Questions tagged [molecular-biology]

The study of the molecular processes underlying life.

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27 views

What is the difference between Molecular and Cellular tolerance?

Although I've read that there are three types of tolerance, molecular cellular and behavioural, I cannot seem to find any mechanism of cellular other than desensitization of receptors. If someone can ...
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How to animate biological processes for an online video course on high-school biology

I want to state beforehand, that I was unsure if this was the most appropriate community to post on. Therefore, kindly recommend a more appropriate community, if there is one. I will then either cross-...
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Does a low yield of RNA effect the results of subsequent experiments?

I am extracting RNA from brain tissue and I am getting a concentration of 500 ng/µL when measured with a nanodrop. I dilute the pellet in 20 µL of water. When my colleague does the same protocol ...
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What happens when we mix diifrent types of restriction enzymes

Let's say we mix different types of restriction enzymes: one that gives a sticky end and one that gives a blunt end and I insert them in a plasmid. Will I get any results at all?
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How do enhancers induce transcription?

DNA response elements are DNA sequences that are could be found upstream, downstream of genes that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. One type -Enhancers- bind specific ...
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what happens to rna length if we have a termination site in additional to the original one

if we have an RNA transcription and we add an additonal temination site in the middle , will i have two RNA molecules or just a short one ?
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How does a lymphocyte produce an antibody from an antigen?

I am studying the immune system, and I have a question about the inner workings of antibody production in lymphocytes. As I understand it now, lymphocytes are able to create antibodies based on ...
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1answer
56 views

How to design the primer when you don't have GC?

I have treated my RNA with sodium bisulfite so all my cytosine is converted into thymine. Then I used that RNA for my RT reaction. I have a cDNA template without Cs. Now I am trying to amplify that ...
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33 views

Where do methyl groups in the human body come from?

Where do methyl groups in the human body or other mammals come from? Do we synthesize them (where?) Do we get them from our diets (in what? anything beside methionine?) Do our gut microbes produce ...
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1answer
44 views

what is the princlple of using DMS (Dimethylsulphate) for structural analysis of rRNA?

I want to check the secondary structure of rRNA (PTC) in a particular position by using DMS footprinting. I have deleted the modified nucleotide (m5c) which is present in the PTC and it helps in the ...
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How does lipoid pneumonia lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?

How does lipoid pneumonia lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? The vaping illnesses that have been happening on the news in the United States are being caused by the federal ...
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15 views

Trade-offs between phage and yeast displays?

If you wanted to test a peptide you designed, you can do a phage display or a yeast display experiment to assess binding affinity. What are the trade-offs between these two methods? I've heard ...
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33 views

Photolysis in the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis [duplicate]

I'm a bit confused concerning photolysis. During the light reactions, photons are used to excite the chlorophyll molecules so they are passed to the primary electron acceptor. The electrons initially ...
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24 views

Why does opening of the Ca-channels trigger the release of neurotransmitters?

I understand that the opening of the Calcium channels trigger the release of stored neurotransmitter in granules, but what is it about the flow of positive ions that makes the vesicles fuse with the ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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1answer
19 views

Analysis of post transplantation lineage tags

I'm having some trouble understanding some bits of a study, mostly about the Sleeping Beauty system and TARIS model, from this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408613/ I ...
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32 views

Is p53 a cyclin dependent kinase? [closed]

I've been reading some research papers about p53 and associated tumour suppressor proteins, such as p21. I see them referred to and associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. Is p53,p63 et cetera part ...
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28 views

Prokaryotes Genome

What function of repetitive sequences of Prokaryote? I see a gap (intergenic region) between 2 coding strand. But just only a single origin region in Prokaryotes. How it can transcription coding ...
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1answer
77 views

Lab technique to distinguish between single stranded and double stranded DNA?

What lab techniques exist to differentiate between single-strand and double-stranded DNA?
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Can two proteins activate/inhibit the same gene at the same time?

Suppose there are two proteins inhibiting a particular gene. Its not necessary that both will inhibit the gene at the same time instance right? So if one protein has already inhibited that gene before ...
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143 views

How Incomplete dominance can be explained at molecular level?

What is exactly happening at the molecular level when two genes constitute incomplete dominance? Whether the protein formed from each of the genes constitute a new protein having a different function ...
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156 views

Can different proteins be produced during translation of a single mRNA in eukaryotes?

Is there a translational mechanism that eukaryotes can use to produce different proteins from a single transcribed mRNA?
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46 views

Can enzymes be modeled using classical mechanics?

When enzymes interact with substrates (i.e. a small ADP molecule and the much larger ATP synthase), does quantum mechanics play a significant role? Or can the interactions be relatively accurately be ...
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1answer
42 views

What would be the effect of excess taq polymerase on the PCR?

I just had one question regarding the possible effect of putting to much Taq polymerase in my PCR tube? Instead of 5µl I put 50µl (10x more). Do you think it will have a bad effect on the reaction??...
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Are human cells tetraploid during cell division?

If human cells are diploid, and DNA replicates before cell division, does it mean that our cells are tetrapolid for a short period of time (DNA replication - cell division). Photos of chromosomes are ...
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Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
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53 views

Fluorescence assays to identify protein concentration without adding a large peptide sequence?

