Questions tagged [medicine]

Medicine is the doctrine of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and injuries in humans and animals. Health and medicine questions are off-topic unless dealing with the biology underlying health and medicine. Please carefully explore the tour, help centre, and meta before posting health and medicine questions.

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2answers
7k views

Do all Gram negative bacteria cause septic shock?

Do all Gram negative bacteria cause septic shock? If they don't could they if you attacked them with an antibiotic that could lyse the cell? For example any antibiotic that attacks the cell wall, ...
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418 views

Is half-a-tablet of X a substitute for a tablet of X/2?

This may be anecdotal. At the pharmacy earlier, the prescription called for a drug with X mg of the target chemical. The pharmacy however only had stock of a higher potency of the same brand. E.g. ...
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1answer
16k views

Pathophysiology of pink frothy sputum in pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is a condition where fluid leaks into the alveolar spaces. This can be due to to hemodynamic causes like left heart failure and pulmonary venous obstruction or microvascular injury or ...
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2answers
790 views

Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
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1answer
120 views

Why are pharmacology studies so experimental?

I am a med student, and as far as I see from our pharmacology lectures, pharmacologists work almost completely experimental. Quite typically they take a substance (e.g., from nature), they add, change ...
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1answer
559 views

Miscarriage in early humans

Today, about 10 to 20 percent of known pregnancy end in miscarriage. Pregnancy is a biological process that has been very well studied by medicine. As a result, modern medicine helps a lot to prevent ...
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1answer
115 views

What evidence is there on the medical effects of circumcision?

If this is the wrong place to post this question, then I will delete it and post it were it belongs. I have heard many conflicting things about circumcision. I have heard that it reduces the rate of ...
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1answer
140 views

Why is the ebola virus so intense now?

So i'm looking into the ebola crisis and it seems the death toll is really getting crazy. I understand that it's a cytomegalovirus and that it basically overwhelms the immune system due to it's size ...
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1answer
90 views

What is the best way to orally administer a water insoluble powdered drug to macaque monkeys?

They typically need to be given ~150mg, once a day, and it'll last for two weeks. The drug is very water insoluble, becomes almost like a paste, not suitable for tube feeding. And yes, this is for for ...
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1answer
379 views

Difference between dysentery and bloody diarrhea

The difference between diarrhoea and dysentery is quite clear; but the appearance of blood in stool or bloody diarrhoea is a very confusing term when compared with dysentery. Are they different in the ...
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1answer
43 views

Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
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Can you “fight” a coma or serious illness?

In an article about the latest earthquake to strike Mexico, I read that a rescuer said to someone in a gurney, "Fight for your life, please!" I've seen similar things in TV shows and movies where a ...
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Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

For this reason "insulin insensitivity", or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 – the cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an ...
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Are there dichotomous keys for identifying medical conditions?

I know dichotomous keys are often used to identify flora and fauna. I was wondering if they are also used in medicine for identifying diseases -- are they? If not, why not?
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2answers
68 views

Can far-UVC light be safely used as germicide? (help understanding a paper)

I've been trying to familiarize myself with the literature on far UVC light as a germicide. My question mostly pertains to figure 4 of this paper. The paper investigates the efficacy of 207 nm light ...
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1answer
25 views

Why is therapeutic index a ratio instead of an interval?

The therapeutic index of a drug is defined as its toxic dose ($TD_{50}$) divided by its effective dose ($ED_{50}$). Why is it defined as a ratio rather than the difference $TD_{50} - ED_{50}$? For ...
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2answers
70 views

Can endometriosis be considered a form of cancer?

In endometriosis the lesions form their own vasculature and compromise organs, arteries, and nerves. It can spread and embed throughout the body. It's difficult to treat as the adhesions resulting ...
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2answers
235 views

Pneumonia in children after abdominal operations

This textbook says: Consequently, young children are prone to suffer from pneumonia after abdominal operations, because they resist breathing (being abdominal) due to pain. As a result the ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is western blotting used to confirm positive ELISA HIV tests?

I know that when an ELISA test indicates a positive result for HIV, a western blot is done to confirm. When I search online for the reason why, all that I see is that western blotting is "more ...
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1answer
102 views

What is a catalytic domain?

I have to answer a few questions from an article I'm reading, and I am just really confused on defining "catalytic domain." I have to relate it to the antibiotic Teixobactin. Is catalytic domain the ...
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1answer
147 views

How does adjuvant enhance the immunogenicity of antigen? [closed]

My question is, How does adjuvant enhance immunogenicity of antigen? I just want to know deeply about it , Any suggestions will be helpful!
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2answers
2k views

Is Valerian extract a diuretic or an antidiuretic?

I am trying to determine if valepotriates (valerian extract) is a diuretic or an antidiuretic. Some individuals take valerian as an herbal supplement for anxiety disorders. Some individuals claim that ...
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1answer
155 views

How do cancers eventually lead to death / other debilitating symptoms? [closed]

With regards to people I know or have read about who live with cancer, most of their symptoms are results of chemotherapy, surgical interventions, etc., which have the goal of eradicating the cancer. ...
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2answers
4k views

Is a bone marrow transplant limited by sex?

Can a female patient get transplanted with bone marrow of a male donor and vice versa?
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1answer
60 views

Does alcohol really do more damage to the body of a child compared to an adult?

