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Questions tagged [liver]

Internal organ of vertebrate species which is important for a lot of biochemical functions including production of molecules, detoxification and production of glycogen.

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Bile storage and secretion

I know that the liver has left and right hepatic ducts that unite forming the common hepatic duct that then unites with the cystic duct of the gall bladder forming the common bile duct which unites ...
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Septa fibrous in liver histology

I'm scoring liver fibrosis using Laennec scoring system, but i'm so confuse to differentiate between septa fibrous and fibrosis without septa. Anyone can tell me about the characteristic or structure ...
Nur Azizah's user avatar
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choosing the right housekeeping gene for Western Blotting analysis for liver lysates

B- actin is used a great deal for quantitation of liver lysates. What other alternatives are there for WB analysis? should we opt for GAPDH or tubulin?
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Hepatic lobules and hepatocytes

"The hepatic lobules are the structural and functional units of the liver containing hepatic cells arranged in the form of cords. " My textbook says that the hepatic lobule is the ...
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What is the conjugation capacity of the liver?

Our liver conjugates 250-300 mg bilirubin per day under normal circumstances but it is capable of conjugating much more. What is the upper end per day after which it won’t be able to conjugate leading ...
Aman Karimi's user avatar
6 votes
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Human biology - liver regeneration after laprascopic segmentectomy

I am trying to understand to what extent human patients can regenerate liver mass after laprascopic segmentectomy: what part of liver will be regenerated and how fully. My work with sources is not ...
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What is the connection between LDL, liver, and saturated fat?

I've been trying to learn about cholesterol, lipoproteins, and fats, but unfortunately, there is an ocean of confusing information on the internet. I don't have any solid background in biology, so ...
Sasikuttan's user avatar
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How much percentage of substance does liver take in one pass?

The portal vein system is to feed the absorbed nutrition and toxin (defined as "substance" here) to liver first for it to take them up as fast as possible, before they reach other organs ...
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What does the term 'glycogen mobilisation' mean?

I read that glycogen is a mobilised store of glucose: Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be ...
Jacintha's user avatar
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Reason for partially double-stranded DNA of Hepatitis B virus

According to my school biology textbook and also Wikipedia, hepatitis B is the only Hepatitis virus to possess partially double-stranded DNA. I found an image from here What is the reason for the ...
Amarylis Vaselaar's user avatar
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A question about L-Citrulline

I know that L-Citrulline enters in the second step of urea cycle in the liver mitochondria and I wonder if a person takes an overdose of L-Citrulline wouldn't that cause mild hyperammonemia or at ...
mohamed's user avatar
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Isn't it an evolutionary disadvantage to have a single organ perform so many essential functions?

This is in reference to the human liver, responsible for not only the production of bile, but also the filtration of blood, metabolization of drugs, detoxification and so on. Liver failure is often ...
Anna Karenina's user avatar
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Detrimental effects of fructose in fruit on the liver?

Fructose is mostly broken down by the liver. During this breakdown, the liver also creates fats (by the process of lipogenesis) which over time can get accumulated in the liver and give rise to ...
The Dude's user avatar
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How does the body differentiate between sources of good and bad cholesterol?

I keep hearing "good cholesterol, bad cholesterol" everywhere, and how certain food sources of cholesterol raise LDL and certain other raise HDL. I don't understand how any food can increase ...
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Hepatocytes polyploidy

Why are some hepatocytes polyploid?
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Why are excess amino acids toxic?

While learning about deamination, I learnt that excess amino acids must be converted to urea and excreted, since the nitrogenous group can alter the pH and affect proteins. But shouldn't the pH stay ...
Arush Ramteke's user avatar
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Why doesn't glucagon promote glycogenolysis in muscle?

Insulin stimulates glycogenesis in both liver and in muscles. Epinephrine stimulates glycogenolysis in both liver and muscles. But glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis in liver only. Why is this so?
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Does liver regenerate quicker if idle?

I recently heard a proposition that fasting (especially fruit-only diet) can improve liver function because it removes the load usually induced by toxins in common diets, thereby allowing the liver to ...
srgb's user avatar
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If the liver can regenerate why can alcohol abuse permanently damage it?

The liver is a fairly unique organ in that it has the ability to regenerate itself even if parts of it are removed/damaged. It is a well known fact that continual alcohol abuse damages the liver and ...
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Why does liver wrap around inferior vena cava?

As shown in the image, the liver wraps around inferior vena cava, which takes blood from liver via hepatic veins. Is there an advantage of having the inferior vena cava closer to the liver rather than ...
Kenny Kim's user avatar
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Storage of energy in muscles vs fat depos [closed]

How does the body control, where consumed energy (fat, glucose) is stored? And what is its strategy? More specific: 1) How does the body control storing glucose in muscles and not as (subcutan) fat? (...
fex's user avatar
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8 votes
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When you have your gallbladder removed, how does it affect bile flow into your small intestine?

Cholecystectomy, or surgical removal of the gallbladder, is an extremely common operation around the world. The gallbladder is typically viewed as a storage organ for bile produced by the liver, but ...
Vance L Albaugh's user avatar
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Does the hepatic portal system form capillary beds?

Does the hepatic portal system form capillary beds? If so, is the capillary bed coordinated with that of arterial capillaries? What review paper might I look in?
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How does protein enter bloodstream?

If a hemophiliac patient injects his factor 8 through the veins directly into the bloodstream to provide the body with clotting factor... Why don't they just make the drug as a pill and have the liver ...
Wael Hezam Mahdi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is alcohol purged from the body more slowly when we sleep?

