Questions tagged [microbiology]

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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Microorganism ID?

I found this microorganism in a wet moss sample. It was very active and moved around quite quickly, and it looked to be using cilia to move. It had no coloration. I got some pictures at 400x: Any ...
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Disposing biohazardous material

I had conducted some disc diffusion tests with E.coli and S.epidermidis. Now, I wanna dispose these petri dishes and was wondering the correct way to do it. Many websites mention adding bleach to the ...
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ID microbe found in moss sample (USA)

I found this microbe after putting a wet moss sample under my microscope. It latched on to a piece of moss and scanned the area around it for prey, and when it didn't find any, it slowly swam away. It'...
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Why does open olive oil keep so long?

This is a question about the biology of microorganisms, not about food safety. While most of our foods spoil quite quickly (it is recommended to throw food away after 2h in the danger zone), for some ...
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Methods for getting clean C. difficile spore preps without spores clumping together

I'm a microbiologist recently who recently started working on an ongoing C. difficile project for the first time. One of the things I need to do is verify the lower detection limit of my qPCR ...
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Does Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) contain L-cysteine? (Question about Legionella)

I ask because Legionella sp. requires the presence of cysteine. If TSA does contain L-cysteine, is it sufficient to grow Legionella?
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Do E. coli change color (from white/grey to yellow) when they grow older?

In my experiment, I had white colonies initially and they turned yellow. So I thought it´s natural that mature E. coli colonies are yellow and young are white. But it could be that I had two types of ...
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Isolating colonies in a pure culture

I want to conduct antimicrobial susceptibility tests for which I've to culture bacteria first. Since I've bought KWIK-STIKs, (KWIK-STIK contains a single lyophilized microorganism which have to be ...
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Does SARS-COV-2 produce toxins?

I wonder whether toxins are produced only by bacteria and fungi and not by viruses. Looking at the paper below, I read that several toxic proteins are produced by SARS-COV-2. Can these proteins be ...
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Does the Bacteria culturing medium effect its performance?

Different mediums are used to culture different bacteria species in a Lab environment. I noticed that there is not one optimal medium for every bacteria. I am more curious about culturing ...
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How to convert system of equations with explicit substrate consumption into an implicit one?

I have a description of competition between two bacteria that is described by the system of equations: S = substrate, μ = bacterial division rate, K = half saturation constant, y = yield (cells per ...
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What is targeted gene disruption?

I am a bit confused about what targeted gene disruption means. I was reading this article in which they compare the Pyrococcus Furiosus genome with a genetically tractable strain P. Furiosus variant ...
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How do fungal hyphae dig into substrates (such as grains)?

When a fungus needs to expand its nutrient-acquiring network of hyphae, it can dig into, say, a grain of rice. How does it drill openings into the grain?
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How do scientists create an environment that favors the selection of a microbe with higher production of a certain enzyme?

Let's say you want to create a strain of bacteria that is resistant to heat. You expose all bacteria to high heat and those who have mutated to survive this heat will be the survivors. Then you allow ...
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This graph about logarithmic and arithmetic plots. Shoudn't it be the other way around?

From the textbook 'Brock biology of microorganisms, 15th edition' The black lines points to the linear graph with the caption 'Logarithmic' and to the curved graph with the caption 'Arithmetic'. Isn't ...
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What is the relationship between a “main” strain genome and its variant genome in archaea?

I am going to analyze DNA sequencing data in order to try to extrapolate some information about the survival strategy of Pyrococcus Furiosus to gamma irradiation, as maybe you already know from all ...
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What is the purpose of putting multiple blanks on a microplate reader? [closed]

I am new to biology and I saw that in the software that controls the microplate reader several targets are set, what is the purpose of this?
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How can I learn botany/plant ID by myself?

I am interested in sources and methods regarding botany and plant ID, and being a self-taught person. Textbooks, sites etc. Thank you all in advance!
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How to express total eradication of bacteria (inhibition zone) when placed into a table

I am a grade 9 student studying the inhibition zones of several different essential oils by comparison to Tetracycline to prove there is merit to treatment of bacterial infection (investigation is ...
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Does one wing of fly contain harmful microbes and the other contain only antibodies?

There was this study but the conclusion and it's source's relability seemed a bit off. How come a house flies one wing contain all microbe and the other don't.
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In what stage of bacterial growth can penicillin inhibit the growth of the cellular wall?

The bacterial growth has 3 main stages: lag-phase, log-phase and stationary phase. I was wondering in which one of them penicillin can inhibit the growth of the cellular wall of bacteria and why. I ...
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Can the metatranscriptomics replace the approach of functional metatranscriptomics/functional metagenomics?

While metatranscriptomics reveals information about the expression of genes and their functions too, Functional metatranscriptomics (https://www.nature.com/articles/ismej201167) allows the ...
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Is the stuffy environment due to using masks all day, helping in spread corona virus in people?

I came across a research that stated, the most disease ridden place in a toilet is actually the air dryer. The hot and moist microcosm that develops around the dryer due to frequent use helps in ...
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Are there any organisms that perform photosynthesis-like processes with thermal energy alone?

The closest I can find are thermophiles, but it seems they use the chemicals present in the hot environment for energy, not the heat itself.
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Nutrient agar as the medium for antibiotic susceptibility testing

I couldn't get Mueller Hinton agar to conduct antibiotic susceptibility testing. I'm thinking of just choosing nutrient agar as the growth medium for the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Will ...
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What does T and the numbers mean in T coliphages?

