Questions tagged [medicine]

Medicine is the doctrine of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in humans and animals. Health and medicine questions are off-topic unless dealing with the biology underlying health and medicine. Please carefully explore the tour, help centre, and meta before posting health and medicine questions.

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What are the physiological effects of retinal exposure to 380–400nm light?

There are two categories of sunglasses: UV380 sunglasses block all light with wavelength 380nm or lower, while UV400 sunglasses block all light with wavelength 400nm or lower. This made me wonder, ...
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About how many covid-19 virus particles is required in the human body before infection and sickness follows?

Our immune systems are often able to destroy germs and virus particles. About how many of them does it take to make a 70 year old healthy male sick ? Any ideas ?
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Why is there no herd immunity against common cold coronaviruses?

In discussions of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 the underlying assumption usually appears to be that the virus basically stops spreading once a sufficient percentage of the population has overcome ...
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A disease which is characterised by polycythemia and thrombocytopenia at the same time

I've read that polycythemia vera is associated with increased levels of RBC, WBC and/or platelets, but is there a disease associated with high levels of RBC and low levels of platelets?
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What causes rashes to appear in specific parts of the body without a site specific trigger?

Why do rashes appear randomly at highly specific locations (and not others), without location specific triggers? Like, if it's a systemic issue, then it should be distributed to other areas on the ...
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Alzheimer's disease - Hyperexcitability

I am trying to read literature on Alzheimer's disease. A very important phenomenon that occurs in AD patients, is hyperexcitability in neurons close to A-beta concentrations. Some authors only ...
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1answer
39 views

What fraction of human cells gets infected during a viral infection?

As I understand, if a cell gets infected during a viral infection then it eventually dies. If an individual does not die of an infection, the percentage of cells that gets infected in the course of ...
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35 views

Why is prothrombin time used to monitor warfarin and not activated partial thromboplastin time?

Warfarin is said to change prothrombin time (PT) but not activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (for practical purposes at least anyways, not really sure). But looking at the mechanism of action ...
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Why does arterial chemoreceptor reflex “override” cardiac vagal C-fibre reflex?

During haemorrhage, why does activation of the arterial chemoreceptor reflex, and the resultant tachypnoea, "mask" the bradycardia induced by the cardiac vagal C-fibre reflex? Struggling to ...
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36 views

What are some good books on oncology?

I'm looking for some book suggestions on oncology, preferably I want them to be fairly recent. I am not worried if they are fairly technical, as long as they have good accurate content and layout.
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Edema and hydrostatic pressure

I'm currently studying Robbins basic pathology, and I'm confused about a specific statement: It states in the book that when hydrostatic pressure is low due to a lack of albumin synthesis, it leads ...
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31 views

How does the surface of the eye remain moist during sleep?

When we are awake, blinking helps distribute the tears so the cornea and the entire conjunctiva are wet and moist. But how is this maintained during the night, when we are sleep and there is no ...
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27 views

How far can free radicals from UV radiation diffuse through the skin?

UV radiation damages DNA through two separate mechanisms. Direct damage occurs when a photon is absorbed by DNA. Indirect damage occurs when a photon is absorbed by a chromophore, and the excited ...
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Can far-UVC light be safely used as germicide? (help understanding a paper)

I've been trying to familiarize myself with the literature on far UVC light as a germicide. My question mostly pertains to figure 4 of this paper. The paper investigates the efficacy of 207 nm light ...
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Can erythrocytes Function without plasma?

my title is not very specific. So i will proceed to clarify it. I am trying to make sure that the only blood cells in a sample are Erytocytes, since i want to evaluate their metabolism, I am aware ...
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Why is Ibuprofen contraindicated in asthma patients?

So yesterday a patient showed up at the clinic with a massive swelling in his left face region. Upon examination it was found to be due to infected first premolar. Dentist recommended him to get the ...
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912 views

Inability of vultures to digest diclofenac

The population of Indian vultures has been rapidly declining since 2003. This is attributed to the diclofenac present in the carcasses which the vultures eat. Vultures seem to digest all sorts of food ...
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41 views

How does the age of a parent affect the chances of occurrence of certain genetically transmitted diseases?

Do genetically transmitted age-related diseases (like hypertension, arthritis etc.)have the probability of occurring at an earlier(younger) age in the offspring if they are born at a later age to ...
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WHO Essential Medicines vs Essential Medicines for Children

Per the WHO (World Health Organization), there are a list of "Essential Medicines" such as those listed on their Wikipedia page. Is there a database link for this directly other than Wikipedia? What ...
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How does a Coronavirus “test kit” work?

A number of countries are using test kits for detecting new cases of nCoV (2019-Coronavirus) and apparently China is running low. What exactly is in a nCoV "Test Kit" — How does it work? (Surely ...
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25 views

Why is therapeutic index a ratio instead of an interval?

The therapeutic index of a drug is defined as its toxic dose ($TD_{50}$) divided by its effective dose ($ED_{50}$). Why is it defined as a ratio rather than the difference $TD_{50} - ED_{50}$? For ...
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34 views

Why do vaccines sometimes induce a fever? [closed]

How does a vaccine cause an immune response such as fever? Why do only some people experience these reactions? Why might those reactions change upon subsequent doses of the same or similar vaccines?
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Is there any situation where bloodletting should be paired with transfusion?

Clearly, bloodletting only has benefits in a couple of rare instances —— for example promoting blood flow into reattached tissues1. But could it (or, should it) realistically be used along with ...
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What are the methods of prophylaxis against exposure to radioactive isotopes?

