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Questions tagged [medicine]

Medicine is the doctrine of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in humans and animals. Health and medicine questions are off-topic unless dealing with the biology underlying health and medicine. Please carefully explore the tour, help centre, and meta before posting health and medicine questions.

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The afflictions of Tarrare

Are there any conjectured mechanisms that cause Tarrare's extremely oversized stomach and abdominal cavity? Along with his superhuman appetite of course. Whether from a medical perspective or a ...
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11 views

How long can someone be asphyxiated/revived before a human dies? [on hold]

I saw on the news how some suspects in countries with little regard for human rights are tortured with plastic bags/gas masks over their heads until they pass out, then revived back again and this ...
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Do antimuscarinic drugs increase cAMP or cGMP

Activation of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 inhibits adenylate cyclase which reduces cAMP levels. It would be expected that antimuscarinics such as ipratropium would increase cAMP levels. However, ...
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29 views

Which aspects of evolutionary biology are most relevant to medical practice? [closed]

I'm not pretty much sure if this question suites this forum. But I think its important. In what aspects evolutionary biology can be seen to be very helpful in medical curricula? Clearly infection ...
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1answer
18 views

Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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1answer
60 views

Can upper motor neuron lesions cause hypotonia?

I have been taught that hypotonia is always caused by lower motor neuron lesions while hypertonia is by upper motor neuron lesions. However, I recently learned of an entity called central hypotonia, ...
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0answers
19 views

What ailments used to be completely fatal (or nearly so) but, now modern medicine has a treatment or cure?

My brother was a Type 1 diabetic and back in high school I did a report on diabetes. One of the things that struck me was that before 1921, type 1 diabetes was basically 100% fatal. I was wondering ...
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2answers
70 views

How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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0answers
129 views

Why is there such a large evening rise of temperature and night sweats in certain diseases like TB, lymphoma etc?

I've heard that it's got to do something with the levels of cortisol which usually dampens the effects of IL-1, but when it's night time the cortisol levels are usually low so IL-1 response is ...
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0answers
40 views

Relationship between inbreeding and sterility in humans

In general, inbred individuals tend to be at increased risk of sterility as shown in cows (Gonzales-Recio, 2007) or in leghorns (Nordskog and Cheng, 1988) for examples. I only have very quickly looked ...
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1answer
44 views

Why is free ribose not reduced to deoxyribose rather than the reduction occuring on ribonucleotides

I cannot understand why deoxyribonucleotides are not synthesized directly from deoxyribose, but ribonucleotides have to be synthesized first, and only then can deoxyribonucleotides be synthesized.
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2answers
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Why is beta thalassemia major not lethal while alpha thalassemia with loss of all 4 genes lethal?

So why is beta thalassemia major with two B0 alleles not fatal in utero (despite the hemoglobin not having any B chains), while alpha thalassemia with deletion of all 4 genes encoding for the alpha ...
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2answers
71 views

Could a human become infected with rabies in such a way that even prior vaccination wouldn't stop the infection?

Given the highly persistent nature of rabies after entering the brain, I was wondering whether certain ways of exposure to this virus could be risky even for a previously vaccinated individual. I ...
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1answer
68 views

Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
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1answer
54 views

Is hydroxyproline an amino acid? (Classification question)

So I know that hydroxyproline is created from proline via hydroxylation as a post-translational modification. I also know that proline is considered an amino acid. However, once you hydroxylize it, ...
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1answer
36 views

Which kind of drugs get absorbed through epidermis?

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
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1answer
32 views

How would a medication cause a one to maintain a different weight?

This isn’t really a medical question, I’m just really curious about this. I was maintaining weight A and then started taking a medication that brought me to weight B. While on the medication, I ...
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2answers
85 views

How having sickle cell trait would provide resistance to malarial parasites?

It's mentioned in my textbook that subjects with sickle cell trait develop resistance to malaria. I've read a few research papers predisposing involvement of macrophages and papers asserting ...
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1answer
180 views

Why are only few cigarette smokers prone to cancer?

It's tacit that only a few populace of smokers get cancer. What spares the others from it or what specifically cause cancer in those populace? See this Washington Post Article
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2answers
144 views

How does 2,3 biphosphoglycerate works to release oxygen bound to the hemoglobin?

I read on Wikipedia that 2,3 BPG binds with the deoxygenated state of hemoglobin and helps in stabilizing it. It was also written that it helps release remaining oxygen from the hemoglobin. How? ...
2
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1answer
87 views

Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
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1answer
61 views

Does avoiding medication that alleviates symptoms to shorten the length of a cold?

People use over the counter (OTC) medications to relieve symptoms of the common cold. However, these symptoms are part of the immune response, right? They are driven by the body responding to the ...
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0answers
60 views

Does adenylate cyclase stimulate or inhibit acid secretion in the stomach?

I am confused about my teacher's notes. "Acid secretion is stimulated by ACh, gastrin and histamine. Histamine stimulates adenylate cyclase which increases cAMP production." When I looked this up ...
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1answer
24 views

Does using animal models for medical research also promote veterinary research on these animal types?

I have been reading about mouse models for studying inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and Ulverative Colitis. For example, according to this publication, a widely used mouse model ...
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0answers
41 views

Why is plasma glucose concentration not double that of whole blood?

