Questions tagged [mhc]

The major histocompatibility complex is an extremely diverse genome region in vertebrates that is responsible for antigen presentation. There are two main classes, MHC I and MHC II.

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Monoclonal Antibodies

In this paper, the authors say: We demonstrate that for a considerable number of eplets, the antibody-verified status is solely based on polyclonal serum reactivity of multiparous women or on ...
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EasyHLA HLA Upgrade Tool Website does not work [closed]

I'm trying to use Easy HLA, HLA Upgrade (https://hla.univ-nantes.fr/recherche/recherche.php) to impute my low resolution typings into high resolution ones but I have this error when I upload my file: ...
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Start codon and 5' codon

Here it says: For amino acid-based systems, the start codon of the mature protein is labeled codon 1. The codon 5' to this is numbered -1. So, I assumed the START codon is either -1 or 0. But, when ...
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Are DRB3 DRB4 and DRB5 different genes or different version of the same gene

From what I understand, an individual can hold up to two HLA-DRB345 alleles (but can be less) that can each be HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4 or HLA-DRB5. However, since HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQB2 are entirely ...
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Role of the CD3 proteins and ζ chain

Could someone please explain which of the following is correct and why? The role of the CD3 proteins and ζ chain on the surface of the cell is to: a) transduce signals to the interior of the T cell b)...
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What is the difference between a macrophage and dendritic cell?

I am aware that both these cells (monocytes) are phagocytes and are able to present antigens upon their own Class II - MHC integral proteins. Other than their difference in structure (size and shape), ...
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Transplant rejection through direct allogenic antigen detection: where do the T cells come from?

I just read a chapter in Janeway's Immunology on T cell development and thought about transplant rejection. But I couldn't figure out how the t cells develop which lead to the rejection. So in direct ...
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Differentiating molecules based on peptide sequence? How to annotate?

I want to differentiate between classical class I and non classical class I MHC molecules in a model organism using well conserved structural features within classical MHC I molecules (eg intradomain ...
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How do short polypeptide chains serve as identifiable antigens?

My understanding is that MHC class I and II bind to relatively short polypeptide chains (~ 20ish amino acids). I'm surprised that a non-self protein fragment that short would be distinctive enough to ...
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What is the probability of an offspring sharing identical HLA typing as one of their parents?

DISCLAIMER: I have yet to thoroughly study HLA 100% to the bone, and hence I won't know everything about it at the back of the hand. Recently I came across this information on a San Francisco ...
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What is meant by 'fixing' of an antigen presenting cell?

Can someone please explain what does 'fixing' of an antigen presenting cell mean?
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Can MHC class I be used for presenting peptides of extracellular origin by non-professional APCs?

Wikipedia says that: "The antigens presented by MHC class II are derived from extracellular proteins (not cytosolic as in MHC class I)." So does this mean that MHC class I cannot be used for ...
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How are Cytotoxic T cells transfered?

We learned that Cytotoxic T cells are MHC dependent, and if CMH matchup doesn't occur between the T cell and the cancer cell for example, the former won't attack the latter. If this is the case then ...
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Mouse H2 allele sequences

I've been trying to find complete sequences of mouse (Mus musculus) MHC H2 locus haplotypes for quite some time now with limited success. The EBI IMGT database has a table of mouse H2 haplotypes, yet ...
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CD4 Proteins & Antigen presenting cells

If Helper T-Cells express CD4+ proteins on their surface to bind to MHC Class ll proteins on antigen presenting cells, why do antigen presenting cells also have CD4+ Proteins?
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Are MHC Proteins the Most Polymorphic Human Proteins Known?

There is a paragraph titled "MHC Proteins Are the Most Polymorphic Human Proteins Known" in the "Molecular Biology of the Cell" by Alberts et al. 6th ed. 2014. But someone has recently told me that ...
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Is the whole MHC haplotype expressed and so their proteins are exhibited on each nucleated cell membrane?

Am I correct if I guess the following (?): If we inherit both maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, the functional (non-pseudo)genes are expressed and all of their products (MHC molecules) are ...
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Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems quite ...
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Corneal transplant and HLA matching

Is HLA matching/ blood grouping required for corneal transplants ? I think,it shouldn't be, because cornea is avascular. I tried searching on the net but most of the references are old and ...
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Why cytotoxic T cells don't kill dendritic cells when they present antigen?

When a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) recognizes a peptide presented in the MHC-1 of a dendritic cell (APC), why it doesn't kill this cell? I know that initially, in the lymph node, the T cell is inactivated....
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Presence of MHC on red blood cells

Do red blood cells have no MHC? (I have often heard that they do not.) If so why are they not destroyed by immune cells?
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A possible cause of autoimmunity

I read that Doherty and Zinkernagel found that MHC- heterozygotes present more antigens to the immune system than homozygotes; yet, the infected heterozygous mice in their experiment all died, ...
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Variation in MHC in humans

What evolutionary process lead to so much variation in MHC? What is the advantage of having such variation?
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Number of MHCs in neurons

I have read that neurons have proportionately less MHC molecules than other cells of the body. What is the advantage of this?
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Do T-cells express MHC molecules?

T-cells recognize the MHC molecules and body's own peptides. When it doesn't, it alarms the immune system. But do T-cells express MHC molecules ? If so, how are they using it? If not, what happens ...
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