Questions tagged [membrane-transport]

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7
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1answer
22k views

How do lipid-soluble substances diffuse through the cell membrane?

It’s said that water-soluble substances can diffuse through cell membrane with less ease than lipid-soluble substances because the former encounters impedance in the hydrophobic region of the ...
7
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4answers
18k views

Difference between facilitated diffusion and secondary active transport in cells

Specifically, what is the difference between facilitated diffusion carrier processes (passive transport) and secondary active transport co-transport processes (active transport)? They seem to be the ...
7
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2answers
3k views

Can Oxaloacetate cross the outer mitochondrial membrane?

I am aware of the Malate–Aspartate Shuttle, but something is not clear to me and different sources seem to contradict each other. Some show oxaloacetate (OAA) being reduced to malate in the ...
5
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2answers
14k views

Does endo- and (or) exocytosis require energy? Do they belong to active / passive transport?

I expect vesicle formation and fusion to require energy input; however, I'm not sure about which of endocytosis and exocytosis require energy and how they use the energy input. Do they belong to ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Membrane Permeability to Pyruvate

Pyruvate seems to pass easily through the outer membrane of the mitochondrion but has difficulty entering the inner membrane (and gets in by H+ symport). I have two questions: (1) what property of ...
5
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1answer
38k views

What is the difference between osmotic potential and osmotic pressure?

Which term is used to calculate water potential? Does osmotic potential mean the same as solute potential?
5
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1answer
473 views

How does a Na+/H+ antiporter drive osmosis in this “osmotic motor”?

This recent paper in Cell describes a cancer cell using osmotic pressure to move in confined spaces. The cell preferentially inserts Na+/H+ antiporters in the leading membrane. I want someone to ...
4
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1answer
1k views

how is the plasma membrane repaired after endocytosis?

When the vesicle is swallowed of course the lipid layer internalizes. My question is how will the top segment of membrane will bind back together when that vesicle took the membrane with it inside ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Which complexes physically pump protons in photosynthesis?

The cytochrome b6f complex is often drawn as pumping protons, but then someone told me that actually there is no pumping, rather the Q cycle. According to this view, what actually moves the protons ...
4
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2answers
379 views

What is the purpose of co-transport?

My current understanding of co-transport is that, first, a substance is actively transported across a membrane, establishing a concentration gradient across said membrane. This same substance then ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Do flowers transpire?

I have googled this out but no where found a satisfactory answer. The definition of transpiration states that it is the evaporative loss of water from the aerial surfaces of the plant but I am really ...
4
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1answer
3k views

How can a polar molecule pass through polar channels of proteins in the cell membrane?

To transport a polar molecule through the nonpolar cell membrane, a protein with a polar channel is needed to allow it to diffuse. However, if the molecule is polar and the channel is polar, wouldn't ...
3
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1answer
12k views

Difference between protein channels, protein carriers and protein pumps?

I'm revising for my biology exam and I don't fully comprehend the difference between protein channels, carriers and pumps. I know that: Protein channels do not require ATP (passive transport) The ...
3
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1answer
102 views

How does CO2 gets diffused into the red blood cells?

Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the tissues and into the blood, where it is dissolved in the plasma. While some of the carbon dioxide remains dissolved in the plasma, most carbon dioxide diffuses into ...
3
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2answers
5k views

Does osmosis require a protein channel?

Earlier today, I undertook an exam which featured a question regarding the stickiness of mucus in a person diagnosed with CF's. We had to explain why they had stickier mucus than a 'normal' person, ...
3
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1answer
45 views

How are lipid-coated mRNA-based vaccines transported into cells for expression?

In CNN's video Scientist says Coronavirus vaccine could be ready by 2021 after about 00:25 'Robin Shattock, the Head of Mucosal Infection and Immunity at Imperial ...
3
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1answer
651 views

Are cells electrically neutral or charged to setup the membrane potential across them?

