Questions tagged [microbiology]

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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Can features of modified plasmids be divided into prokaryotic features and eukaryotic features?

Here's what I understand and please correct me if I am wrong: Plasmids modified for gene therapy or genetic engineering should contain factors for certain functions in prokaryotic cells. For example, ...
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can a mutualistic or at least symbiotic relationship between two organisms or more be artificially induced by human means?

I was wondering about such a question because I thought about the possibility of using microorganism to regulate the atmosphere and Each species may be suitable for different environments and purposes....
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Can the Monkeypox virus be spread by mosquitoes?

I am wondering if the Monkeypox virus could be spread by mosquitoes since it is part of the Smallpox family. While doing some online research on this possibility, I came across this abstract taken ...
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Why during acute HBV infection, anti-HBsAg isn't detected in blood?

In general any acute viral infection would produce IgM against that viral antigen (let's say neutralization antibody). Surprisingly in hepatitis-B infection anti-HBsAg IgM is detected only during ...
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How much does each rotation coarse adjustment move the stage in a microscope?

I've been working with microscopes lately and have been trying to think of a way to somehow find out a way to some how find out a way to relate the rotaions of fine adjustment to coarse adjustment. ...
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Would viral diversity result in a change in the effectiveness of CRISPR systems in a population of bacteria, within a closed system?

I have here my hypothesis, does this make scientific sense? Assume this situation is occurring in a closed environment with only bacteria and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9, being an ...
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Does anybody know what sort of fossil this could be?

enter image description here Found in rural North Dakota. Small rock with black circular indentations.
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When a dog sniffs up organic material that contains DNA, is it possible his genome incorporates it? [closed]

I'm not kidding. Was just watching my German Shepherd sniffing away at a new Amazon box. ...realized she sniffs vast array of DNA from organic material when on a walk: millions of mammalian, plant, ...
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Production of “Green Hydrogen” by photosynthesis

In a popular science book from the 1970s I read about experiments to tweak some microorganisms to produce elemental hydrogen by photosynthesis. Is this a feasible way to produce “Green hydrogen”? What ...
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Do microorganisms have complex social behaviors like dominance hierarchies, just as "higher animals" do?

I used to believe that dominance hierarchy (a.k.a. pecking order) exists in higher order animals and is associated with complex social behavior. See the wikipedia definition of dominance hierarchy and ...
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Why does a respiring mitochondrion have less cristae?

I read the following- Number of cristae is more in resting-state of mitochondrion, but decreases with activity, hence less in the respiring state. cited: GK Pal, Textbook of Medical Physiology ...
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Distinguishing between yeast and bacteria

Can hematoxylin stain be used to tell apart yeast and bacteria cells Are there any other method to tell apart yeast and bacterial cells? I know hematoxylin stains histone protein but I am not sure how ...
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What type of bacteria can I use to break down motor oil for a high school biology experiment? Any suggestions where I can find this bacteria?

I am experimenting to determine the optimum conditions for microbes to break down motor oil. The conditions I am going to test are different pH levels to resemble freshwater pH and saltwater pH. I ...
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What options are available for high-throughput isolation and identification of microbes from soil?

I have a lot of experience with isolating individual colonies / species / organisms from the environment and then sequencing them for identification, but the process is slow and cumbersome. My goal is ...
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How does Clostridium perfringens cause target hemolysis?

I am studying microbiology as a part of my course and I was studying Clostridium perfringens. While studying its hemolytic characteristics, I came to know that it causes target hemolysis (i.e. zone of ...
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Is there an equivalent to vertebrate endogenous retroviruses in invertebrates or microbes?

I know jawed vertebrates have a lot of junk DNA floating around coming from ancient retroviruses. Some of the DNA is important to mammalian evolution. The DNA also provides a useful means to study the ...
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Identification of fungi possibly a Pythium sp. or similar morphology

I am investigating a fungi. Grown on Potato Agar it resembles a Pythium type species similar to P. insidiosum with even filamentous white colony growth. However the hyphae are producing fragmented ...
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Does the biofilm formation hinder photosythesis?

In photosynthetic bacteria such as Cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The bacteria need access to both light, CO2, and water to perform photosynthesis. However, in thick biofilm structures (e....
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What's the best way to find a Tardigrade

So I have a school science project on the best sample to look under a microscope, so I want to bring in a Tardigrade. It's winter here in Ohio, although Tardigrades are freeze tolerant I don't think ...
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How long is agar agar good for?

I'm a high school science teacher, and am starting at a new school. I'd like to do some labs with bacteria and so I'll need to make plates with agar agar. I found 3 huge jugs of powdered agar in the ...
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vitamin D in mushrooms

How could I test vitamin D levels in mushrooms? (I am a high school student, our lab is pretty modern, but my resources are limited) I found an article about it (https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfq/...
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What is the current scientific consensus regarding the relationship between Eukaryotes and Archaea?

In the traditional 3-domain system, the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota are all distinct from one another, with the latter 2 usually being sister-groups in a clade. However recent evidence ...
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Anyone Know What This Is?

So I don't know much about plant structure or biology in general but I found this little guy while on X10 and x40 lenses on our school microscope while looking at a leaf. I'm not sure if it's part of ...
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Do bacteria duplicate the copied virus DNA to put into a Cas9 protein when fighting the virus off again?

When bacteria insert a part of invading virus DNA into its own genetic sequence, on the 2nd invasion does it duplicate that copied DNA again from wherever the bacteria placed it and put it into a Cas9 ...
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How does the first organism infected by a disease get infected?

