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Questions tagged [microbiology]

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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Is it possible to see the microbes on your hand without using UV light or a microscope?

I know that black light (UV) is often used to see the microbes (colloquially referred to as germs) on people's hands but is there any way by which we can examine the microbes on people's hands without ...
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Thermophilic Total plate count with PCA with Triphenyl tetrazoliumchloride as supplement

Hello I'm am a fourth year microbiology analyst and I'm busy with finishing my final internship. During my final internship I have to complete a own assignment. the assignment I got was to find out if ...
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What did the evolution of multicellular animals look like?

What did the evolution of multicellular animals look like? Aspects of this question include: (1) Are there any living organisms that might be helpful in visualizing "transitional forms" between ...
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How does the accumulation of cyclic AMP lead to edema?

The antrax toxin is made up of three fractions. Protective antigen factor,edema factor and lethal factor. Protective antigen factor binds to the receptors of the host cell surface and facilitates the ...
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Killing microorganisms on agar plates?

If I grow microorganisms on agar plates and I expose them to UV light. How exactly will I know that the microorganisms have been killed? I was watching a video that showed spots in the petri dish ...
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Why can't bacteriophages survive inside the human body thus negating the possibility of using them against bacteria?

I read about the therapeutic uses of bacteriophages in Pelczar's Microbiology. It was written that it is reasonable to think that bacteriophages could be used to kill pathogenic bacteria. However, the ...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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Human Digestion of Cellulose?

Most animals can digest the cellulose in grass because of the anaerobic bacteria called Fibrobacter succinogenes living in their rumen (gut). The bacteria produces the enzyme cellulase and is ...
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Cells created using differently aligned proteins

I remember reading that scientist were making cells (I assume bacteria), that used differently oriented proteins to create a whole new class of life. Because apparently right and left aligned proteins ...
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Do unique communities of bacteria form inside water storage in plants?

I assume that plants, like animals, have an ability to fight off bacteria that invade their cells (support: here and here. However, water often harbors quite a bit of bacteria in even unsuspecting ...
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How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme? [closed]

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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Why are fungi and algae microbes?

Both fungi and algae have very small cells but so do most animals. Yet both of them are visible to naked eye just like other organisms. Why do we call them as microorganisms then ?
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We know that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for at least six weeks. Maybe longer. The infectivity study ended after just six weeks; why?

Background A paper has found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for at least six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy ...
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Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
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A study found that the hepatitis C virus can live on surfaces for six weeks. Did they end the study before the seventh week began?

A study once found that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can remain infective for six weeks on ordinary household surfaces. You can see the free full text, or a summary for busy clinicians. What happened ...
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Can different Chromobactierum strains have completley different colony morphology?

In the analysis of an unknown bacterial broth I observed a gram negative rod genus. Upon plating I observed small, dark purple and convex colonies; corresponding presumably to Chromobactierum. After ...
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Does DHA increase the effects of clarithromycin?

I've read on this publication that every drug that induces CYP3A can reduce the effectiveness of clarithromycin. Clarithromycin inhibits CYP3A. But it does not say anything about the opposite ...
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Why do so many parasites infect definitive and intermediate hosts rather than just one host?

Many parasites infect multiple host species, with one host species being the definitive host (where the parasite reproduces), and the other host species being the intermediate host (where the parasite ...
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Does turbidometeric method count cell number or cell mass?

Here it says that scattering is inversely proportional to cell number but also says that we can observe greater absorbance as cell number increases. So does turbidometeric method work on cell mass ...
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Antigen molecular mimicry

Let us consider a situation in which the body is attacked by a microbe, and the microbe is captured by the immune system for recognition of surface antigens. The surface antigen recognized mimics one ...
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What M9 stands for

Can anyone tell me what M9 stands for in M9 medium? I have tried googling but I still cannot find it.
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How does activation of adenylcyclase lead to increased cAMP and diarrhea?

I am trying find explanation for these mechanisms Tox plasmid -> exotoxin (enterotoxin) -> activation of adenylcyclase -> \up cAMP enterocytes -> release of H2O, electrolytes in gut lumen -> ...
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How does the intracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP cause edema in case of anthrax?

Edema factor is adenyl cyclase which is activated only inside the target cell. It leads to intracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP resulting in edema. How?
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E. Coli growth inhibited in Powdered Honey

I ran into problem with my method validation since the E. Coli that I've spiked into my Honey Powder sample can't grow in the media. The media I've used is Merck CCA (Chromogenic Coliform Agar). I've ...
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Does H. pylori have paracellular activity?