I'm trying to find a way of tagging a protein with something visually quantifiable to track protein concentration through potential purification steps and screen for the most efficient such steps. ...
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Methods: Homologous recombination and retroviral infection

I'm looking for a textbook that explains these methodologies: Use of homologous recombination to insert a gen-cassette into another organism's gen. Use of retroviral transduction to deliver genes ...
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1answer
57 views

During DNA foot-printing, what is the purpose of radioactively labeling only one end of the DNA fragment?

I read that during DNA foot-printing analysis, DNA is radioactively labeled on one end before being cleaved by DNase 1. I understand that it is labeled so in order to locate the fragment on a gel, but ...
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26 views

Relevance of old atomic theory in understanding biology?

I have seen the explanation of many biological reactions using the high school atomic theory (I don't remember the name but it involves using lewis dot structure). So is it the case that the effect of ...
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Nutrition and experimental biology

We know that food in the stomach is present in the form of chyme treated with pepsin and hydrochloric acid, if we take food crush it with saliva and then treat it with Pepsin and HCl (in the lab),and ...
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How do I prepare a Basal medium for autotrophic mutant creation

Minimal medium (MM) was prepared by adding 2.0 g sodium nitrate (NaNO3) to 1 L of basal medium (BM) fol- lowing Correll et al. (1987). Chlorate resistant sectors (CRSs) were generated on two media i.e....
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How to map A single N1-methyladenosine (m1A) by primer extension?

I want to map a single N1-methyladenosine (m1A) modification by primer extension. I have silenced a gene which is responsible for guiding modification of m1A then I confirmed the silencing. My next ...
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what is minimal promoter and what is basal promoter?

what is minimal and basal promoter and what are their elements and what is the difference between the two?I'm confused. searched a lot, but didn't found any satisfactory answer. please help
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Which one is better to use for water stress experiment GWAS or RNASeq?

This is my first time in this area of research. I am working on 95 varieties of bambara groundnut. I have done the agromorphological characterization of these varieties as well as the genetic ...
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1answer
303 views

Why is the Tm defined as the temperature at which 50% of dsDNA has changed into ssDNA?

In molecular biology, Tm is defined as the temperature at which 50% of dsDNA is converted to its single stranded form. Intuitively it would seem that the melting temperature should have been defined ...
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1answer
36 views

What causes the elongation of Genome down the evolutionary time line [closed]

Theory of natural evolution says that complex life forms arose from simpler ones e.g. starting from Eubacteria to modern day multicellular eukaryotes. {If we try to reduce these changes happening at ...
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Viral RNA to DNA

I have a question concerning reverse transcriptase. Why is it that when the viral rna is converted to viral dna( as in the case for hiv), the virus develops resistance to medicine? Under what ...
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4answers
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Why do mutations not take place in mRNA of higher eukaryotes?

Is it because it is too short-lived to be mutated? Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids so how is mRNA protected? RNA viruses undergo mutations to evolve so I guess it is not immune to mutations
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Which are more beneficial: lyophilized or hydrolized collagen peptides?

Looking at two different manufacturing methods for collagen peptides: hydrolyzed vs lyophilized (freeze dried), I read that hydrolyzed results in a hydrophobic biolayer molecule collagen peptide. Re:...
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A little help understanding DNA supercoiling

I am studying molecular biology from Lewin's Genes XII and got confused in the supercoiling topic. Since then I read from several other sources and so far understood the following. However, I can't ...
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1answer
138 views

Can any one explain me the structural difference between Proteins and Peptides? [closed]

I have read in books that Proteins and Peptides are fundamental components of cells which carryout important biological functions.Can any one explain me the structural difference between Proteins and ...
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2answers
54 views

Software to model and analyse protein–ligand interactions

I am currently trying to model a certain protein (Golgi Mannosidase II) and compare the induced fit of the inhibitor swainsonine. I would like to be able to analyse the distances between bonding ...
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1answer
129 views

Why is it thought that protein folding is determined solely by amino acid sequence?

It seems that it is a generally accepted idea that protein folding is completely determined by the sequence of amino acids, but why do people believe that? Is it simply that no example of a protein ...
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E. coli & aspartate

I am familiar with the linkage between aspartate/ligand binding, receptor methylation, and flagellar behavior re. style of locamotion, but I do not know what the bacterium does with the aspartate it ...
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28 views

What is ApoCas9 in the CRISPR-Cas9 system?

I am currently reading an article about a particular assay of Cas9 nucleases. In one of the experiments, they have used ApoCas9 (Apo variants of other CRISPR nucleases) as some sort of control. But ...
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1answer
44 views

Non-coding DNA as a protection to deleterious mutations

We know that most part of our genome (at least 75 percent) is non-coding DNA. Can it be a way to protect the organism from mutations in important genes, such as the ones which control cellular cycle, ...
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What are the uses of Helical Wheel Projections in Structural Biology?

I have seen helical wheel projections used to illustrate amphipathic helices in proteins. Are there any other uses for these models?
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What Ultimately Controls DNA Transcription?

Transcription of DNA and further splicing of mRNA is regulated by various transcription factors, small nuclear RNAs and so on; similarly such related mechanisms as transposition of transposons. All ...
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Why isn't the human zygote considered a human life how is a living anatomically modern human defined biologically? [closed]

It has 46 chromosomes by default when healthy(Differences almost always are pathological) and has almost every biological functions, processes a Newborn or and Adult person has. It even invades ...