How does a micro-organism causing some communicable disease infect the first organism it infected? I was reading about HIV, when I found that HIV has jumped from chimpanzees to human beings. But, how ...
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Why would it be unsafe to eat spoiled, but heated, food, but safe to drink spoiled, but chlorine purified water?

To my understanding, spoiled food is not supposed to be consumed even after cooking it, since the heat may eradicate germs, but their toxines may be heat-resistant and thus still active. However, ...
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Do mutations in a fundamental structure of a virus [Omicron Variant] make it more transmissible?

I am not a microbiologist, nor a virologist so I had a question - in the new Omicron virus variant, a large number of mutations were reported for the protein spike. From my naïve understanding, the ...
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Can the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated?

I am curious to know if the original SARS‑CoV‑2 virus, or any of its variants, can mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated. I am referring to those people who have received all the recommended ...
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What organism is this? Repetitive, long thread, double spikes, ... (from a human sputum sample) [closed]

Link to video Collected in Portugal.
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Can antibiotic resistance cause problems for the microorganisms producing them? [duplicate]

My understanding is that antibiotics are naturally produced by microorganisms as a defensive measure against certain kinds of bacteria. For example, some Penicillium molds produce penicillin. Clearly, ...
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Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
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How are some exotoxins heat-stable, despite being proteins?

While studying microbiology, I came across bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins. It's understandable that endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides and hence heat stable. Exotoxins are proteins and hence heat ...
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What are the small white dots in an onion cell seen under an electron microscope?

We had to use an electron microscope in class for an assignment and used onion cells. On the 40x and 100x magnification there are tiny white dots and I was wondering if someone could tell me what they ...
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Why do bacteriophages look like tiny little robots? [closed]

I get it, evolution is funny and works in mysterious ways. But come on. You can't tell me this thing doesn't look like a nanobot. Why do bacteriophages look this way? With their cylindrical heads and ...
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If brine salt percentage is between 1 and 2 percent, can Clostridium botulinum growth prevail over Lactobacillus acidophilus?

After searching in various websites, I found mostly that Clostridium botulinum doesn't grow easily in a salty environment, and that it needs a pH from 4.6 to up; as I am lactic fermenting some bell ...
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Doubts about what is growing in my bacteriological cultivation

Foreword: I don't belong to the field at all, I am a high school student with a passion for science so I apologise in advance if I formulate the question incorrectly or make some mistakes. Out of ...
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Do bacteria produce proteins other than ribosomal proteins when grown in wrong culture media?

Someone I know has done an experiment using pure culture and given it to me for rna-seq analysis. But there are a few problems the bacteria she gave me as reference was initially a Staphylococcus sp. ...
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7 votes
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Limitations of 16S rRNA sequencing

Looking at the microbiome analysis literature there seems to have been a shift away from 16S rRNA sequencing analysis toward shotgun sequencing of the whole genome. While the motivation given is ...
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Do microorganisms produce more glucose in their extracellular environment than they need? Why?

Trichoderma reesei breaks down cellulose into beta and alpha glucose by secreting cellulases. Why do they produce far more glucose then they need when incubated with susbtrate?
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Do viruses do anything other than multiply? [closed]

Viruses are "on the edge of life ". They infect the cells and use it for multiplication of themselves but other than that do they do anything else like "eat food" like an amoeba ...
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2 votes
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Why crystal violet inhibits growth of gram positive bacteria?

In microbiology lab, we use MacConkey agar to selectively grow Gram-Negative bacilli. Crystal violet is used as a component of MacConkey agar for inhibiting growth of Gram Positive bacteria. However I ...
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Is there any alternative to peptone and beef or yeast extract?

I am trying to start a small microbiology project and I need a growth culture for bacteria. I do not want to use the costly nutrient agars you can buy online. I would like to create my own nutrient ...
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Can a polymer coated with antibodies have enough attraction to wrap around a virus?

Archived source for image Please ignore the signal release. Does anyone know if it’s possible for polymer to wrap around a virus?
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Does a rapid cooling step improve pasteurization of medical equipment?

I learned that pasteurization consists of two steps: first heating and then rapid cooling. The rapid cooling was explained as "it's a thermic shock for the germs, so the ones remaining after the ...
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How do I cover Cellstrainers?

I‘m doing some experiments for my bachelors thesis and I‘m using some Cell strainers by Roth for it (https://www.carlroth.com/com/en/accessories/cell-strainer-easystrainer™/p/cly9.1). My problem is ...
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Is there any chance that the COVID-19 virus could become more deadly by it interacting with the HIV virus?

I would like to know if there is any chance that the COVID-19 virus, or one of its variants, could become more deadly by interacting with the HIV virus. Let's say for example, that a person who has ...
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Why log pathogen reduction for pasteurization validation and not absolute counts?

I notice that most guidelines for heat treatment processes such as pasteurization or sterilization use a "x-log pathogen reduction" target for validating the success of such processes. e.g. ...
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Microorganism ID?

I found this microorganism in a wet moss sample. It was very active and moved around quite quickly, and it looked to be using cilia to move. It had no coloration. I got some pictures at 400x: Any ...
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Disposing biohazardous material

I had conducted some disc diffusion tests with E.coli and S.epidermidis. Now, I wanna dispose these petri dishes and was wondering the correct way to do it. Many websites mention adding bleach to the ...
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ID microbe found in moss sample (USA)

I found this microbe after putting a wet moss sample under my microscope. It latched on to a piece of moss and scanned the area around it for prey, and when it didn't find any, it slowly swam away. It'...
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