I know that it has transcellular activity i.e. it can pass through neighbouring cells. However, I am not completely sure if it does not have paracellular activity, see this: H. pylori did not ...
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2answers
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How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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Inoculating agar plates with microbes suspended in sterilised water?

We were having a problem with our experiment (culturing microbes on homemade nutri agar) so we decided to change our set-up. It already cost us quite some money. So, we saw this procedure. Can anyone ...
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1answer
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Why does tetracycline have such a broad spectrum of activity?

What are the structural and chemical characteristics that make tetracycline uniquely broad spectrum? I understand it acts on the A-site of the prokaryotic ribosome, but there exist many ribosome-...
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Can vaccines move from person to person?

Can someone who has been given a vaccine "infect" another person with the virus used in that vaccine? For example, let's say Bill is vaccinated against tuberculosis. If Frank is exposed to Bill, is ...
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Why does mouldy food make you sick?

Bread gets mouldy pretty quickly. My parents (both of whom are nurses) throw out a loaf of bread after a spot of mould is seen (because "if you can see one spot, it means the whole thing is covered in ...
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Glass petri dish to replace plastic petri dish?

I never use a glass petri dish before, but I just wonder if I can use it to replace for plastic petri dish because it can reusable. The only thing I worry is , in a Fridge's user manual, it said that ...
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How do I determine an acceptable $F_0$ value in sterilization?

Here's a sample question: The sterilization process using moist heat is used to kill B.stearothermophilus by heating to 115 degrees C and holding it for 30 mins. For B.stearthermophilus, it ...
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1answer
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What sort of biofiltration is best for a small, portable, biofiltration unit?

I've been exploring the idea of a system to allow re-use (drinking) of RV greywater, or at least the freedom to dump in storm drains (I think the requirements are looser about this, but it still has ...
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Why is there such in interest in antibiotics against Pseudomonas?

I keep finding information on anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, or information specifying the antibiotic has anti-pseudomonal activity. Is there anything peculiar to this bacterium when compared with ...
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Protein Pathways, Superfamilie, Function database/website?

I'm going trough some old data - but I'm running into this problem that all website we used use is not existing anymore. What I have is a very long list of proteins with accession number (refSeq from ...
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Virus plaque assay, pfu/ml calculation on plates with too little plaques formed

I am a student, so I hope it is okay to put this question here. I've done the virus plaque assay in a practical recently and have a few questions regarding the plaque count for pfu calculation. In ...
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What is the advantage of using plant-derived antibacterials rather than bacteria-derived antibacterials?

So obviously we have a big problem with antibiotic resistance. Most of our antibiotics originate from bacteria themselves (or are synthetic variations on scaffolds which originate from bacteria). I ...
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Freezing my dry encapsulated probiotics

Will my dry probiotics in capsules die if I freeze them for a long period of time?, even over a year. I'm talking about the regular capsules of probiotics that are purchased in little bottles to take ...
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When two amoeba cells form from one amoeba, does spindle fibers form?

When two amoeba cells form from one amoeba, does spindle fibers form? Some sources say that spindle fibers do not form while an amoeba cell is undergoing cell division. If spindle formation does not ...
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3answers
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
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Are red blood cells prokaryotic?

After searching "do antibiotics impact the immune system" I found out that antibiotics target prokaryotic cells. It all made a lot of sense thinking about all those yogurt recommendations you get ...
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1answer
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What is the purpose of the AraC gene in pGLO?

The AraC gene activates in pGLO from my understanding in the presence of arabinose. Arabinose is present as a metabolite from other metabolic in the e.coli cell. Is it that there's no termination ...
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Fluoroquinolone mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct

What could be possible consequences of covalent bond mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct by Fluoroquinolones, our study was done by Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Study NFP. All 50+ participates who took ...
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Microalgae with the highest carbon density

I am looking for about species of microalgae with the highest known carbon density. Specifically, I am looking for the highest carbon to volume and carbon to weight ratios when the algae is ...
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research on brain-eating amoeba

Are there any alternative treatments for brain-eating amoeba? I've spent about 6 hours trying to find information about this and haven't had any success.
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How much of dried microalgae is carbon by weight?

I am attempting to calculate the average concentration of elemental carbon per gram of dried freshwater microalgae for a climate change project. If it makes it to production, the algae will be grown ...
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If a human takes antibiotics are all bacteria in the body killed?

From my basic understanding, antibiotics kill living things, bacteria for example. Do the antibiotics consumed by a human-being distinguish between what they kill? Or do they just kill every bacteria ...
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Is it safe to use an egg incubator to grow bacterial cultures?

I've been using a small egg incubator to grow environmental bacteria in petri dishes. I always wear gloves and glasses when I handle the plates and do Gram staining. How likely is it that bacteria ...