Questions tagged [lipids]

A broad group of consisting of biomolecules that are soluble in non-polar solvents. Most of these molecules have huge hydrocarbon chains (linear or cyclic). Examples include glycerides (glyceryl esters), isoprenoids and steroids.

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1k views

What animal has fat with the highest energy density?

Fat is more energy-dense than protein and carbohydrates, it is not only an energy deposit but also an organ with many functions such as cushioning and metabolism regulations. I want to know are animal ...
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Lipid packing defect [closed]

I have been trying to understand the phenomenon of lipid packing defect, but the resources in this subject are very limited. Well, I did find some papers, but before reading papers, I want to have ...
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Difference between cerebroside and globoside

I have a general idea about their difference that cerebrosides have a single sugar while globosides have more than one sugars. This is the structure of a ceramide (syphingosine and a fatty acid ...
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Osmosis/ Facilitated diffusion

Water can move across the (Semipermeable non polar lipid) membrane by simple diffusion (osmosis). But polar molecules cannot pass through the non polar lipid bilayer, they require carrier proteins to ...
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Reference request: Lipid composition in bacterial, yeast and human membranes

I would like to know about the lipid composition of different kinds of cellular membranes. I remember going through such a table once in a paper, but I am unable to find it anymore. What I am looking ...
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Why are lipids not considered polymers? [duplicate]

I'm struggling to understand why lipids are not considered polymers—if the fatty acid part of lipids consist of repeating units, wouldn't lipids be polymers?
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Oil absorbed into human skin — where does it go?

For example, I apply petrolatum to my dry hands twice a day as in winter I am usually in a 20-30% RH environment. Within an hour, the petrolatum seems entirely absorbed. According to [1], ...
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about lipid oxidation, does acid fatty transforms in glucose? [duplicate]

Lipid oxidation generates fatty acid and glycerol going into the bloodstream. Can they be converted into glucose by gluconeogenesis or are they turnd into ketone bodies?
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Are unsaturated fats antioxidants?

Unsaturated fats contain double bonds like carotenoids (which is an antioxidant), and from my understanding, what makes carotenoid an antioxidant is that its double bonds allow it to undergo oxidation,...
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Is a fatty acid a polymer?

From my understanding, polymers are long chain molecules containing repeating units of monomers. For example, proteins are polymers called polypeptides with repeating units of (different) amino acids....
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What change would you expect in phospholipid orientation of the membrane if the enviornment were mostly heptane?

The external and internal environment of the cell is basically water, thus phospholipids organize themselves the way they do (bilayer). If the environment were to magically become mostly heptane, how ...
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Lipids that are not found in human body

I know that human body contains FA some of which are essential and the other is not depending on the ability of the body to synthesize them in a sufficient amount, but I need a reference of the lipids ...
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Apolipoprotein B48 and fat storage

Can chylomicrons formed in the intestine, with apolipoprotein B48, transport lipids to adipose cells for storage?
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249 views

How are Mono and Diglycerides metabolized without the Free Fatty Acids of Triglycerides?

Having difficulty figuring out what the body does with ingested mono and diglycerides if the usual process of TAG metabolism includes the FFA released from the TAG returning to the MAG to recreate a ...
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What happens to lipoprotein lipase after a sugar only diet?

Insulin increases the activity of lipoprotein lipase thay allows cells to take in lipids from chylomicrons in the blood. If a person takes a sugar only meal like drinking coke, insulin is released. ...
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What is the biological relevance of RIPPLE phase in membranes?

I was reading about ripple phase in bilayer lipid membranes which is described here as a meta-stable state between lamellar tilted crystalline and lamellar fluid state. It is also known that ripple ...
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Are all/most/any membranes comprised of lipids from the smooth ER?

I'm attending an introductory high school course to cell biology. Based on my understanding, lipids – the building blocks of membranes – are formed in the smooth ER. Are all/most/any membranes ...
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How is omega 3 deficiency determined?

I read quite a bit online about omega 3 deficiency. How is this actually determined - that is, what happens in the lab to determine this ? n-3 fatty acids have roles in many different human tissues, ...
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281 views

Can emulsion test be used to detect phospholipids?

The emulsion test- causes a white cloudy colour when lipid is dissolved in ethanol and then water added. Can this be used for phospholipids? I am aware that they are polar so may arrange in a ...
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unsaturated fatty acids and hydrogenation [closed]

what is the need to hydrogenate unsaturated fats? When we hydrogenate the unsaturated fatty acid, we eliminate double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms, and this straightens out the natural bent shape ...
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What do sphingolipids do in humans?

I want to know the significance of sphingolipids in human. I have learnt that sphingomyelin is the most significant type of sphingolipid in human. Also that the sphingomyelin serves as a structural ...
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Is palmitic acid really that dangerous?

According to Wikipedia, "Palmitic acid is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms. It is also the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is ...
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Why Milky serum in diet rich with Triglycerides?

When we eat the meal rich with triglyceride our muscle or blood after seperation of the serum the color of the serum will be milky. What is causing to happen in our serum ? Milky serum (lipemic serum)
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Are there biochemical differences between the cell membranes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

I would like to know if there is any difference in chemical composition of cellular bilayer lipid membrane between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Specifically, I would like to know about the action of ...
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Why do Proteins store energy when the body already contains Carbohydrates and Lipids?