While studying about membrane potential I usually come across the Na K pump . But I can't understand does it cause any generation of net charge in the cell If yes then how do charged cells stay ...
3
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1answer
983 views

COPI/COPII proteins and kinesins/dyneins

I am considering the transport of protein from ER to Golgi, and have read that this involves the COPII protein coat. I have also read that this is a form of anterograde transport, and elsewhere that ...
3
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1answer
34k views

Why do cell membranes let small non-polar molecules through but won't let small polar molecules through?

If the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain of the phospholipid prevents the movement of polar molecules through the membrane. Why does the hydrophilic phosphate head of the phospholipid not prevent the ...
3
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0answers
80 views

Can the Donnan effect be reversed so phospholipids follow ions? [closed]

I know that there are flipases and flopases that facilitate this sort of thing, but I'm curious about other possible influences. Can the Donnan effect be reversed so that phospholipids follow ions? ...
2
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2answers
19k views

Difference between going against and going down a concentration gradient

The difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport is that facilitated distribution occurs down a concentration gradient and active transport occurs against a concentration gradient. I ...
2
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1answer
648 views

What is the functional significance of the difference in cardiolipin/cholesterol ratio in different membranes?

I have read somewhere that the plasma membrane has little cardiolipin but excess cholesterol whereas the inner mitochondrial membrane is rich in cardiolipin and has little cholesterol.I just wanted to ...
2
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1answer
34 views

How does exercising/starved muscle import glucose (released by liver)?

Adrenaline releases glucose from the liver during sport or if starved. This glucose goes to the blood through GLUT2 transporter. But how does it get transported into the muscle cells? GLUT4 is the ...
2
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1answer
167 views

Can an emulsion enter a cell?

I've been tempted on cooking.stackexchange to answer a question, and I did, out of my mind. (In retrospect, I shouldn't have done so, based on my lack of citable resources.) I've heard that a water ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Are receptors integral membrane proteins or peripheral membrane proteins?

Integral membranes proteins serve as transporters. Peripheral proteins serve as cell adhesion molecules, antigens and enzymes. So what about receptors? Which proteins carry out the duty of receptors?
2
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1answer
1k views

How does 'phosphorylation of glucose' maintain concentration gradient in membrane transport (facilitated diffusion)?

Our book explains how glucose from the blood plasma gets inside red blood cells via facilitated transport. It states here in the book that the glucose will be transported inside by a carrier protein....
2
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1answer
2k views

Are Na+/K+ active pumps and K+/Na+ “Leak” channels same as given in the figure?

Na+/K+ channels maintain the resting potential with other sodium and potassium channels. Then what are these "Leak" channels? are they the same Na+/K+ pump in a special condition? If so, what is it? ...
2
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1answer
283 views

How can carnitine enter the mitochondrial matrix without OCTN2?

Some people have defects on the gene SLC22A5, giving them problems with their OCTN2 transport protein (Organic cation transport). OCTN2 transports carnitine into the mitochondial matrix where it can ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Active & passive transport question

If an element, ion or molecule is found in a cell is it possible to tell which method of transport was used? for example if a hydrogen or sodium ion was found in the cell could you tell if it got ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Does it make sense to express membrane transporters as concentration?

Let's assume a situation where a molecule, S, is transported out of the cell by membrane transporter T. For simplicity we do not consider any other synthesis or production processes. Furthermore, we ...
2
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0answers
46 views

Oil absorbed into human skin — where does it go?

For example, I apply petrolatum to my dry hands twice a day as in winter I am usually in a 20-30% RH environment. Within an hour, the petrolatum seems entirely absorbed. According to [1], ...
2
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1answer
115 views

How does LDL leave the circulatory system and enter the interstitial fluid to deliver cholesterol to cells?

I have read that small molecules like oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse through the capillaries, but larger structures can't fit through. This answer indicates that some proteins go through via ...
2
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0answers
71 views

Lipid Diffusion

Epithelial cells in the small intestine absorb lipids through simple diffusion but how does diffusion of lipids occur in the first place if they are insoluble in water? I thought that substances need ...
2
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0answers
64 views

Mobile carriers of Light reaction in higher plants

The hydrogen carrier PQ and the electron carrier PC are the mobile carriers in light reaction facilitating electron transfer from PS II to PS I during non-cyclic process. My question is - How do ...
2
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0answers
301 views

Why difference in degree of folding in a cell?