It is known that the concentration of plasma glucose is 12% higher than that of whole blood. But since 45-50% of whole blood is red blood cells, shouldn't the plasma glucose be almost double — since ...
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1answer
17 views

Finding out the best concentration for my plant extract to be used as drug for diabetes

I am using plant extract of Ajuga parviflora and found out that it possess anti-diabetic properties by using alpha-amylase inhibitory assay. I used various concentration 250 µg/ml(29% inhibiton of ...
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2answers
60 views

Is the glomerular filtration rate, per kidney or for both?

We say in a healthy human being the average glomerular filtration rate is about 120 mL/min. Is that for both kidneys together (60+60), or just one kidney? Pardon me if this makes me sound like an ...
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0answers
115 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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1answer
82 views

Why warfarin is given as racemic mixture?

Warfarin is administered as a racemic mixture of S- and R- warfarin. S- warfarin is 3 to 5 times more potent than R- warfarin. So, what's the logic behind giving a mixture of it? Isn't administration ...
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0answers
33 views

What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
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2answers
271 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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0answers
33 views

Is swimming pool water actually a weak topical medication?

I was inspired by this question. Given that the chlorine levels in swimming pool water are so high that they can seriously harm amphibians, it seems logical that the water should also kill various ...
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1answer
69 views

Why are vaccines a successful treatment of allergy?

As I understand the answer to Allergic rhinitis vaccine, the vaccine facilitates immune response against the antigen. Given that allergy is an overreaction of the immune system against harmless ...
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0answers
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Is it possible to vaccinate an adult with whole-cell pertussis vaccine?

Some time ago a "vaccine-resistant" strain of pertussis has been discovered. As I understand, the strain lacks one of the antigens targetted by the acellular vaccines. An obvious remedy is to use ...
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1answer
907 views

How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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0answers
48 views

How did evolution allow to stay a condition like the refeeding syndrome? [duplicate]

This is a syndrome where anyone that is malnourished can die if he suddenly takes way more food that what they are used to, and it's something that is extremely likely to happen to every person if he ...
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1answer
28 views

What is the mechanism behind sympathic effusion of serous cavities due to nearby abscess?

Patient with left perinephric abcess which does not ruptured have reduced breath sound that is mostly due to plural effusion revealed by CT scan which was sterile. I found this called sympathetic ...
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1answer
118 views

How might IV-saline cause kidney damage that seems to be less likely with “balanced fluids” IVs instead?

The ABC News article What's in the IV bag? Studies show safer option than saline includes: Saline — salt dissolved in water — has been the most widely used fluid in the U.S. for more than a century ...
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2answers
72 views

Why is full cell/high antigen dose pertussis vaccine dangerous for adults?

I do remember that I have read (or heard) somewhere that as a human is older, the whole cell vaccine (and high antigen dose one) has more and more adverse effects. As it is consistent with the target ...
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1answer
49 views

Could Cannabidiol steady a hand? [closed]

Can Cannabidiol be used to steady shaky or nervous hand for precision work like surgery? I have used it for shooting pool/billiards and I'm not sure if it is a placebo or it is helping? but I am ...
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0answers
30 views

What are some good examples of open-source articles in which the synergy of two medicines is demonstrated?

I am doing research on Stochastic Cooperative Game Theory (a subfield in mathematics), which I will henceforth call SCGT for convenience. In this theory, entities can work together to receive a bigger ...
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1answer
69 views

Rabies virus mortality [duplicate]

Why rabies virus has nearly 100% fatality rate in human (see this virology blog; thanks to @iayork for the link) if not vaccinated early, even some people have survived Ebola, then why does rabies doe ...
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4answers
5k views

Why have a placebo control group when testing a new drug if existing drugs can be used?

It is general practice to compare a new treatment against a sham treatment (placebo), and then use those results to compare efficacy of the new treatment (call it B) to an existing treatment (call it ...
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1answer
32 views

Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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0answers
11 views

Embolism risk in cancer [closed]

Why is there an increased risk of embolism in any malignancy? I studied that malignancy is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. Can someone explain me the exact mechanism under which malignancy ...
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1answer
958 views

Why cornstarch for athlete's feet?

It seems like a lot of foot (anti-odor or antifungal) powders are often based off of cornstarch (i.e., as the primary filler). But wouldn't cornstarch (which, in some places, is also a common food ...
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1answer
99 views

What happens if you intake pure magnesium? [closed]

We know that body needs a certain amount of magnesium. Why are magnesium supplements in the form of magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, etc?
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0answers
191 views

Why do erythrocytes have no MHC1 but platelets do?

Red blood cells do not have a considerable number of MHC1 through their membranes, and that's explained by them not having a nucleus. But why do platelets have MHC1s if they have no nucleus either? I ...
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0answers
142 views

How medical studies induce cancer in lab animals?

To test the effectiveness of drugs, they are typically tested on animals. How cancer is induced in lab animals to test the effectiveness of cancer drugs?
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114 views

Can you “fight” a coma or serious illness?

In an article about the latest earthquake to strike Mexico, I read that a rescuer said to someone in a gurney, "Fight for your life, please!" I've seen similar things in TV shows and movies where a ...