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Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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Reversal form of endosymbiotic theory?

Cell's organelles give us evidence that they might have been independent organisms on their own. Are there any single-cell microorganisms known to have gone so to say this way back as well, i.e. ...
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hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization vs hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization which is better?

hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization vs hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization which is better?can i use a ultrasonic mist maker to make hydrgen peroxide vapour?Can use the vapour in a glove box?
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When in Ampicillin degraded (gone) in liquid TB-media? Concerns about selectivity

Question: Specifically regarding Ampicillin; When growing cells in TB (terrific broth) for protein expression - when should I expect the ampicillin to be gone due to degradation by b-lactamases? (and ...
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22 views

Why living creatures exposes methane

Methane can be reused for energy gathering, so expediting it outside is not so efficient process? So why when i burn my puke it still burns? It is extremely inefficient waste..
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1answer
22 views

Is it safe to autoclave seawater agar?

For an experiment I'm going to prepare an artificial seawater agar. Before use, I have to sterilize the medium of course. I imagine, that autoclaving will cause the salts in the seawater to ...
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1answer
22 views

How to work on Plastic degrading bacterias? [on hold]

I am a student who wishes to work on Plastic degrading bacterias. How can we isolate such bacteria. Even when I do how will I subculture them ?
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1answer
25 views

Vibrio vulnificus from liquid soap

At some point between 2002 and 2006 I attended a departmental seminar in the UK on Vibrio infections, and particularly on the (then relatively unheard of) V. vulnificus, which causes necrotizing wound ...
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1answer
17 views

Viral susceptiility of Nose and eyes

I read that opening in our face like nose and eyes are one which get us infected with numerous communicable diseases like cold , flu ebola etc. Both these organs have preventive mechanism like nose ...
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3answers
2k views

Are red blood cells prokaryotic?

After searching "do antibiotics impact the immune system" I found out that antibiotics target prokaryotic cells. It all made a lot of sense thinking about all those yogurt recommendations you get ...
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3answers
51 views

Why aren't all infections immune-system resistant?

It's been less than a century since the widespread use of antibotics started, and already we're seeing bacteria that have evolved immunities to the antibotics we use. On the other hand, we've been ...
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0answers
15 views

How long can Salmonella survive outside the body?

This is for a thesis study of mine. It seems like I can't find any latest studies on the survivability of Salmonella outside the body.
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0answers
9 views

Using distilled water on sterile swab for collecting microbes on solid surfaces

I was wondering if it is acceptable to use distilled water on a sterile swab for the collection of microbes on a solid surface. - in this case, Salmonella and Shigella.
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1answer
31 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
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1answer
67 views

Can immunity to diseases vary by populations?

A common explanation for the massive population decreases of isolated societies upon contact with Europeans during the Age of Discovery is that the natives lacked immunity to newly introduced diseases....
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2answers
88 views

Is there any evidence that smallpox immunity or resistance is heritable

Is any means by which smallpox would lead to genocide of the native Americans?
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1answer
45 views

Which vaccines are damaged by freezing? [on hold]

I have noticed that many of the freeze-sensitive vaccines are antigen only vaccines, for example Hib, pneumococcus, and tetanus vaccines. Why are these vaccines damaged by freezing? Are inactivated or ...
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1answer
25 views

What is the difference between a viral strain and a viral isolate?

Both are characterized, their genes are usually described and published, they are kept safe, they could be used as inoculum or to produce vaccine... Would it be correct to say a strain would be ...
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1answer
38 views

Does avoiding medication that alleviates symptoms to shorten the length of a cold?

People use over the counter (OTC) medications to relieve symptoms of the common cold. However, these symptoms are part of the immune response, right? They are driven by the body responding to the ...
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3answers
9k views

What is the effect of non-vaccinated people on vaccinated people?

Many times have I heard that anti-vaccine people are dangerous even to the vaccinated population. Is that true? If so, how can it be? People say that germs will attack them, and soon they would ...
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1answer
32 views

Can toilet or sewage aerosol transfer eggs of human parasites?

Flushing a toilet produces hundreds of thousands of tiny droplets containing viruses and bacteria (source): Up to 145,000 droplets were produced per flush, with the high-energy flushometer ...
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1answer
26 views

Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
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2answers
55 views

Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
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0answers
28 views

Use of eigenvalues of Sturm-Liuville operator

I am wondering what would be application in biology where bounds on the Eigenvalues of Sturm-Linville operator would be important?
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1answer
47 views

Osmosis in red blood cells and bacteria

This is a question from an exam in my biology course. Bacterial cells and human red blood cells were inserted into one solution. Upon testing one hour later the blood cells exploded, while the ...
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2answers
39 views

How do retroviruses exit the cell

Do they just pass through the membrane? Is there some specific transporter or mechanism? Does it vary? I've seen pictures if retroviruses outside the cell but no details
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6answers
19k views

Do beneficial viruses exist? If so, what examples are there?

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...
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2answers
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why don't antibiotics reduce our weight?