Potassium iodide is used as prophylaxis to prevent illness when one is likely to be exposed to Iodine-131 and other radioactive isotopes of iodine. Are there any other prophylactic treatments for ...
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65 views

Why is it so important to avoid infection of lacerations to the scalp?

There is supposedly something unique with regards to infections of the scalp, although I cannot remember, perhaps it was to do with the CSF and its build up? I have scoured the internet for hours but ...
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What are miotic agents, like carbachol, used for in intraocular lens implant surgery (cataract surgery)?

Wikipedia mentions that carbachol (a cholinergic agent) is used in cataract surgery to produce miosis, but not why. I looked it up and all I could find were two articles (1, 2), saying it's used to ...
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Janina kolkiewicz who faced Lazarus phenomenon

I've just read about Janina kolkiewicz case who faced Lazarus phenomenon and I was wondering how could her brain and organs survive these long hours without oxygen?
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Is p53 a cyclin dependent kinase? [closed]

I've been reading some research papers about p53 and associated tumour suppressor proteins, such as p21. I see them referred to and associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. Is p53,p63 et cetera part ...
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Would gargling with salt water every day increase blood sodium levels?

Would gargling and rinsing with salt water every day for a few minutes increase your blood sodium levels? Considering the fact that sublingual medication is a very effective way for introducing ...
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314 views

What are the coverings of femoral hernia?

It was my Viva question and I was really puzzled.I know what is femoral hernia and it route like the abdominal content moves down the femoral canal and further through the saphenous opening and all ...
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58 views

What does “radiographic progression” mean in cancer?

I tried looking up the definition of the term "radiographic progression" using Google and medical dictionary, etc., but I couldn't find its meaning anywhere. All research articles that I found just ...
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1answer
19 views

Does Cholestyramine (CSM) raise Tyramine levels?

This is a layman's question. Will ingesting Cholestyramine (CSM, the resin, in powdered form to be specific) raise tyramine levels? I am asking because Cholestyramine clearly has "tyramine" in its ...
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How does drinking 25 mg-50mg Viagra every night cure Erectile Disfunction permanently? [closed]

https://www.webmd.com/erectile-dysfunction/news/20040513/nightly-viagra-may-restore-normal-erections#2 This article says that people taking viagra once daily can have erection restored permanently ...
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1answer
174 views

Difference between “controlled release” vs “prolonged release”

My sister is using the epilepsy drug Tegretol which has both CR and retard (previous naming for prolonged release according to https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5932/smpc) versions in different ...
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What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
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How do painkillers prevent shock?

I was reading about the Placebo effect and came across this little story: The roots of the placebo problem can be traced to a lie told by an Army nurse during World War II as Allied forces ...
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105 views

If we can make magic bullets that are basically artificial antibodies, why has a cure for cancer not yet been developed? [closed]

So protonsil and salvarsan 606 where both used as the first magic bullets in the modern period of medicine in the 1900s. However, if we can create artificial antibodies that target specific diseases ...
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1answer
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Narcan nasal spray

A recent podcast of Radiolab (time index 3:05) described a person who had overdosed given the nasal spray form of Narcan. The report indicated the patient was awake seconds after the spray was ...
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1answer
55 views

Why do NK cells not destroy bacteria, even though bacteria don't have MHC-I?

Part of the function of NK cells is to destroy cells that are unable to bind their KIR receptors. Or in other words, cells that don't express MHC class I. This is why they can kill MHC supressed ...
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Can endometriosis be considered a form of cancer?

In endometriosis the lesions form their own vasculature and compromise organs, arteries, and nerves. It can spread and embed throughout the body. It's difficult to treat as the adhesions resulting ...
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1answer
486 views

What is meant by Remote Diuretics & Remote Vomiting?

I have encountered the terms Remote Diuretics & Remote Vomiting separately or sometimes in association in various articles related to medicine. But I am unable to find any reference to what they ...
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Techniques of molecular medicine/biology for aesthetic medicine?

Are there scientifically valid methods (possibly in the developmental stage) that can be used for aesthetic medicine. Usually surgical of physical therapies are used for aesthetic medicine, but ...
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2answers
41 views

Would intravenous insulin + glucose significantly accelerate glycogen synthesis?

Would an intravenous injection of insulin + glucose result in significantly quicker replenishment of exhausted glycogen stores than an injection of glucose alone? This is a strictly theoretical ...
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1answer
51 views

How is Pseudomonas aeruginosa diagnosed?

I know that P. aeruginosa is cultured on an agar plate, but which media or assays make it distinct from other Gram-negative bacteria?
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927 views

What is a Archival Tumor Tissue ? For What Purpose is it collected?

Over the course of Conducting trials various tissue and tumor samples are collected from the patients. One such sample is the Archival Tumor Tissue. Could someone kindly clarify what is the meaning ...
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What was the biological mechanism that allowed Tarrare to eat so much?

Are there any conjectured mechanisms that cause Tarrare's extremely oversized stomach and abdominal cavity? Along with his superhuman appetite of course. Whether from a medical perspective or a ...
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Do antimuscarinic drugs increase cAMP or cGMP

Activation of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 inhibits adenylate cyclase which reduces cAMP levels. It would be expected that antimuscarinics such as ipratropium would increase cAMP levels. However, ...
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Which aspects of evolutionary biology are most relevant to medical practice? [closed]

I'm not pretty much sure if this question suites this forum. But I think its important. In what aspects evolutionary biology can be seen to be very helpful in medical curricula? Clearly infection ...
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1answer
31 views

Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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282 views

Can upper motor neuron lesions cause hypotonia?

I have been taught that hypotonia is always caused by lower motor neuron lesions while hypertonia is by upper motor neuron lesions. However, I recently learned of an entity called central hypotonia, ...

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