It is a popular belief that when you get asleep after drinking alcohol, in the morning you have higher level in your blood than if you stayed awake the whole night. Is this true? If so, why? Is it ...
Honza Zidek's user avatar
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Target cells of adrenaline?

I have been thinking about how adrenaline increases blood sugar levels, but have not been able to find an answer to the target cells. Does it affect the hepatocytes and muscle cells, like glycogen? ...
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Can the liver prioritize it's metabolizing potential?

Let's assume we have two toxins - one of which is routinely metabolized by the liver, and the other is new to the organism (consider for example alcohol in a heavy drinker and any other drug that is ...
Space Cadet's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
609 views

If eating 100% fat 2 times more worth the energy I spend during the day, will I store body fat?

So in theory, insulin hormone is the one that tells the body "eat more. don't burn body fat". Alongside with glucose blood level regulation and turning excessive glucose into liver (which later goes ...
knitevision's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
473 views

Liver - Regeneration in Cirrhosis

Liver is the most resilient of the human organ (on par with or next to skin). A very interesting experiment on liver regeneration is here. Even if two-thirds of the liver is removed, the remaining ...
One Face's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
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Grapefruits and CYP3A4

Grapefruit juice contains furanocoumarins, which irreversibly inhibit CYP3A4. For this reason, when one is taking certain medications it is necessary to not eat grapefruits because the inhibition of ...
Michael's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Do metastatic cells still have their parent's identity?

If a liver cancer, for example, gives metastases. Will metastatic cells still have liver identity? I mean, if we mark liver cells, will we see the cancer cells too? Thanks a lot!
Robertos's user avatar
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Does scratched Teflon coated frying pans contain carcinogens which can cause cancer? [closed]

Is it true that using scratched Teflon-coated pans contain carcinogens, and if so, can they be consumed through the food cooked in them? E.g. The deadly toxins from non-stick frying pans
kenorb's user avatar
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Duplicity Vs. Singularity of Mammals Organs [closed]

Are there known evolutionary reasons why mammals contain 2 of some organs (such as lungs and kidneys) and only 1 of some (such as liver)?
user8669's user avatar
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Biology Analogy

In my book are given several paired analogies with me being asked to give reason for them. I could solve all of them except this: liver = thrifty house-keeper I mean, I do not understand why the ...
Gaurang Tandon's user avatar
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177 views

Question about what the liver does NOT do

Which of the following functions is NOT performed by the liver? a) Storage of vitamins and minerals b) converts glucose to glycogen c) converts toxins to harmless chemicals d) produces bile I chose ...
ASKASK's user avatar
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3 votes
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What is inside IDL (intermediate density lipoproteïn)?

I am studying about the endogene lipidcycle in the human body and I know that VLDL (very low density lipoproteïn) is made in the liver and that it contains triglycerides and cholesterol from your food ...
user6812's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
9k views

How do nutrients get to the cells they need to get to?

I understand the basics of digestion. I know that nutrients get absorbed by the microvilli, enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver but after all that, what is the biological mechanism that ...
max's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does activation of adenylcyclase lead to increased cAMP and diarrhea?

I am trying find explanation for these mechanisms Tox plasmid -> exotoxin (enterotoxin) -> activation of adenylcyclase -> \up cAMP enterocytes -> release of H2O, electrolytes in gut lumen -> ...
Léo Léopold Hertz 준영's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
325 views

How does Acetaldehyde accelerate mitosis?

I read that one of the ways alcohol is carcinogenic is via accelerated mitosis due to acetaldehyde, I was wondering what pathway caused this acceleration?
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4 votes
2 answers
5k views

Why is the liver the only internal organ of the human body to regrow?

Related to my earlier question, "How does the human liver regrow?", am curious as to why the liver is the only major organ that has this capability? Why is it that other major organs, such as the ...
user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
367 views

How does the human liver regrow?

I understand that there would have to be a portion of liver present to regrow from, so how much liver would the minimum to be able to regrow? By what mechanism does regrowth occur?
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2 votes
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357 views

Size of classical liver lobule across species

A classical liver lobule is made up of a central vein and the portal triads. A typical human liver weighs around 3 lbs. , while a typical bovine liver weighs around 12 lbs. I was wondering if anyone ...
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What metabolic activities are performed by a developing human fetus's liver?

I understand that organ function varies with the stages of development. Does a fetal liver EVER perform lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, make bile, etc? Or does it only begin performing these actions ...
yelx's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Can cirrhosis be caused by physical compression of the body?

On a random forum, a member speculated that their cirrhosis was caused by wearing tight-fitting clothing such as a girdle or corset. This leads me to the following question: Question: Can ...
Douglas S. Stones's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
17k views

Which blood vessel carries the most impure blood?

There is a question in my Biology textbook: "Which blood vessel in the human body carries most impure blood after few hours of meal." The answer is given as Renal artery. But I think the answer ...
Pranit Bauva's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Circulation through the liver in light of drug metabolism

I have a lingering question which stems from an answer that I gave to What hydrolyses aspirin within the digestive tract and blood stream? When a drug or any other substance is absorbed into the ...
jonsca's user avatar
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10 votes
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Why is there an extended delay before G.M. liver cells are attacked by the immune system?

In this BBC article a trial is described where patients with B-Haemophillia are infected with modified Adeno-associated Virus 8 which contained the genes for Factor IX clotting protein. Trials seemed ...
Rory M's user avatar
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