I know that a significant weight of the human body (in Kgs) is contributed by microbiota. I also know that antibiotics can often be broad spectrum and kill all the bacterias regardless of them being ...
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1answer
14 views

Technique to test antibiotic resistance in a bacteria in presence of another compound

so I have to 'quantitatively' assess a bacterial strain for its antibiotic resistance property (it is a specific antibiotic) in the presence and absence of another compound alongside antibiotic. What ...
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1answer
26 views

how many spores are needed to “infect” a wall?

There's cardboard box in my room that used to be in another room that had mold all over the walls. and it still smells moldy ,it probably means the air in my room is polluted with mold spores.(right?) ...
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1answer
90 views

Can a vaccine or antidote be administrated via gases or sprays?

On TV or in movies a gas or spray containing a vaccine/cure/antitoxin is released and everybody is saved. Is this something plausible in real life? Specific examples would be appreciated.
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25 views

how can I decrease noise in my staining and increase the signal?

I am trying to stain LN sections (from mice), for Madcam-1 using Madcam purified ab as primary and anti-Rat Cy3 ab as secondary. I have tried many times, very few times worked Ok but most of the times ...
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3answers
79 views

What did the evolution of multicellular animals look like?

What did the evolution of multicellular animals look like? Aspects of this question include: (1) Are there any living organisms that might be helpful in visualizing "transitional forms" between ...
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1answer
889 views

Do all bacterial cells have a double membrane?

I’m reading that gram positive and negative bacteria have an inner plasma membrane surrounding the cytoplasm, then a periplasmic space, then an outer membrane. How does this compare to my general ...
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1answer
42 views

If a person is infected with an RNA virus what percentage of the RNA in the blood of the person contains RNA of the virus?

Karius uses DNA sequencing of everything that's contained in a sample to detect all bacteria and DNA-viruses in the sample. Given the way that costs of sequencing are falling this approach seems to be ...
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1answer
104 views

Is plaque formed even if you do not eat anything?

Some people report that their gum and dental health improves when they are fasting. Many forums contain crazy amounts of misinformation and claims which are unsupported by serious scientific research, ...
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If I expose a bowl of curd to sunlight,then will the bacteria undergo mutation?

Since bacteria undergo mutation while exposed to the sunlight, if a bowl of curd is exposed to sunlight, will the bacteria undergo mutation?
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1answer
18 views

How taking up plasmids on heat shock evolutionary advantageous to bacteria?

During the transformation protocol we apply heat shock to bacteria to make them take up plasmids from their environment. It is really useful in the lab. However, it presents an evolutionary paradox ...
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2answers
57 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
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0answers
84 views

Found in blood sample - what is it? Hopefully not a nemotode-

After examining someone's blood - through microscope - I found these. There were some more that were not photographed. Could someone please inform me on what these are? Maybe abiotic material on the ...
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0answers
6 views

How to prepare an anaerobic container for the cultivation of obligate anaerobes with using household supplies

I was wondering if this was viable.I've found some methods for eliminating oxygen froma container,but I don't have the required materials.They say either nitrogen or argon gas could eliminate oxygen,...
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0answers
20 views

What gives researchers a reason to test the Radiation Resistance of organisms?

I was reading about the Thermococcus Gammatolerans and its absurdly high radiation resistance, when something occurred to me. What reason did anyone have in the first place to subject this thing to ...
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3answers
54 views

What can I see with a microscope at what magnifications?

I'm 26 and where I grew up the schools were complete crap so I've never really used a microscope much or learned much about them. And I want to learn some science and look at some microscopic things, ...
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30 views

How can I differentiate between polysaccharide bands and protein bands on SDS-PAGE? [closed]

I tried to extract bacterial polysaccharide but after running a SDS-PAGE I couldn't differentiate between the polysaccharide band and protein ones. I face a problem of moving up of the samples from ...
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1answer
50 views

Why is it beneficial for bacteria to conjugate? (Horisontal gene transfer)

Why is it beneficial for bacteria to conjugate? I would think it's more beneficial to take a plasmid from another cell, than to give yours away or "share". Not homework, I'm just curious.
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1answer
19 views

Comparison between transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Can someone state the advantages of transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) over Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and vice versa? Thanks!
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1answer
14 views

How are the helices of MscL gating “attached”?

I'm attempting to model the mechanosensitive channels of large conductance (MscL) in E. coli for finite element analysis purposes. I have a number of papers where this has been done, and one shows the ...
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0answers
27 views

Determining pH damage to cells by eye

For an upcoming research project, I intend to apply different solutions to cultures of cells. How would I determine if the cells are incurring damage from the solutions due to the pH of the solutions ...
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How does Methotrexate works in crohn's disease?

How does Methotrexate works in crohn's disease? Thank you! Ps: and how does Methotrexate works in crohn's disease in the snail population? (LOL)
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1answer
38 views

If an antiserum was raised in a buffalo by injecting it with monkey red blood cells, what would be the full name for this antiserum?

Im confused, i've attempted this & what i got is buffalo anti-monkey red blood cell antiserum. I'm not sure if this answer is right
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82 views

largest and smallest gram positive, gram negative and fungal pathogens

As I stumbled through this question: A 16-year-old female patient presented to her family physician with a complaint of an abnormal vaginal discharge and pruritus (itching). The patient ...