Questions tagged [microbiology]

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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vitamin D in mushrooms

How could I test vitamin D levels in mushrooms? (I am a high school student, our lab is pretty modern, but my resources are limited) I found an article about it (https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/...
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Is modern medicine selecting for weaker immune systems?

I know that sometimes genes are selected against if it becomes evolutionarily useless for example in humans with respect to our vitamin-C-producing enzyme GULA due to us getting plenty from our diet. ...
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What is the current scientific consensus regarding the relationship between Eukaryotes and Archaea?

In the traditional 3-domain system, the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota are all distinct from one another, with the latter 2 usually being sister-groups in a clade. However recent evidence ...
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Anyone Know What This Is?

So I don't know much about plant structure or biology in general but I found this little guy while on X10 and x40 lenses on our school microscope while looking at a leaf. I'm not sure if it's part of ...
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Do bacteria duplicate the copied virus DNA to put into a Cas9 protein when fighting the virus off again?

When bacteria insert a part of invading virus DNA into its own genetic sequence, on the 2nd invasion does it duplicate that copied DNA again from wherever the bacteria placed it and put it into a Cas9 ...
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How does the first organism infected by a disease get infected?

How does a micro-organism causing some communicable disease infect the first organism it infected? I was reading about HIV, when I found that HIV has jumped from chimpanzees to human beings. But, how ...
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1answer
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Why would it be unsafe to eat spoiled, but heated, food, but safe to drink spoiled, but chlorine purified water?

To my understanding, spoiled food is not supposed to be consumed even after cooking it, since the heat may eradicate germs, but their toxines may be heat-resistant and thus still active. However, ...
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Do mutations in a fundamental structure of a virus [Omicron Variant] make it more transmissible?

I am not a microbiologist, nor a virologist so I had a question - in the new Omicron virus variant, a large number of mutations were reported for the protein spike. From my naïve understanding, the ...
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Can the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated?

I am curious to know if the original SARS‑CoV‑2 virus, or any of its variants, can mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated. I am referring to those people who have received all the recommended ...
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Can antibiotic resistance cause problems for the microorganisms producing them? [duplicate]

My understanding is that antibiotics are naturally produced by microorganisms as a defensive measure against certain kinds of bacteria. For example, some Penicillium molds produce penicillin. Clearly, ...
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Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
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How are some exotoxins heat-stable, despite being proteins?

While studying microbiology, I came across bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins. It's understandable that endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides and hence heat stable. Exotoxins are proteins and hence heat ...
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What are the small white dots in an onion cell seen under an electron microscope?

We had to use an electron microscope in class for an assignment and used onion cells. On the 40x and 100x magnification there are tiny white dots and I was wondering if someone could tell me what they ...
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Why do bacteriophages look like tiny little robots? [closed]

I get it, evolution is funny and works in mysterious ways. But come on. You can't tell me this thing doesn't look like a nanobot. Why do bacteriophages look this way? With their cylindrical heads and ...
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If brine salt percentage is between 1 and 2 percent, can Clostridium botulinum growth prevail over Lactobacillus acidophilus?

After searching in various websites, I found mostly that Clostridium botulinum doesn't grow easily in a salty environment, and that it needs a pH from 4.6 to up; as I am lactic fermenting some bell ...
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Doubts about what is growing in my bacteriological cultivation

Foreword: I don't belong to the field at all, I am a high school student with a passion for science so I apologise in advance if I formulate the question incorrectly or make some mistakes. Out of ...
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Do bacteria produce proteins other than ribosomal proteins when grown in wrong culture media?

Someone I know has done an experiment using pure culture and given it to me for rna-seq analysis. But there are a few problems the bacteria she gave me as reference was initially a Staphylococcus sp. ...
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Limitations of 16S rRNA sequencing

Looking at the microbiome analysis literature there seems to have been a shift away from 16S rRNA sequencing analysis toward shotgun sequencing of the whole genome. While the motivation given is ...
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Do microorganisms produce more glucose in their extracellular environment than they need? Why?

Trichoderma reesei breaks down cellulose into beta and alpha glucose by secreting cellulases. Why do they produce far more glucose then they need when incubated with susbtrate?
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Do viruses do anything other than multiply? [closed]

Viruses are "on the edge of life ". They infect the cells and use it for multiplication of themselves but other than that do they do anything else like "eat food" like an amoeba ...
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Why crystal violet inhibits growth of gram positive bacteria?

In microbiology lab, we use MacConkey agar to selectively grow Gram-Negative bacilli. Crystal violet is used as a component of MacConkey agar for inhibiting growth of Gram Positive bacteria. However I ...
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1answer
98 views

Is there any alternative to peptone and beef or yeast extract?

I am trying to start a small microbiology project and I need a growth culture for bacteria. I do not want to use the costly nutrient agars you can buy online. I would like to create my own nutrient ...
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1answer
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Can a polymer coated with antibodies have enough attraction to wrap around a virus?

Archived source for image Please ignore the signal release. Does anyone know if it’s possible for polymer to wrap around a virus?
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Does a rapid cooling step improve pasteurization of medical equipment?

I learned that pasteurization consists of two steps: first heating and then rapid cooling. The rapid cooling was explained as "it's a thermic shock for the germs, so the ones remaining after the ...
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How do I cover Cellstrainers?

