Questions tagged [medicine]

Medicine is the doctrine of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in humans and animals. Health and medicine questions are off-topic unless dealing with the biology underlying health and medicine. Please carefully explore the tour, help centre, and meta before posting health and medicine questions.

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How does the immune system fight scabies mites?

After a distressing episode involving my elderly mother and a nursing home, I've been reading up on scabies. It seems that in healthy people, the immune system limits the mite population to around 10 ...
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331 views

Do animals get “unhealthily” fat in the wild?

Looking at a picture of a seriously fat cat, apparently directly nurtured by humans, popping up in a language learning app, I started wondering: do animals "in the wild" (this might be ambiguous, but ...
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Can you “fight” a coma or serious illness?

In an article about the latest earthquake to strike Mexico, I read that a rescuer said to someone in a gurney, "Fight for your life, please!" I've seen similar things in TV shows and movies where a ...
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Relationship between inbreeding and sterility in humans

In general, inbred individuals tend to be at increased risk of sterility as shown in cows (Gonzales-Recio, 2007) or in leghorns (Nordskog and Cheng, 1988) for examples. I only have very quickly looked ...
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170 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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2k views

How fast can the human body temperature change?

I'm really curious about how fast can a human body temperature change? E.g. how fast can the human body temperature change when the human has fever? I'm not interested in how fast fever changes the ...
3
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0answers
73 views

Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems quite ...
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63 views

Database of Medical Assertions

Can anyone point me toward a computationally-accessible database of medical assertions? I'm looking for something where each row in the database contains a single unit of knowledge. It could either be ...
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95 views

Why is half dose of Oxford's vaccine of covid more effective than full dose?

I recently read in a newspaper that the half dose of the Oxford's vaccine is 90% effective while the full dose is only 62% effective. Why is this the case ?
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31 views

Alzheimer's disease - Hyperexcitability

I am trying to read literature on Alzheimer's disease. A very important phenomenon that occurs in AD patients, is hyperexcitability in neurons close to A-beta concentrations. Some authors only ...
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0answers
175 views

What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
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0answers
649 views

Why is there such a large evening rise of temperature and night sweats in certain diseases like TB, lymphoma etc?

I've heard that it's got to do something with the levels of cortisol which usually dampens the effects of IL-1, but when it's night time the cortisol levels are usually low so IL-1 response is ...
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0answers
278 views

Why do erythrocytes have no MHC1 but platelets do?

Red blood cells do not have a considerable number of MHC1 through their membranes, and that's explained by them not having a nucleus. But why do platelets have MHC1s if they have no nucleus either? I ...
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338 views

How does Reissner's membrane rupture cause Ménière's disease symptoms?

In Ménière's disease, an ednolymphatic hydrops (EH) in scala media leads to a distention and, eventually, rupture of Reissner's membrane. This results in an influx of K+-rich endolymph into the Na+-...
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82 views

Which organs can be donated after clinical death?

The information I found about organ donation does not address clinical death. For example: The process of donation takes place only after physicians declare a person brain dead [...] cessation of ...
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96 views

How is the side-polarity of the myosin filament in myofibril maintained?

If myosin molecules are the properly oriented relative to their position in the the myosin filaments, the sarcomere is not functional. But how is the orientation of the myosin molecules determined? ...
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24 views

Source of journals collecting titles of scientific publications regarding clinical trials with dogs fed medicinal herbs

After some time researching on the web, you can find a lot of websites telling you that some herbs may have or have specific properties(unfortunately most seem to be "advertised" as if they were ...
2
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1answer
109 views

How do painkillers prevent shock?

I was reading about the Placebo effect and came across this little story: The roots of the placebo problem can be traced to a lie told by an Army nurse during World War II as Allied forces ...
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105 views

Does Topiramate work by supplanting Pyridoxal phosphate in enzymes?

I have seen it said that the precise mechanism of action of migraine medicine Topiramate is not known. But I certainly see a resemblance between that molecule and PLP (Pyridoxal phosphate, the ...
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20 views

Are there any real life instances of kidney organoid transplants in human?

Googling the terms "kidney organoid", "artificial kidney" etc. shows quite a huge amount of research papers regarding studies about kidney organoid synthesis from pluripotent stem ...
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26 views

Edema and hydrostatic pressure

I'm currently studying Robbins basic pathology, and I'm confused about a specific statement: It states in the book that when hydrostatic pressure is low due to a lack of albumin synthesis, it leads ...
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33 views

What are the methods of prophylaxis against exposure to radioactive isotopes?

Potassium iodide is used as prophylaxis to prevent illness when one is likely to be exposed to Iodine-131 and other radioactive isotopes of iodine. Are there any other prophylactic treatments for ...
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83 views

Janina kolkiewicz who faced Lazarus phenomenon

I've just read about Janina kolkiewicz case who faced Lazarus phenomenon and I was wondering how could her brain and organs survive these long hours without oxygen?
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44 views

Techniques of molecular medicine/biology for aesthetic medicine?

Are there scientifically valid methods (possibly in the developmental stage) that can be used for aesthetic medicine. Usually surgical of physical therapies are used for aesthetic medicine, but ...
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54 views

Do antimuscarinic drugs increase cAMP or cGMP

Activation of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 inhibits adenylate cyclase which reduces cAMP levels. It would be expected that antimuscarinics such as ipratropium would increase cAMP levels. However, ...
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21 views

What ailments used to be completely fatal (or nearly so) but, now modern medicine has a treatment or cure?

