Questions tagged [microbiology]

Microbiology is the study of extremely small organisms. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

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Eukaryotic cell lysate-based protein expression efficiency

What is average efficiency of eukaryotic cell lysate-based protein expression systems in terms of (mg of protein expressed) / (mg of lysate) ?
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Are the y-axis values informative when performing biolayer interferometry?

I am currently reading an this article by Alexandra C. Walls et. al. I would like to ask a question about a graph that is being used in the article and I wanted to know if my analysis was correct. I ...
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Aerosolised particle released during autoclaving

During autoclave heat-up, the inside chamber's air is released in order to be displaced by steam. Because of that, many modern autoclaves are equipped with filters at the release outlet. The ...
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Can Euchromatin convert into Heterochromatin?

I know that Heterochromatin can convert into Euchromatin but is the reverse possible? If yes, then How?
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What keeps mitochondria from multiplying out of control?

What keeps mitochondria from multiplying out of control and killing the cell? According to endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria were once free-living bacteria that got ingested but not metabolized by ...
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Can bacteria be killed by purely physical trauma?

In a question over on Skeptics Stack Exchange, I half-jokingly listed "blunt force trauma" as a means by which a bacterium could be killed. That makes me wonder if it really is only a joke ...
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Can a bacterium infect another bacterium?

I researched about it by searching on Google and reading some bacteriological articles, but I did not get any answer. I also asked some of my teachers, and they were also a bit confused. Some said ...
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circular pattern of mold on quince

Could someone explain why mold on my quinces grows in well separated circles around a center? To make clear, what I mean I post the picture
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bunsen vs meker for best sterile field [closed]

I need one bunsen and i have a friend that sells me a bunsen-meker burner. I see that bunsen-meker burners have more flame diameter, so should have more diameter of sterile field, but i dont know XD ...
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Are plasmids found in eukaryotes? [closed]

There are some who says plasmids are found in some eukaryotes but is it like scientifically proven?
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Low-cost simple water testing for faecal contamination

I live in Indonesia and there are lots of sewage pipes discharging directly from homes/restaurants/etc directly into the river. It's also common to wash clothes and so on, so there is likely detergent ...
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Can viruses be deformed?

Viruses are created in their fully-formed state and do not grow. But one thing has been bugging me lately: can a virus be deformed, e.g. in order to fit into an opening slightly smaller than itself? ...
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What is the adjective for PHAGE? [closed]

if the adjective of the noun BACTERIUM is 'bacterial' and that of VIRUS is 'viral', what is the adjective for (BACTERIO)PHAGE? Is 'phagial' accepted? Thank you
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What types of cells HPV can infect? [closed]

I am wondering if there is any new information on which cells HPV is able to infect. Is it still limited to squamous cells or are there other cells such as columnar cells it is able to infect?
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Can anyone identify this microorganism?

I was examining some rainwater from my backyard in Richmond, VA, and found this microorganism. I took some pictures of it at 400x and 1000x (see below). The microorganism is attached to some moss and ...
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Can a second mass extinction by microbes happen?

Science Daily reports that the mass extinction at the end of Permian period happened by the Methanosarcina archaea wiping out 90% of species: Methane-producing microbes may be responsible for the ...
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What is the difference among these compounds?

I'll preface this question by making clear that I'm not not well versed in biology. Anyway, within the context of biocides/antimicrobial products using them as active substances, what is the ...
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types of cells in a pharyngeal specimen

I would like to ask what type of cells should someone expect in a pharyngeal smear, in a person, who is infected with a viral infection. Thank you a lot!
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Will obligate aerobic bacteria die if placed in a buffer solution even in the presence of oxygen?

The electron transport chain in aerobic bacteria functions by pumping H+ out of the cell to establish a concentration gradient. So if the bacteria are placed in a buffer solution having pH equal to ...
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What is the difference between chrysophytes and protozoa?

Amoeba is present both as a protozoa and as a chrysophytes.How to understand ,with which defining feature to which group to classify into?
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How do microbes spread from a small place to a very large place?

Bacteria are very small, so they cannot move very far on their own. Viruses cannot move themselves at all. So how does a specific type of bacteria or virus spread from a small place to a very large ...
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Is there such a thing as an autotroph that doesn't use photosynthesis?

I've heard of photoautotrophs, which are just autotrophs that use photosynthesis. What I'm wondering is if there's any other way for an organism to make its own food that doesn't involve it using ...
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Does thimerosal have some of the same mechanism of action as sodium benzoate?

I noticed that thimerosal's molecular structure is basically just sodium benzoate with an attached chain that includes a mercury atom. Sodium Benzoate Thimerosal The Wikipedia article for thimerosal ...
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1answer
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How does the DNA cross through bacterial cell wall during electroporation?

There exists a lot of literature on electroporation of Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Most of it gives an explanation that electroporation works by creating transient pores in cell membranes of ...
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1answer
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Quantification of various amino acids from bacteria?

I would like to characterise how much of various (uncommon) cytosolic amino acids are produced in bacteria, and was wondering if there are good suggestions of how to go about doing this. I know that ...
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Why Vibrio Cholera produce its toxins?

I was wondering, why V. Cholera synthesize toxins which induce in humans diarrhea? I know that diarrhea is protective mechanism for humans, to get rid of bacteria. But why V. Cholera just stop ...
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Why does an autoclave need to pressurize steam?