I‘m doing some experiments for my bachelors thesis and I‘m using some Cell strainers by Roth for it (https://www.carlroth.com/com/en/accessories/cell-strainer-easystrainer™/p/cly9.1). My problem is ...
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Is there any chance that the COVID-19 virus could become more deadly by it interacting with the HIV virus?

I would like to know if there is any chance that the COVID-19 virus, or one of its variants, could become more deadly by interacting with the HIV virus. Let's say for example, that a person who has ...
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1answer
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Why log pathogen reduction for pasteurization validation and not absolute counts?

I notice that most guidelines for heat treatment processes such as pasteurization or sterilization use a "x-log pathogen reduction" target for validating the success of such processes. e.g. ...
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Microorganism ID?

I found this microorganism in a wet moss sample. It was very active and moved around quite quickly, and it looked to be using cilia to move. It had no coloration. I got some pictures at 400x: Any ...
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1answer
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Disposing biohazardous material

I had conducted some disc diffusion tests with E.coli and S.epidermidis. Now, I wanna dispose these petri dishes and was wondering the correct way to do it. Many websites mention adding bleach to the ...
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1answer
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ID microbe found in moss sample (USA)

I found this microbe after putting a wet moss sample under my microscope. It latched on to a piece of moss and scanned the area around it for prey, and when it didn't find any, it slowly swam away. It'...
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Why does open olive oil keep so long?

This is a question about the biology of microorganisms, not about food safety. While most of our foods spoil quite quickly (it is recommended to throw food away after 2h in the danger zone), for some ...
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Methods for getting clean C. difficile spore preps without spores clumping together

I'm a microbiologist recently who recently started working on an ongoing C. difficile project for the first time. One of the things I need to do is verify the lower detection limit of my qPCR ...
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Does Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) contain L-cysteine? (Question about Legionella)

I ask because Legionella sp. requires the presence of cysteine. If TSA does contain L-cysteine, is it sufficient to grow Legionella?
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Do E. coli change color (from white/grey to yellow) when they grow older?

In my experiment, I had white colonies initially and they turned yellow. So I thought it´s natural that mature E. coli colonies are yellow and young are white. But it could be that I had two types of ...
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Isolating colonies in a pure culture

I want to conduct antimicrobial susceptibility tests for which I've to culture bacteria first. Since I've bought KWIK-STIKs, (KWIK-STIK contains a single lyophilized microorganism which have to be ...
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1answer
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Does SARS-COV-2 produce toxins?

I wonder whether toxins are produced only by bacteria and fungi and not by viruses. Looking at the paper below, I read that several toxic proteins are produced by SARS-COV-2. Can these proteins be ...
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1answer
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How to convert system of equations with explicit substrate consumption into an implicit one?

I have a description of competition between two bacteria that is described by the system of equations: S = substrate, μ = bacterial division rate, K = half saturation constant, y = yield (cells per ...
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1answer
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What is targeted gene disruption?

I am a bit confused about what targeted gene disruption means. I was reading this article in which they compare the Pyrococcus Furiosus genome with a genetically tractable strain P. Furiosus variant ...
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How do fungal hyphae dig into substrates (such as grains)?

When a fungus needs to expand its nutrient-acquiring network of hyphae, it can dig into, say, a grain of rice. How does it drill openings into the grain?
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How do scientists create an environment that favors the selection of a microbe with higher production of a certain enzyme?

Let's say you want to create a strain of bacteria that is resistant to heat. You expose all bacteria to high heat and those who have mutated to survive this heat will be the survivors. Then you allow ...
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1answer
509 views

This graph about logarithmic and arithmetic plots. Shoudn't it be the other way around?

From the textbook 'Brock biology of microorganisms, 15th edition' The black lines points to the linear graph with the caption 'Logarithmic' and to the curved graph with the caption 'Arithmetic'. Isn't ...
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1answer
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What is the relationship between a "main" strain genome and its variant genome in archaea?

I am going to analyze DNA sequencing data in order to try to extrapolate some information about the survival strategy of Pyrococcus Furiosus to gamma irradiation, as maybe you already know from all ...
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What is the purpose of putting multiple blanks on a microplate reader? [closed]

I am new to biology and I saw that in the software that controls the microplate reader several targets are set, what is the purpose of this?
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How can I learn botany/plant ID by myself?

I am interested in sources and methods regarding botany and plant ID, and being a self-taught person. Textbooks, sites etc. Thank you all in advance!
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How to express total eradication of bacteria (inhibition zone) when placed into a table

I am a grade 9 student studying the inhibition zones of several different essential oils by comparison to Tetracycline to prove there is merit to treatment of bacterial infection (investigation is ...
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Does one wing of fly contain harmful microbes and the other contain only antibodies?

There was this study but the conclusion and it's source's relability seemed a bit off. How come a house flies one wing contain all microbe and the other don't.
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In what stage of bacterial growth can penicillin inhibit the growth of the cellular wall?

The bacterial growth has 3 main stages: lag-phase, log-phase and stationary phase. I was wondering in which one of them penicillin can inhibit the growth of the cellular wall of bacteria and why. I ...
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Can the metatranscriptomics replace the approach of functional metatranscriptomics/functional metagenomics?

While metatranscriptomics reveals information about the expression of genes and their functions too, Functional metatranscriptomics (https://www.nature.com/articles/ismej201167) allows the ...
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Is the stuffy environment due to using masks all day, helping in spread corona virus in people?

I came across a research that stated, the most disease ridden place in a toilet is actually the air dryer. The hot and moist microcosm that develops around the dryer due to frequent use helps in ...

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