I have searched a number of websites and articles relating to nomenclatures or phages but never found anything explaining what T in T-4,5,6.. Phages mean in the Coliphages. Also, what does the number ...
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What disease / parasite / fungi has affected the mango in the picture?

The mango is found to have some kind of fungi / worm on it's surface . This has affected a huge number of mangoes in the same tree . It can be described as white and fibrous / weblike structure near ...
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Soil microbiology reference

I am after some good reference on Soil Microbe Ecology and Biology. I am a biophysicist, and have read the very gentle approach of "Life in the Soil" (James Nardi). Another book I have been ...
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139 views

Alternative dyes for Gram staining

In the Gram stain, is there any replacement for primary stain, secondary stain, decolourizer and mordant? What results will the replacements produce? I found that crystal violet can be replaced with ...
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265 views

Is there a favoured mathematical model of bacterial growth?

One of the most regularly measured phenotypes in bacterial synthetic biology is growth. Anyone who does wet lab microbiology or synthetic biology will have performed a growth curve measurement. ...
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Recommendations for a haemocytometer (phase-contrast)

I'm looking for recommendations for a haemocytometer that can be used with a phase-contrast microscope. I want to use it to quantify the vegetative and spore fraction in my samples. Can I use any ...
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132 views

How long would you expect a designed plasmid to remain in a population of E. coli after transformation?

When transforming E. coli with a genetically-modified plasmid, how quickly/often is this plasmid "lost" because of mutation, or horizontal-transfer, or "dilution" over reproduction ...
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Is publication an important criteria to get a post doc in microbial ecology?

I am a researcher in microbial ecology , currently searching for post doc in European countries. I have publication less than 1 impact factor. Will this hinder my chances of getting selected . Please ...
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Why can't certain nucleoside analogs be used to label bacterial RNA?

A 2020 publication in Nucleic Acids Research 1 includes the following passage: A variety of nucleoside analogs have been developed for metabolic RNA labeling in various eukaryotic cells (9–16). Among ...
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Concentration/molarity of lichen acids (particularly oxalic acid) in soil/rock substrates?

I am trying to design an experiment testing the efficacy of lichen acids to solubilize and mobilize nutrients from minerals in a lunar regolith simulant. My research so far indicates that oxalic acid ...
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Skeletisation in space

A space pod containing an astronaut drifts out to space and cannot be rescued. The space pod contains no insects, and the only bacteria present are those originally brought in by the astronaut. There ...
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Need help designing an enzyme immunoassay (EIA)

I have a FITC-labelled DNA sequence and an anti-FITC antibody, however this antibody is not conjugated with HRP or any other enzyme. I work in a lab with limited finances, so is there a way I could ...
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If silver nanoparticles kill bacteria by penetrating the cell membrane, why don't they also kill human cells on contact?

Apparently, the silver from the nanoparticles can penetrate the cell wall of bacteria and kill them from the inside. Why, then, doesn't the same happen to human cells, e.g. the skin on my foot when I ...
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361 views

How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)? [closed]

Some Covid vaccines like Covaxin employ a 'Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell'. How is the virion 'deactivated' for the vaccine?
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Reliable recipe to make DIY yeast slants

Does anyone have any good ideas on a reliable way to activate basic grocery store yeast? I realize this is a total beginner's question. I've built a small yeast ranch at home with my kid, and we're ...
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How do tardigrades defend themselves from predators?

Tardigrades or water bears are well known for their ability to enter into a cryptobiotic state which allows them to survive extreme environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures or radiation. ...
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When should I use cryofixation and chemical fixation?

We know that the technique used in TEM sample preparation involves multiple steps, one of the most important of them is fixation. Fixation can be of two types: Cryofixation, that suggests that the ...
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What material is permeable for plant roots, but “impermeable” for fungi & bacteria?

I'm designing an experiment where the roots of the plant will grow in a sterile environment while the shoot will grow in a non-sterile grow room. For this reason the environments of the shoot and the ...
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What tests are available to detect C. Botulinum/Botulinum Toxin in fermented meats?

I am interested in the preparation of fermented dry-sausages (salamis, summer-sausages, etc) where due to the humid anaerobic atmosphere inside the salami. It is a good environment for C.Botulinum ...
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Can anyone ID this microorganism?

I found this microorganism in a wet moss sample taken from my backyard in Richmond, Virginia (USA). I took some pictures of it at 40x, 100x, and 250x. I'm not entirely sure what it is, but I think it'...
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Is it possible for a prion to have a short incubation period ie 1 week or 1 month?

I know that all prions so far have long incubation periods but is there a possibility for one to have a short incubation period, is there any evidence that suggests this is possible. Thank you
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Creating a phylogenetic tree from my selected publicly-available sequences (WGS) in NCBI

I'm currently writing a paper on the comparison of virulence genes for a group of bacteria. I got my data from publicly-available whole genome sequences in NCBI. Now, I want to create a phylogenetic ...
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Are there any organisms that are made of more than one (~5-12) cell?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are unicellular, made of one cell. Great. Eukaryotes are unicellular or multicellular. But the typical examples of multicellular eukaryotes we have are made of, often, ...
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Winogradsky column and hydrogen sulfide

For a science experiment for school, I have set up 15 Winogradsky columns, and will be looking at the microbial growth inside the columns over a period of 25 days. I have read that, due to gas ...

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