Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

0
votes
0answers
7 views

The purpose of the recipient

I'm doing a rapport in experimental molecular microbiology - And I cannot figure out, what the purpose of the recipient is. Can anyone explain this? Thank you
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Could cyanobacteria thrive with very high CO2 concentrations and almost no oxygen to start with?

Has there been research to see if cyanobacteria could live in high levels of CO2, like in the atmosphere of Venus ? Because cyanobacteria caused the Great Oxygenation Event one might expect that they ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

How long can bacteria stay in exponential phase while in continues culture?

When grown in a continuous culture device (chemostat), bacteria can stay in exponential phase for long periods of time. How long can the bacteria stay in exponential phase under optimal conditions? ...
3
votes
2answers
19 views

Pox virus infection process

How does Pox virus duplicate it's genome? Does it bring DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase into the host cell?
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Gene Regulation: Corepressors and Inducers

I know that co-repressors enhances a repressors ability to attach the operator. Also, I know that inducers can be attached to activator proteins to stimulate transcription and they can put on ...
-2
votes
0answers
17 views

About biosensor? [closed]

I've see many article about Biosensor bacteria. I'm a product designer. I wanna design the container for that bacteria. So my question is: what the deficiency from the biosensor that already made? (...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Possibility for artificial glycolysis outside cell & cytoplasm [on hold]

What will happen if you add glucose and hexokinase to non living medium (eg. just oil or water)? [Assuming that the hexokinase can convert glucose to G6P within the normal cytoplasmic environment]. If ...
0
votes
3answers
100 views

A Hadeeth on the fly

I think most biologists here on this site will not consider my question below to be unfit for posting on Biology SE. I came across this article about the hadeeth (a hadeeth is a saying of the ...
0
votes
1answer
10 views

Protein Pathways, Superfamilie, Function database/website?

I'm going trough some old data - but I'm running into this problem that all website we used use is not existing anymore. What I have is a very long list of proteins with accession number (refSeq from ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
-1
votes
1answer
60 views

Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
5
votes
1answer
31 views

What is the number density of fungal spores per unit of volume of air?

Fungal spores are present all over in the air around us. I understand that they generally range in size from about one to one-hundred microns. What is the number density of fungal spores in air on a ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

can one be infected with Naegleria fowleri by taking Steam?

will Naegleria fowleri be present in the steam molecules. Many people take steam from hot water to get relief from sinus. I read somewhere that Naegleria fowleri gets killed over 70 C. So steam will ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Why do neutrophils need to die after pathogen phagocytosis?

From referenced article below, neutrophils need to be removed because its granule contents and oxygen metabolites (used for killing phagocytosed pathogen) are harmful to the surrounding tissue. Thus, ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

What is the difference between enrichment media and selective media?

Enrichment media These media are used to suppress commensal bacteria while allowing the pathogen to remain viable and grow. [Source: Ananthnarayan and Paniker's textbook of Microbiology.] ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Is egg white lysozyme different from bacterial lysozyme?

Someone told me that microbial lysozyme has effect on gram negative bacteria but egg white lysozyme only affect gram positive bacteria. Is it true?
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Freezing my dry encapsulated probiotics

Will my dry probiotics in capsules die if I freeze them for a long period of time?, even over a year. I'm talking about the regular capsules of probiotics that are purchased in little bottles to take ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

How do the bacteria producing bacteriocins protect themselves from it?

Whenever there is Col plasmid in a bacteria it will produce bacteriocins which will kill other bacteria around it. Why will the bacteriocin not kill the bacteria which has produced it? How does the ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Why Cerebrospinal fluid is not heated for VDRL?

For performing VDRL of serum , we heat serum to inactivate complement proteins which may otherwise interfere , but why don't we do same for CSF even though it too has complement proteins in it? Is it ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
4
votes
2answers
51 views

Is there a publically available database of microbes that details what their wastes and food sources are

Is there a publically available database of microbes that contains what their wastes and chemical food sources are in addition to other traits. So that I could do like a sorted search for microbes ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

I read somewhere that Amoeba Proteus eats up oil and natural janitor created by nature. Is that true?

When I was in Grade 7 I read somewhere in American Smithsonian Magazine that Amoeba Proteus is the Natural cleaner of Oil Disaster in Ocean. I cannot find the article again right now but I want to ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Is there a limit on how big a free living unicellular mono-nuclear organism can be?

When I looked for the largest protozoan I've found the name Syringammina fragilissima. According to wikipedia " .. Syringammina fragilissima, is among the largest known coenocytes, reaching up to 20 ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Reversal form of endosymbiotic theory?