We already know that lipids are a source of long term energy and carbohydrates are much faster energy releasing sources. So why do we need specific proteins within the body to store energy? Are ...
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If chylomicrons can not get into the capillaries, how do they supply to tissues?

The transport of chylomicrons is into the lacteals mainly because they are too big to get into the capillaries and yet they later supply triglycerides in the extra hepatic tissue by traversing in the ...
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What is the function of CETP?

I read up that CETP transfers cholesterol from HDL, which collected it from tissues, to VLDL. This VLDL is then sent back to the tissues, ultimately forming LDL internalised by cells. What is the ...
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What is the rationale behind reverse cholesterol transport?

Reverse cholesterol transport is transport of cholesterol from the tissues back to liver/VLDL. My question is why do the tissues have this extra cholesterol in the first place? Why would you ...
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Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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Is there a way to quantify in vivo cholesterol transport rates?

I have always had trouble grasping the physiology of lipoprotein cholesterol transport. The "standard" description found in the literature is that liver synthesizes cholesterol which is carried in "...
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What is the actual function of HDLs and CETP?

I know that HDLs collect cholesterol from peripheral tissues and transport it back to the liver using SRB1 - Reverse cholesterol transport and dumping it in bile. So the tissue is producing some extra ...
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232 views

How is the Concept of Simple Diffusion Possible

How can a substance pass through a lipid membrane in a cell through simple diffusion? In order for something to be able to go through the membrane, in simple diffusion, it must be hydrophobic, or non ...
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Description of the paramaters in the packing parameter?

For a phospholipid, the critical packing parameter is given by: $$P=\frac{v}{a_0l_c}$$ And I know that $v$ is the volume of the hydrocarbon tail. $l_c$ is the critical length of the hydrocarbon ...
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What are the differences between how glucagon and cortisol work to increase blood sugar?

As I understand, both cortisol and glucagon cause an increase in blood sugar concentrations. However I don't understand how they work differently or why they work separately. I would be very grateful ...
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Can Nanodiscs be used to study membrane energetics?

Nanodiscs have changed they way we can study the structures, insertion, and functions of transmembrane proteins. Below is an image of a nanodisc bilayer. The key difference, as far as I can tell, ...
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Why are triacylglycerols broken down before being absorbed?

So when dietary fats are in the small intestine, they are emulsified by bile salts in order for action by lipases to occur. Lipases degrade the triacylglycerols into monoacylglycerols, ...
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What is the role pyruvate carboxylase in lipogenesis?

I just know that Acetyl-CoA is a positive allosteric modulator for pyruvate carboxylase, but I cannot find anything else.
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What is a triglyceride?

I'm confused on what a triglyceride is, from what my text book it says its a type of gylercide, then from a website it said Glycerides can be subdivided into two categories. The first group, the ...
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322 views

Which of these components has C-H and COOH groups [closed]

A) Amino acids and triglycerides that have a carbon-carbon double bond or B) proteins and fatty acids I think they ...
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Why don't McDonald's fries decompose?

So I was cleaning out my car and found a McDonalds French fry. as I don't eat anything in my car I know exactly who and when this fry is a result of. The when is + 10 months old and it could pass off ...
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Are fatty acids and glycerol lipids?

As far as I know, lipids are defined as biomolecules which are hydrophobic. Triglycerides are composed of fatty acids and glycerol and are considered lipids but, are fatty acids alone or glycerol ...
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Phospholipid movement in cell membranes

What causes phospholipids to flow so quickly in cell membranes? In Biology by Cambell et al. they state that a phospholipids can travel up to 2 micrometers per second. Is that a random movement or has ...
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Cell targets of Glybera

So we know that there is a first gene therapy drug in the market out there called Alipogene tiparvovec to address lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD) at a genetic level. Does this genetic drug ...
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Can chitosan affect the absorption of unsaturated fatty acid?

I know chitosan will decrease the absorption of fat. However unsaturated fatty acid, such as DHA, is beneficial. Does chitosan effect the absorption of unsaturated fatty acid?
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Synthesis of Fatty Acids Longer than 16 Carbons

I understand that the human body when performing Fatty Acid Synthesis can synthesize only until C16 (palmitate). However the ER has desaturases and elongases. I know that desaturases are used to add ...
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What are the benefits of statins in terms of prolonging life?

Recently the UK government suggested that all adults over the age of 50, without exception, would benefit from taking statins. I have an elderly female relative who may, or may not have had a minor ...
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Does a reduction in stem cells mean possible earlier death?

The basis of this question relies on my understanding of these 2 facts: ...
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What is inside IDL (intermediate density lipoproteïn)?

I am studying about the endogene lipidcycle in the human body and I know that VLDL (very low density lipoproteïn) is made in the liver and that it contains triglycerides and cholesterol from your food ...
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Fatty Acid Synthesis

I have a problem in my reasoning on the fatty acid synthesis in the human body. In the synthesis process you have this homodimer. So the synthesis starts with the transfer of a acetyl group from ...
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Transverse diffusion of lipids in red blood cells

The membrane of a human erythrocyte has polarity: Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine are predominantly on the inner side. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are predominantly on the ...