My brother was a Type 1 diabetic and back in high school I did a report on diabetes. One of the things that struck me was that before 1921, type 1 diabetes was basically 100% fatal. I was wondering ...
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123 views

Does adenylate cyclase stimulate or inhibit acid secretion in the stomach?

I am confused about my teacher's notes. "Acid secretion is stimulated by ACh, gastrin and histamine. Histamine stimulates adenylate cyclase which increases cAMP production." When I looked this up ...
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36 views

What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
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33 views

What are some good examples of open-source articles in which the synergy of two medicines is demonstrated?

I am doing research on Stochastic Cooperative Game Theory (a subfield in mathematics), which I will henceforth call SCGT for convenience. In this theory, entities can work together to receive a bigger ...
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21 views

Trying to make a homogeneous phantom

I am making a T1 weighted phantom for an MRI project. It consists of distilled boiling water, 7g/L agar, 10g/L NaCl and 1g/L CuS04. As the phantom cools it will get a jelly like texture. What I would ...
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156 views

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Why does Familial Hypercholesterolemia shows autosomal dominant pattern? Let us take that there is mutation in LDL receptor gene, it is said that: The LDL receptor gene is located on the short arm ...
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40 views

What risk does the insulin pump hack carry?

Recently, a OneTouch system was hacked, potentially allowing any malicious attacks, draining the pump into someone's bloodstream: Jay Radcliffe, a diabetic and researcher with cyber security firm ...
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172 views

How does having an empty stomach affect absorption of compounds?

From personal experience, compounds such as nicotine, caffeine and alchohol appear to absorb much quicker into the blood on an 'empty' stomach', or after extended periods of fasting. If this is the ...
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43 views

Are there available fluids that can be used in place of blood to facilitate oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange during major surgery/trauma?

Are there any available fluid alternatives that can be used instead of blood replacement that adequately exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide?
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98 views

Why alcohol can't help with OCD?

I was thinking about influence of ethanol on our brain. We know, that ethanol can affect GABA receptors and increase flow of chlorine in our brain cells. So it makes signal weaker and slow our CNS ...
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30 views

Is a neurostimulation implant for the soft-palate component of obstructive sleep apnea plausible?

There are currently ongoing clinical trials for neurostimulation implants designed to keep the tongue from blocking the airway in obstructive sleep apnea. The nerves for this are in the neck and ...
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1answer
31 views

Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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14 views

Why exactly does UMN lesion cause hypertonia?

The corticospinal tracts are excitatory in nature (Glutaminergic). So damage of the CST would mean less excitatory input to the LMN. By this logic, there should not be hypertonia. What is the ...
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23 views

Why is the IC50 an interesting measure for in vitro cancer drug screenings?

Large-scale in vitro screenings of (potential) cancer drugs are done to access their effectivity depending on the actual transcriptome of a tumor cell line. Databases like GDSC or CCLE supply data of ...
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30 views

Are there any medical treatments which no longer work because humans have evolved?

(Not sure if this should be on the medicine SE) There've been plenty of medicines that no longer work because the target pathogen has evolved resistance, e.g. penicillin is no longer an effective ...
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14 views

Does anybody have an references to share or idea onhow the tumor behaviour changes as it grows from oligometastasis to polymetastasis?

I have looked at the literature and mostly scientist discuss about how a metastatic lesion is formed. But what I am interested to learn is how does a new metastatic lesion develop when there is ...
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0answers
18 views

How is nicotinic acetylcholine receptor recognized as self-antigen during lymphocyte maturation?

Lymphocytes (B-cells in the bone marrow and T-cells in the thymus) undergo apoptosis if their receptors (produced by recombination of immunoglobulin gene fragments) recognize self-antigens during the ...
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12 views

A disease which is characterised by polycythemia and thrombocytopenia at the same time

I've read that polycythemia vera is associated with increased levels of RBC, WBC and/or platelets, but is there a disease associated with high levels of RBC and low levels of platelets?
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What causes rashes to appear in specific parts of the body without a site specific trigger?

Why do rashes appear randomly at highly specific locations (and not others), without location specific triggers? Like, if it's a systemic issue, then it should be distributed to other areas on the ...
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4 views

Why does arterial chemoreceptor reflex “override” cardiac vagal C-fibre reflex?

During haemorrhage, why does activation of the arterial chemoreceptor reflex, and the resultant tachypnoea, "mask" the bradycardia induced by the cardiac vagal C-fibre reflex? Struggling to ...
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24 views

WHO Essential Medicines vs Essential Medicines for Children

Per the WHO (World Health Organization), there are a list of "Essential Medicines" such as those listed on their Wikipedia page. Is there a database link for this directly other than Wikipedia? What ...
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34 views

Is there any situation where bloodletting should be paired with transfusion?

Clearly, bloodletting only has benefits in a couple of rare instances —— for example promoting blood flow into reattached tissues1. But could it (or, should it) realistically be used along with ...
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26 views

Would gargling with salt water every day increase blood sodium levels?

Would gargling and rinsing with salt water every day for a few minutes increase your blood sodium levels? Considering the fact that sublingual medication is a very effective way for introducing ...
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0answers
52 views

Why is plasma glucose concentration not double that of whole blood?

It is known that the concentration of plasma glucose is 12% higher than that of whole blood. But since 45-50% of whole blood is red blood cells, shouldn't the plasma glucose be almost double — since ...
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39 views

Is swimming pool water actually a weak topical medication?

I was inspired by this question. Given that the chlorine levels in swimming pool water are so high that they can seriously harm amphibians, it seems logical that the water should also kill various ...