb the spread of epidemics? Is there evidence from past or present ...
3
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0answers
41 views

COVID-19 infection data when partitioning to communities

Suppose we think of the disease in a certain country as follows. We have a set of "communities" $C_1,\dots,C_k$ in the country where $k$ is some small constant, say $10$. Each individual is ...
3
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0answers
71 views

What disease does Saccharopolyspora erythraea cause?

For an examination assignment I have to find a disease caused by the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora erythraea, but I have searched the internet and have found no report of patients being infected ...
3
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0answers
60 views

Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
2
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1answer
244 views

We know that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for at least six weeks. Maybe longer. The infectivity study ended after just six weeks; why?

Background A paper has found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for at least six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Did most pandemics originate from Asia/China?

This question may be on the borderline of well-posed-ness. Let me ask it. Then please tell me if or where it can be improved. Is it statistically true that the majority of the pandemics or epidemics ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

Where can I find disease diagnosis datasets?

For an epidemiological study, I'm looking for datasets for any kind of vector-borne disease (i.e. West Nile Virus, Malaria, etc.), or any parasites that are dependent on intermediate hosts (i.e. ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

How good are the hematologic parameters (e,g, IL6 or others) in predicting which patients will develop a severe COVID-19 disease?

Clinical implications of the hematologic profile of COVID-19 patients including cytokine storm, coagulation profile and thrombophilic complications are starting to be recognized. Hypercoagulability ...
2
votes
1answer
665 views

Difference between aerosol and droplet transmission for airborne diseases

I've been doing some pandemic reading and can't find why there is a distinction between transmission by aerosols and by droplets. Some articles give a size cutoff of 5 microns; how is that important? ...
2
votes
1answer
584 views

How does Vibrio cholerae benefit from infecting its host?

As far as I know, V. cholerae secretes a toxin called choleragen into the intestinal lumen which affects the intestinal epithelial cells causing release of Na+ and Cl- ions into the lumen and reducing ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
2
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0answers
61 views

Why do some vaccines lose their efficacy with time?

Why do some vaccines lose with time their efficacy? The two obvious examples that I have in mind are influenza and tetanus. The former case is clear, as influenza virus undergoes frequent gene ...
2
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0answers
71 views

Is a nightly curfew an effective intervention strategy for limiting the spread of an infectious disease? [closed]

The governing bodies of several geographic areas hit by disease outbreaks will sometimes impose a nightly curfew on their citizens, restricting or limiting the ability of their citizens from going ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Why does botulinum toxin cause only NMJ symptoms?

Botulinum toxin acts by preventing release of ACh by cleaving SNARE proteins. But if it is acting on snare proteins shouldn't all vesicle releases be effected? Why is it limited only to the ...
2
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0answers
40 views

What happened to pertussis incidence in the US between 1955 and 1974 and why?

The Wall Street Journal ran a great collection of infographics in 2015 superimposing the dates on which vaccination was introduced for various childhood diseases on their incidence: http://graphics....
2
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0answers
33 views

How can a waterborne disease be transmitted [closed]

If a disease is waterborne [as in it is based in the digestive tract], what ways can it be contracted other than the obvious drinking of infected water?
2
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0answers
2k views

Was Myxomatosis Man Made?

I can't seem to find any conclusive information about the origin of Myxomatosis. According to Wikipedia It was first observed in Uruguay in laboratory rabbits in the late 19th century. It was ...
2
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1answer
136 views

Name of this kind of stain on fruits and how do they form

Last year I made some photos with avocados touched by some stains. They were even more delicious than the regular ones. What's the name of such stains and how do they form? My guess is that they form ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Acquiring Covid-19 vaccination through kissing with viral vector vaccinated person

The mechanism of COVID-19 viral vector based vaccines (AstraZeneca - Vaxzevria, Johnsen, Sputnik V - Gam-COVID-Vac, Johnson & Johnson - Janssen, etc. ) is delivering the genetic information of the ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Why are vaccines containing attenuated microorganisms preferable to those containing dead microorganisms instead?

My teacher said it more closely resembles a real infection but I didn't get that.
1
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1answer
195 views

Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...