Beside the fact that children and teens (people under the age of 18 year) usually have less body weight than the average adult, is there a biologically fundamental difference between the damage done ...
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1answer
29k views

Do Penicillin based antibiotics affect birth control?

I wasn't sure whether to ask this question on Biology or Chemistry Stack Exchange, since it is really biochemisty, but this is something that's been puzzling me. Most pharmacists (all that I've ...
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1answer
90 views

What are the benefits of statins in terms of prolonging life?

Recently the UK government suggested that all adults over the age of 50, without exception, would benefit from taking statins. I have an elderly female relative who may, or may not have had a minor ...
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1answer
245 views

spinal cord lesion and result in somatic sensation

Jimbo suffers a lesion to the entire right half of the spinal cord at the T6 level. A few weeks after his injury, his doctor tests his right and left legs for somatic sensation and tone. fill out her ...
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2answers
41 views

Would intravenous insulin + glucose significantly accelerate glycogen synthesis?

Would an intravenous injection of insulin + glucose result in significantly quicker replenishment of exhausted glycogen stores than an injection of glucose alone? This is a strictly theoretical ...
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1answer
1k views

How does hyperthyroidism cause diarrhea?

According to Robbin's Pathology, hyperthyroidism leads to an overactivity of the sympathetic system. It also goes on to mention that this sympathetic hyperstimulation in the gut leads to increased ...
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1answer
95 views

Gradual slowing breath, its effect on health

I've written a computer program which beeps, then beeps after 10 sec, then beeps after 11 sec, then beeps after 12 sec, etc. I tried the following "experiment" on myself: do only one breath between ...
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1answer
170 views

What are the longterm effects of pancreatitis?

As the title asks, what are the longterm effects of pancreatitis? Having one event, is the person more susceptible to have a recurrence, or are they at higher risk of other conditions such as ...
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0answers
47 views

Relationship between inbreeding and sterility in humans

In general, inbred individuals tend to be at increased risk of sterility as shown in cows (Gonzales-Recio, 2007) or in leghorns (Nordskog and Cheng, 1988) for examples. I only have very quickly looked ...
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170 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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How fast can the human body temperature change?

I'm really curious about how fast can a human body temperature change? E.g. how fast can the human body temperature change when the human has fever? I'm not interested in how fast fever changes the ...
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4answers
877 views

Why does an increased heart rate mean increased blood pressure?

Say a person starts exercising. If their cardiac volume remains the same but their heart rate increases so that the overall result is an increase in cardiac output, will their blood pressure increase ...
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0answers
70 views

Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems quite ...
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63 views

Database of Medical Assertions

Can anyone point me toward a computationally-accessible database of medical assertions? I'm looking for something where each row in the database contains a single unit of knowledge. It could either be ...
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2answers
155 views

Why do people use anti-inflammatory drugs?

Why people should take anti-inflammatory drugs, when inflammation is a physiological way to defend our organism?
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1answer
89 views

Narcan nasal spray

A recent podcast of Radiolab (time index 3:05) described a person who had overdosed given the nasal spray form of Narcan. The report indicated the patient was awake seconds after the spray was ...
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2answers
797 views

Blood draw from the elderly or those with tiny veins

A lot of people have very small veins making it next to impossible to draw blood. Would a nitroglycerin tablet (or some other vasodilator) before drawing blood help to enlarge veins?
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2answers
826 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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1answer
2k views

Anti malarial drugs and g6pd deficiency

Why does antimalarial drugs causes hemolysis in g6pd deficiency patients? I know that g6pd protects the cell from oxidative stress by maintaining glutathione in reduced state but how does the ...
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1answer
117 views

Do oral vaccines exist?

Do edible vaccines exist, and if yes, what is their mode of action? Are there any edible vaccines commercially available now?
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1answer
36 views

Why is prothrombin time used to monitor warfarin and not activated partial thromboplastin time?

Warfarin is said to change prothrombin time (PT) but not activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (for practical purposes at least anyways, not really sure). But looking at the mechanism of action ...
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1answer
153 views

How might IV-saline cause kidney damage that seems to be less likely with “balanced fluids” IVs instead?

The ABC News article What's in the IV bag? Studies show safer option than saline includes: Saline — salt dissolved in water — has been the most widely used fluid in the U.S. for more than a century ...
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3answers
128 views

Homeopathy is placebo, but isn't placebo good?

I never considered homeopathy as a serious and scientific medicine, and now we have plenty of evidence supporting this (http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/12/no-scientific-case-...
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1answer
308 views

Is there a possibility that medicine will affect the efficiency of natural selection?

I mean, saving sick people means that they possibly can propagate something that nature does not allow. I know that there is already something that operate at genetical level producing alteration, i.e....
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1answer
42 views

What fraction of human cells gets infected during a viral infection?

As I understand, if a cell gets infected during a viral infection then it eventually dies. If an individual does not die of an infection, the percentage of cells that gets infected in the course of ...
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1answer
57 views

Why is free ribose not reduced to deoxyribose rather than the reduction occuring on ribonucleotides

I cannot understand why deoxyribonucleotides are not synthesized directly from deoxyribose, but ribonucleotides have to be synthesized first, and only then can deoxyribonucleotides be synthesized.