Questions tagged [microbiology]

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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Found in blood sample - what is it? Hopefully not a nemotode-

After examining someone's blood - through microscope - I found these. There were some more that were not photographed. Could someone please inform me on what these are? Maybe abiotic material on the ...
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How can I keep pond water “alive”?

I've been preparing wet slides for my kids to look at from pond water. I have a mason jar of pond water. What can I do to keep the microbes in the jar alive going forward so that we can look at it any ...
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When and How do pacemaker cells develop during the cell aggregation process of Dictyostelium discoideum?

I was reading a paper by Tang & Othmer about oscillations and waves in Dictyostelium discoideum. Under certain condition like starvation period in the life cycle of a Dictyostelium discoideum ...
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In bacterial conjugation, how do F+/F- cells detect each other?

I've just learnt about bacterial conjugation and while it is interesting info about early sexual activity in microbes, one aspect confuses me and doesnt seem to be mentioned in the material I read: ...
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What decides whether an ulcer/chancre is painful or painless?

In sexually transmitted infections, it is important to differentiate a painful ulcer from a painless one. This is because painless ulcers are seen in the chancre of primary syphilis while painful ...
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Does alpha-amylase from different species have different *optimal* conditions?

Do the optimal conditions for the enzyme isoforms differ between species? Specifically, do the optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase differ for that enzyme produced by B. lichiniformis and A. ...
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Why does bacillus thuringiensis produce bt toxin?

Background : B.thuringiensis produces an inactive crystalline toxin during sporulation which when ingested by an insect, gets activated and causes pore formation in gut , subsequently leading to death ...
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CRISPR-Cas Systems

In the context of the bacterial systems (not the gene editing tool), I was wondering what happens to the foreign DNA after the Cas proteins have created a new spacer. It is really not clear to me, ...
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Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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Volvox Cellular Reintegration

A couple of days ago, I answered this question over on worldbuilding.SE with some information about volvoxes, and commenter Liam Proven pointed out that one of the claims I made was dubious. I had ...
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How do I determine an acceptable $F_0$ value in sterilization?

Here's a sample question: The sterilization process using moist heat is used to kill B.stearothermophilus by heating to 115 degrees C and holding it for 30 mins. For B.stearthermophilus, it ...
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Can a plastic degrading bacteria science fair project be recreated in a school lab?

i am just looking for a science fair project and am fascinated by this topic. i was wondering if a project concerning the isolation of plastic degrading bacteria could be done in a school lab. I am in ...
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What is the difference between enrichment media and selective media?

Enrichment media These media are used to suppress commensal bacteria while allowing the pathogen to remain viable and grow. [Source: Ananthnarayan and Paniker's textbook of Microbiology.] ...
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Can we investigate the cell biology of extinct microorganisms?

I know that there are microfossils, but not if we can we know about the organelles, genetics or macromolecules of the cells that left them behind.
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Does Penicillium roqueforti produce penicyllin?

I have recently discovered that blue cheese is produced with Penicillium roqueforti. As I know that some Penicillinum sp. produce penicyllin I wonder whether it is produced by P. roqueforti too? The ...
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Why did my isolation streak of an unknown organism on Mannitol Salt Agar turn yellow where there was no growth and magenta where there was growth?

I repeated a culture twice in an entry level microbiology class for our final lab project of culturing a provided unknown organism. One of the required tests on our dichotomous key was to culture a ...
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What is R.ornitholytica? Is it a misspelling of R.ornithinolytica or a different species?

I'm trying to find out which of these is correct, or whether they are different organisms: Raoultella ornithinolytica Raoultella ornitholytica I have come across ...
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Why are the most heat tollerant organisms prokaryotic?

Prokaryotic organisms are able to grow at far higher temperatures than are eukaryotes. Archaea are known to group, among some mesophiles, the most extremophiles organisms (es. Pyrococcus furiosus), ...
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Oxygen Uptake Rates in Microbial Cultures

Normally if air is sparged into a fermenter, the oxygen uptake rate is roughly equivalent to the oxygen transfer rate: KLa(C* - CL) = Xμ/YX/O2. How would this equation change if the oxygen ...
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Would canines that consume the stomach of ruminant prey animals benefit from any of the bacteria and enzymes present in the rumen?

This question is inspired by the growth in popularity of raw diets for pet dogs. Green tripe is a common addition to these diets, with many claims of probiotic benefits. Here's an example from a ...
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How to keep activated sludge viable for a week?

I am working in biological waste water treatment and I need to collect some activated sludge samples and have them characterized through different methods. The characterization will take from a few ...
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265 views

Light microscope specimen size

I was going through sample questions for Science Olympiad, and one of the questions went like this: A cell is observed through a light microscope at 4x magnification. The cell takes up about half ...
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Can viruses replicate in a cell that's already dead?

Suppose a virus randomly lands on a cell that's just lying around. This cell may have just recently died, or died a while ago. This cell may also be part of tissue of a dead organism.* Does the virus ...
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Prevent clumping of bacteria in my media so that I can measure turbidity?