For a cell to maintain constant volume, input should be equal to output of substances. My question is, if the basolateral membrane, by less folding can attain the same rate of transport as of the ...
2
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0answers
138 views

How do human cells respond to mechanical pressure such as heel contact during walking?

Basically, I'd like to do a full accounting (inventory, assets, liabilities) of a human cell under mechanical pressure. For example, if in steady-state, does the cell consume more or less energy ...
2
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1answer
752 views

What is the mechanism responsible for the 'delay' in delayed rectifier potassium channels?

I've been trying to find a comprehensive explanation concerning the nature of the 'delay' in neurons' delayed rectifier potassium channels. As it's written in my intro to neuroscience textbook, these ...
1
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1answer
402 views

Is co-transport within a cell active or passive transport?

ATP is used to actively transport H+ out of the cell against the concentration gradient. The H+ & sucrose cotransporter, for example, then uses this proton gradient for transport. H+ goes back ...
1
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1answer
119 views

Valve-like layers example in nature?

I am searching for an example in the nature, where a layer of something (skin, coat, film etc) can allow fluid to flow trough (not absorb) from one direction and prevent/repel from other direction. I ...
1
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1answer
30 views

Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles

I'm reading the following paper: http://jcs.biologists.org/content/123/6/819 The part I am really confused about is when they say: Exocytosis appears to use two alternative pathways: clathrin-...
1
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1answer
500 views

Can the Na+/K+ pump backwards to generate ATP?

The standard physiological direction of the Na+/K+ pump is to export 3 Na+, import 2 K+, and hydrolyze one ATP to ADP. Can it be driven backwards, importing 3 Na+, exporting 2 K+, and generating ATP? ...
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2answers
292 views

Question about flux and changes in net flux of molecules across a membrane

I've been reading a book called Principles of Human Physiology by Stanfield 5th edition, and was reading a chapter on membrane transport when I came across a figure question which will be posted below....
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1answer
492 views

ATP stoichiometry of the Na+/K+ pump

The Na+/K+ ATPase pump exports 3 Na+ for every 2 Ka+ imported. This process is ATP dependent, but I have not been able to find how many ATPs are required in each translocation. What is the ...
1
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1answer
56 views

Determining and Differentiating specific ATPases

In respects to this certain ATPase transporter. What do i look for in respects to determining what specific kind it is out of: F-ATPases V-ATPases A-ATPases P-ATPases E-ATPases Im assuming that ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Should I consider [H+] as substrate in MCT transport equation?

I'm trying to model the transport of lactate in cells (in both direction via Monocarboxylate transporters): [Lactate]intra + [H+] <----> [Lactate]extra + [H+] I found some data on kinetics of ...
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1answer
36 views

Osmosis and hydrostatic pressure

I'm confused about the role of hydrostatic pressure compared to osmotic pressure. Q1:If I have a U-tube with a membrane permeable only to water molecules and equal volumes of water on either side ...
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0answers
6 views

Nerve/muscle fibre depolarizaitonand repolarization balance

if continously sodium is pumped in during depolarization and pottasium is pumped out during repolarization, eventually there will more sodium and less sodium inside. How the does the fibre/cell return ...
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0answers
79 views

Understanding the derivation of the Nernst equation

I am trying to understand how the Nernst equation can be derived and am mostly referring to the explanation given in the book Theoretical Neuroscience by Dayan and Abbott. Given we have a ...
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0answers
31 views

How does Ran GDP get from the cytoplasm back to the nucleus following nuclear import and export?

I understand that in Ran-dependent nuclear import Ran GTP binds importin in the nucleus, and after diffusing through the nuclear pore complex Ran GTP is hydrolyzed to Ran GDP and releases importin. ...
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0answers
58 views

Exclusion Limit and permeability of outer membrane

According to this textbook: P aeruginosa, for example, which is extremely resistant to antibacterial agents, the outer membrane is 100 times less permeable than that of E coli.[pg.no 27] and then ...