Questions tagged [lungs]

The lungs are the respiratory organ which allows the take-up of oxygen and the release of CO2. They are present in most animals which breathe air including many fish species.

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How can alveolar gas contain water vapor and less oxygen if the breathing loop is isobaric?

I was wondering why the partial pressure of oxygen is lower in the alveoli than in the air we inspire. From this related question I found the answer that the water inside the lung saturates the air ...
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How lungs can inhale and exhale? [closed]

I know that lungs are extended and compacted by muscles to create partial vacuum to breath in, or to create elevated pressure to breath out. But one thing seems not right to me... As far as I know, ...
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How does chest wall compliance affect functional residual capacity (FRC)?

The functional residual capacity is made up of expiratory reserve volume (ERV) plus the residual volume (RV) - i.e. the volume of air remaining in the lungs after passive expiration. Compliance of ...
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Are there land animals that use gill-like organs instead of lungs?

Among aquatic, water-breathing animals, gills and other continuous-flow breathing methods dominate over lungs and other storage-based breathing methods as in land animals. Notably, axlotls have gill-...
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Why is angiotensin converting enzyme localized in the lungs

I understand that it's also found elsewhere, such as in renal capillaries, but I can't see logic behind it being located in the lungs. Isn't ACE's function, through making more angiotensin II, causing ...
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Why is centriacinar emphysema more common in the upper lobes compared to the lower lobes?

I suspect it's because the upper lobes get less ventilated (the volume of their alveoli change less during respiration, and they receive less new air with each breath) compared to the lower lobes, and ...
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What fills the space between the alveoli in the lungs?

Do the lungs just consist of a large tree of alveoli, covered by the pleura, like this picture: Or are they found "inside" the sac that is the lungs? If it's the later, what fills the space in-...
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Lungs permeability

My question is: $O_2$ and $CO_2$ pass to (in & out) the bloodstream due to difference in partial pressure and its permeability to those gases (I suppose that's why no $N_2$ passes). So, to what ...
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What is a deep exhalation/inhalation?

I tried to find the academic definition of deep exhalation/inhalation but found nothing special. I speculate that the correct definition is as follows: • Deep ...
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What happens with the nitrogen in blood in membrane oxygenators?

The air we breathe consists of about 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen. The oxygen gets diffused into the blood and CO2 out of it, the nitrogen does mostly nothing, as there isn't a partial pressure of ...
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If the effect of increase CO2 in the air has a negative effect, why doesn't decreased CO2 have a positive effect?

I recently asked a question about whether there were studies on the effects of reduced CO2 level air and got what sounds like a good answer: Are there studies on the effect of reduced CO2 levels on ...
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How can diving with 100% oxygen not destroy your lungs? [closed]

It is possible this should be moved to physics, depending on the nature of the answer (i.e. if the reason is physical). But I suspect the explanation is biological, so I posted it here. Sometimes ...
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What is the difference between hilum of the lung and root of the lung?

In my book they describe root of the lung like this: In the region of vertebrae TV to TVII, the mediastinal pleura refects off the mediastinum as a tubular, sleeve-like covering for structures (i.e., ...
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What does reflected onto means in the text below?

The pleura lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm, where it is known as the parietal pleura. It is reflected onto the lung, where it is called the visceral pleura.
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Does the right ventricle affect blood pressure in pulmonary veins?

Now, I know there are multiple things that push the blood through the entire pulmonary circulation like the contraction of arterial muscular walls... But what I want to know is whether the right ...
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AntiTrypsin Enzyme [closed]

In a smoking patient, is the lung over digested because of a combination of smoking and a defect in the antitrypsin gene (prevents digestion from protease)? Or does smoking act the same as a patient ...
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Why does the upper respiratory tract not fill with water when diving?

When we swim, I know we close the some of the vestibular folds in the larynx part of the throat to hold our breath (and to avoid water from getting into the lower respiratory tract, I suppose). I ...
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Warburg effect in lung carcinoma, the logic?

Outside of 'purposefully' removing mitochondria to diffuse cytochrome C's apoptotic threat, I would assume that lung carcinomas, and their proximity to high oxygen levels, would have the lowest rate ...
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Why does asbestos cause cancer?

We are probably all familiar with the dangers of asbestos in your rooftop or in various pieces of old equipment as it has been shown that the microscopic asbestos particles reach our lungs and can ...
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Questions about what a productive cough actually is and where it comes from [closed]

When I'm sick with a productive cough, what is the stuff I'm coughing up, is it coming from my lungs, and if so how come it doesn't hurt a lot and trigger a violent cough like if I got even a single ...
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Oxygen mask to patients

Why are oxygen masks given to patients? Can't they take in the atmospheric oxygen? Also, why do they die if the oxygen mask stops providing oxygen?
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Why doesn't nitrogen diffuse into blood?

In school, I have learnt that the deoxygenated blood brought in to the Alveoli by Pulmonary Arteries contains Carbon Dioxide. And that Carbon Dioxide present in the blood diffuses into the Alveoli and ...
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More *total* oxygen absorbed by breathing fast or slow?

I have heard that human lungs capture/absorb/process more oxygen by breathing slower. A) Is the above true? B) If so, if my primary concern was absorbing the most total oxygen (not most efficient), ...
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Heart failure and pleural effusion

Why does pleural effusion usually occurs in the right hemithorax in acute heart failure? Could someone explain the mechanism? Thank you.
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Cough at 1000 km/h?