I've looked this up on other sites and they say that an autoclave needs high pressure in order to raise the boiling point of water so that you can achieve steam of a higher temperature. If you look ...
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1answer
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Examining antibody - target interactions in PyMOL

I'm a student currently looking at antibody responses against a viral target protein of interest. I have my own, annotated PyMOL session of my protein and I also have .pdbs of crystallised antibody ...
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Can human pathogens present on plants become plant pathogens?

Since human pathogens sometimes live on the surface of plant leaves(read here and and here), and there are plant-pathogen microbes also living on leaf surfaces, is it possible for plant virulence ...
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What's this parasite?

Any microbiologists or parasitologists recognize this? It's from my pet bearded dragon in the eastern US and the vet's never seen it before.
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How can I obtain a uniform bacterial sample?

I'm currently doing a research project wherein I will be testing the antibiotic resistance of a bacterial sample. Due to a risk of contamination during transport, I'm not allowed to request a uniform ...
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What fraction of human cells gets infected during a viral infection?

As I understand, if a cell gets infected during a viral infection then it eventually dies. If an individual does not die of an infection, the percentage of cells that gets infected in the course of ...
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Why viruses “die” outside the host? [duplicate]

Why viruses "die" outside the host after sufficient time? I want to know the biological process behind it. What role being exposed to air plays in virus destruction? What role sunlight plays in the ...
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When purifying plasmid DNA after cloning, do you get endogenous plasmid in addition to your vector of interest?

Since bacteria naturally contain plasmids, when you do a cloning experiment and purify the plasmids at the end, do you get plasmid naturally present in that bacteria in addition to your vector? The ...
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Can DNA rings, i.e. plasmids, form as Möbius strips?

I know that plasmids can be present in a coiled form, which keeps the DNA strands together when they degenerate, by forming catenases. I was wondering, however, whether it has been documented to ...
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How effective is rinsing in removing microbes from surfaces

Microbes including viruses stay alive on surfaces depending upon the type of the surface like steel, wood, plastic, glass, marble etc. How effective is rinsing these surfaces with tap water in ...
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Can/have bacteria been engineered to express ACE 2 receptors?

In light of SARS-COV-2 binding to the ACE 2 protein in human cells, I was wondering if any bacteria exist or could exist that possess this membrane protein. If not, do you believe that an ACE 2 like ...
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Humic Acid and PCR

Quite a few papers claim humic acid is an inhibitor of PCR reactions. I understand this is true when working with soil microbes, but how does it qualify to be a PCR inhibitor in general (i.e when not ...
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What is a general timeline to replace stainless steel SS 316 pipes in food industry?

Does the dairy and/or food industry (specifically but not limited to the USA)considers to replace their stainless steel SS 316 or SS 304 pipes after say 30 years or so? Could someone please share ...
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What is the principle behind Microagglutination test (MAT)?

Could some one please help me understand the principle behind the MAT. Also, is it only used to detect leptospira or can it be used to detect other pathogens as well? Kindly share links to papers if ...
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Induce plasmid acquisition in bacteria to make them susceptible to antibiotics

Is it possible to use plasmids as a way of creating antibiotic susceptibility in bacteria. For example; in Microbiology, an introduction 13th edition by Pearson , Page 230 "the researchers traced the ...
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Can single-cell organisms have through-holes? (Are donut-cells a thing?)

I've watched a YouTube video about microorganisms, which featured a shot (below) of a single-cell organism, that looked like it had several through-holes in its body. Somehow I have a pretty steady ...
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What factors affect the rate of siderophore production by microbes?

Microbes produce siderophores which are chelators and bind to iron. This is how microbes absorb iron from soil or rock. What causes microbes to increase or decrease the rate of production of ...
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I need to identify the genus of this colony just by its morphology, can somebody help me?

it was grown on TSA it's a mesophilic bacteria. (it was contaminated by E. coli, so ignore the clearer and smoother colonies).
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What is the disadvantage of circular DNA?

I have searched online and there is little information about the disadvantage of a circular DNA. Since I know that with chromosome arrangement like human, we have telomere that held the DNA strands ...
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By what physiological mechanism do we not feel microbes (bacteria, etc.) living on our skin?

Background I know our bodies have a handful of ways to threshold our awareness of sensory stimuli: Neural density Sensory acuity I assume really tiny stimuli could fit between receptors e.g., ...
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Why do coliform bacteria smell so bad?

I have done multiple cultures of E. coli bacteria and related species over the course of my education. Almost every time, they had this revolting smell. However, other organisms used for genetics ...
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Antibacterial soap impacts on septic system?

What impacts do antibacterial soaps have on septic systems? I know that septic systems rely heavily on bacteria (especially regarding the breakdown of wastes by bacteria), so it seems as though ...
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How are antibodies specific for a disease detected in the blood if everybody produces a different antibody for the same antigen?

To break the title down into parts: There exist serology tests that detect the amount of an antibody (Ab) against a specific pathogen/antigen. Every human produces their own Ab for a specific ...
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Why don't what I can define as “aerophilic viruses” establish colonies?

Throughout my life I have seen some bacterial and fungal colonies in various sizes and colors, mostly on food or in hot humid dirty environments. Putting bacteria and microfungi as well as other ...

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