Forgive my naivety, I'm an undergraduate Chemical Engineering student doing research this summer into growth rates of various combinations of bacterial isolates. I have about 9 isolates from a toxic ...
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How would one identify cellular transcription factors associated with a viral protein in a treated cell line?

I've been working as the computer guy for a microbiology lab for the past few months. I've always been interested in bench work, but my wet lab experience is rather limited and thus so is my ...
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Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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How to identify genes in Ralstonia that synthesize PHB and promote granule formation?

The compound polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is of considerable industrial interest as a biodegradable substitute for plastic. PHB is synthesized from glycerol by the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. PHB ...
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Which Lactobacillales (Lactic acid bacteria — LAB) strains are capable of degrading starch?

I've been researching bacteria strains but am having trouble finding amylolytic LAB strains with amylolytic and lactic acid producing character. The only species I've found, that are capable of ...
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Is there a good easy protocol for extracting proteins (enzymes) from fungal mycelium?

I quantify the enzyme (polygalacturanase) activity by DNSA method. To determine endo-polygalacturonase activity I'm searching for a good easy enzyme extracting method. Any suggestions for a suitable ...
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“Antibiotic resistance” equivalent in archaea for selection during cloning

I'm beginning to work with halophilic archaea and I'm trying to figure out a good way to select for cells that have taken up a plasmid. Obviously, one can't use antibiotic resistance since they are ...
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Can mutation rate be increased for instance by mutagenesis targeting the DNA polymerase?

I am studying a non-cultivable bacterium living in an insect host, and I would like to generate some random mutants of this bacteria while preserving the insect. I am wondering if one way to do so ...
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Effect of flask position in shaking incubator affects growth kinetics

During some cultivation experiments for my bachelor thesis I noticed that in liquid culture my bacteria (E. coli) grew differently, according to the position in the shaking incubator. Because the ...
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Can you change your gut microbiota by changing your diet? Would that affect calorie uptake?

I have seen peer-reviewed papers mentioning the daily changes in gut microbiota composition according to dietary changes. See for example this paper: http://genomebiology.com/2014/15/7/R89 My ...
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Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by fructose-1,6-...
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What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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Elevated transaminases after blood transfusion?

This sparks HCV immediately in my mind. However, there may be other possibilities too. What can you deduce from elevated transaminases if you only know that the healthy adult patient received blood ...
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Endophytic Xylariaceae: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses

"Thailand is considered as one of the areas containing a high percentage of unknown taxa of Xylariaceae (Rogers 2000). In Thailand, several studies on endophytic fungi have been documented, namely, ...
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How is the appropriately-stratified gut microbiome acquired in organisms performing horizontal transmission?

I am studying horizontal transmission of primary symbionts in insect reproduction. This reminded me of an earlier question I had asked, in which I learned that humans analogously acquired their ...
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DNA replication in $ E.coli $

$ E.coli $ has circular DNA which I guess implies one strand forms the outer circle and the other the inner one. So, is there a way to know if the replicated DNA forms the outer or inner circle? In ...
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How is the right amount of nucleotides synthesised during homologous recombination?

I'm reading about homologous recombination in the context of double-strand break repair. It seems like the trick is that around the break, homologous recombination uses a template duplex to generate ...
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Why some eggs are bile stained?

Why eggs of some helminths( Diphyllobothrium latum, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides etc) are stained with bile while eggs of other helminths( Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis etc.) ...
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Trying to find the right plasmid expression vector for e. coli c600

I am very new to the concept of gene cloning and transformation. I am trying transfer the arenite oxidase gene cluster (9kb in length) to E. coli strain C600. I want the E. coli strain to express this ...
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What M9 stands for

Can anyone tell me what M9 stands for in M9 medium? I have tried googling but I still cannot find it.
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152 views

Virus plaque assay, pfu/ml calculation on plates with too little plaques formed

I am a student, so I hope it is okay to put this question here. I've done the virus plaque assay in a practical recently and have a few questions regarding the plaque count for pfu calculation. In ...
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Fluoroquinolone mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct

What could be possible consequences of covalent bond mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct by Fluoroquinolones, our study was done by Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Study NFP. All 50+ participates who took ...
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Can a plastic degrading bacteria project be recreated in a school lab environment?

I am looking for a science fair project and am wondering if this could be a good idea. I am in the 10th grade. I am not exactly sure of the materials needed since this is just the beginning stages of ...
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How do the bacteria producing bacteriocins protect themselves from it?

Whenever there is Col plasmid in a bacteria it will produce bacteriocins which will kill other bacteria around it. Why will the bacteriocin not kill the bacteria which has produced it? How does the ...
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Why Cerebrospinal fluid is not heated for VDRL?

For performing VDRL of serum , we heat serum to inactivate complement proteins which may otherwise interfere , but why don't we do same for CSF even though it too has complement proteins in it? Is it ...
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Is there a limit on how big a free living unicellular mono-nuclear organism can be?

When I looked for the largest protozoan I've found the name Syringammina fragilissima. According to wikipedia " .. Syringammina fragilissima, is among the largest known coenocytes, reaching up to 20 ...