How fast does air move in the airways during a cough? The following passage is from Talley and O'Connor's Clinical examination: a systematic guide to physical diagnosis (emphasis mine): Cough is a ...
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489 views

Partial pressure of gases in alveoli

Atmosphere has partial pressure of oxygen as 160mmHg but it's 105mmHg in alveoli, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in atmosphere is 0.3mmHg but it's 40mmHg in alveoli. How is the difference ...
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How many cell membranes are oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse through in the lungs?

In the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide pass through cell membranes by diffusion. Which row is correct? The correct answer is D, but I think it should be B. I can only think about three layers as ...
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Which diagram correctly describe an effect of tar entering lungs?

Which flow diagram correctly describes the effect of tar entering lungs? Tar is a cause of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema and it is ...
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What cause the urge to inhale in humans? [closed]

The urge to inhale in humans result from (a) rising pCO2 (b) rising pO2 (c) falling pCO2 (d) falling pO2 p stands for partial pressures. I am guessing the answer is falling pCO2.... but I wanted what ...
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What is the path taken by an oxygen molecule as it passes into the lungs to a muscle cell in the body? [closed]

My teacher tried to describe this question to me, but I just don't get it.
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Exhaled air and lung capacity

I wonder if there is any connection between exhaled air and lung capacity. I need to implement some algorithm in my game to calculate points of how much time you blow and compare it maybe with some ...
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What happens to the food you accidentally aspire?

I'm well aware of the health effects of aspirating solid food and liquids, but I'm interested in the reaction of the body on the biological level to the strange body on our lungs. After I almost ...
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Is lung size/shape a factor in long-continuous running of animals?

Apart from other factors, does lung shape/structure/size play any role in long-continuous running animals. Is there any similarity in lung structure between different long-continuous running species?
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Why do we blow when we're out of breath? [closed]

When people are out of breath from exercising, instead of breathing normally they partially obstruct their expirations by blowing out instead of breathing out. Why is this? EDIT: This photo ...
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Are oxygen and carbon dioxide simultaneously present in red blood cells during gas exchange?

From my understanding, the process that displaces the carbon dioxide and oxygen in our erythrocytes and lungs is diffusion. I've been taught that diffusion is the net movement of particles from a ...
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is left brachiochephalic vein and left pulmonary artery is same?

I am reading about ligamentum arteriosum which connects the left pulmonary artery and descending aorta. But I am seeing that if any figure shows left brachiochephalic vein it does not show left ...
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Why is there smooth muscle in our bronchioles?

Having muscle tissue in our bronchioles that can constrict seems like a poor choice for tissue. Why would our airway want to ever close up? Wouldn't it be more beneficial for our bronchioles to just ...
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994 views

Atelectasis due to decreased surfactant in lungs

Surfactant is a protein lipid mixture produced by alveolar pneumocytes composed of Dipalmitoyl Phosphatidyl Choline lipid, apoproteins and calcium ions. This surface lines the alveolar epithelium ...
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Heart Rate being normal when under treatment for the bends

When you surface from diving too quickly; you get "bends" - these are caused by gas bubbles forming in your lungs (especially nitrogen). This causes breathing problems if not treated since the bubbles ...
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What is the role of lamellar bodies in lung cells?

Lamellar bodies have been found to be secreted in lung cells many of their associated proteins have been identified. What is the current consensus or research on the function that these lamellar ...
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Could light/occasional smoking strengthen the lungs?

Here's my thought process, correct me where I'm wrong. It seems the human body has thresholds. Examples: You lift too much weight, and the muscles and tendons risk serious injury, but otherwise ...
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What is the cause of dry cough?

I first thought this question in the case of the cause of dry throat after 3-day recovery of dry cough? but then I realised that the cause of dry cough can be a general thing. Assume the person ...
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Can Serous inflammation on pleura pulmonalis cause dry cough and runny nouse?

I am interested in the mechanism between the dry cough and runny nose (serous inflammation) here. I started to think how Acute respiratory viral infection is causing the dry cough. The serous ...
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How to maximize lung oxygen intake?

What method of breathing provides a sudden surge of oxygen into the lungs filling it as full as possible in volume and density. Deep breaths? Shallow breaths? Breaths taken while bent over? Deep ...
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For emphysema, which of the respiratory volumes is affected?

It could be the tidal volume because it affects how a person inhales and exhales normally. It could be the residual volume and functional residual volume, because it increases its amount. Because it ...
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How the lungs clear themselves?

Looking at my computer's fan I can say that a lot of dust is collected on it not less dust should be collected in the lungs, not to mention some inhaled parts of food. How the lungs clear themselves ...
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Can pulmonary infarction be asymptomatic?

I think it can because there are many parts in lungs. Like for some COPD patients. However, I am not sure if COPD patients can have infarction. Lungs have parallel circulation. Red infarct is ...
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Pathogenesis of Chronic Venous Congestion in Lungs?

I am thinking how CVC in lungs lead to the left-sided heart failure.
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Does the lung absorb organic food?

Imagine you swallow something up and not everything gets out of the windpipe (this is possible right?). Would it be possible for the lung to handle with the rest implying that it is organic? Would it ...
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How does a smoker's pleasure work?

I smoke. For some reason, I've always had this idea that the pleasure of smoking works more or less like this: from the lungs, the nicotine reaches the blood, with which it travels to the brain, and ...