Cell's organelles give us evidence that they might have been independent organisms on their own. Are there any single-cell microorganisms known to have gone so to say this way back as well, i.e. ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization vs hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization which is better?

hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization vs hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization which is better?can i use a ultrasonic mist maker to make hydrgen peroxide vapour?Can use the vapour in a glove box?
2
votes
1answer
39 views

When in Ampicillin degraded (gone) in liquid TB-media? Concerns about selectivity

Question: Specifically regarding Ampicillin; When growing cells in TB (terrific broth) for protein expression - when should I expect the ampicillin to be gone due to degradation by b-lactamases? (and ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Is it safe to autoclave seawater agar?

For an experiment I'm going to prepare an artificial seawater agar. Before use, I have to sterilize the medium of course. I imagine, that autoclaving will cause the salts in the seawater to ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Vibrio vulnificus from liquid soap

At some point between 2002 and 2006 I attended a departmental seminar in the UK on Vibrio infections, and particularly on the (then relatively unheard of) V. vulnificus, which causes necrotizing wound ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Viral susceptiility of Nose and eyes

I read that opening in our face like nose and eyes are one which get us infected with numerous communicable diseases like cold , flu ebola etc. Both these organs have preventive mechanism like nose ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

Are red blood cells prokaryotic?

After searching "do antibiotics impact the immune system" I found out that antibiotics target prokaryotic cells. It all made a lot of sense thinking about all those yogurt recommendations you get ...
1
vote
3answers
57 views

Why aren't all infections immune-system resistant?

It's been less than a century since the widespread use of antibotics started, and already we're seeing bacteria that have evolved immunities to the antibotics we use. On the other hand, we've been ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Using distilled water on sterile swab for collecting microbes on solid surfaces

I was wondering if it is acceptable to use distilled water on a sterile swab for the collection of microbes on a solid surface. - in this case, Salmonella and Shigella.
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Can immunity to diseases vary by populations?

A common explanation for the massive population decreases of isolated societies upon contact with Europeans during the Age of Discovery is that the natives lacked immunity to newly introduced diseases....
-3
votes
2answers
108 views

Is there any evidence that smallpox immunity or resistance is heritable

Is any means by which smallpox would lead to genocide of the native Americans?
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Which vaccines are damaged by freezing? [closed]

I have noticed that many of the freeze-sensitive vaccines are antigen only vaccines, for example Hib, pneumococcus, and tetanus vaccines. Why are these vaccines damaged by freezing? Are inactivated or ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the difference between a viral strain and a viral isolate?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Does avoiding medication that alleviates symptoms to shorten the length of a cold?

People use over the counter (OTC) medications to relieve symptoms of the common cold. However, these symptoms are part of the immune response, right? They are driven by the body responding to the ...
94
votes
3answers
10k views

What is the effect of non-vaccinated people on vaccinated people?

Many times have I heard that anti-vaccine people are dangerous even to the vaccinated population. Is that true? If so, how can it be? People say that germs will attack them, and soon they would ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Can toilet or sewage aerosol transfer eggs of human parasites?

Flushing a toilet produces hundreds of thousands of tiny droplets containing viruses and bacteria (source): Up to 145,000 droplets were produced per flush, with the high-energy flushometer ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Use of eigenvalues of Sturm-Liuville operator

I am wondering what would be application in biology where bounds on the Eigenvalues of Sturm-Linville operator would be important?
2
votes
1answer
81 views

Osmosis in red blood cells and bacteria

This is a question from an exam in my biology course. Bacterial cells and human red blood cells were inserted into one solution. Upon testing one hour later the blood cells exploded, while the ...
4
votes
2answers
41 views

How do retroviruses exit the cell

Do they just pass through the membrane? Is there some specific transporter or mechanism? Does it vary? I've seen pictures if retroviruses outside the cell but no details
89
votes
6answers
19k views

Do beneficial viruses exist? If so, what examples are there?

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...
5
votes
2answers
94 views

why don't antibiotics reduce our weight?

I know that a significant weight of the human body (in Kgs) is contributed by microbiota. I also know that antibiotics can often be broad spectrum and kill all the bacterias regardless of them being ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Technique to test antibiotic resistance in a bacteria in presence of another compound

so I have to 'quantitatively' assess a bacterial strain for its antibiotic resistance property (it is a specific antibiotic) in the presence and absence of another compound alongside antibiotic. What ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

how many spores are needed to “infect” a wall?

There's cardboard box in my room that used to be in another room that had mold all over the walls. and it still smells moldy ,it probably means the air in my room is polluted with mold spores.(right?) ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.