Questions tagged [molecular-biology]

The study of the molecular processes underlying life.

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Which of the following statements explains why both hemoglobin types perform the same functions? [closed]

Hemoglobin is a quaternary protein structure on a red blood cell involved in oxygen transport. Hemoglobin A1 has two α-chains and two β-chains. Hemoglobin A2 has two α-chains and two δ chains. In ...
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Transcription of two different factors from the same transcription factor - seeking a relation between concentrations

Let's assume that: Factor $X$ enters nucleus and results in the transcription of two different factors, $A$, and $B$. $X$ $\to$ $A$ $X$ $\to$ $B$ Can it be expressed as $[A]=\alpha [X]$ or $[A]=\...
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Where from STOP CODONS come?

Recently I was reading about Molecular genetics. In which that is Do the stop codons which is present in mRNA come from DNA by transcription or it is attached after transcription.
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Converting from RU/ML to AEU/ML

I'd like to know whether it is possible to convert from RU/ml to AEU/ml. I work in the ELISA department in our laboratory. We need to validate some kits by comparing results between our lab and ...
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Why do I get cytosine to guanine/adenine transitions in bisulphite treated sequences?

I got my sequencing results (bisulphite treated and non treated sequences of same species Allium cepa) and now I have to do analysis in Cymate online tool. I prepared all sequences as it is written in ...
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Are Oct4 and Oct3 the same protein?

Are the transcription factors Oct4 and Oct3, who are encoded by the POU5F1 gene, actually the same protein, or alternative spliced products from said gene?
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Can DNA can form a salt with divalent cations?

I am wondering this because my textbook specifically mentions that "the addition of monovalent salt to a DNA solution results in removing 30% water molecules sounding DNA." Because they ...
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Does anybody have an references to share or idea onhow the tumor behaviour changes as it grows from oligometastasis to polymetastasis?

I have looked at the literature and mostly scientist discuss about how a metastatic lesion is formed. But what I am interested to learn is how does a new metastatic lesion develop when there is ...
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Can viruses be deformed?

Viruses are created in their fully-formed state and do not grow. But one thing has been bugging me lately: can a virus be deformed, e.g. in order to fit into an opening slightly smaller than itself? ...
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How would one track a mineral nutrient in a plant in order to prove that nutrient has been re mobilized?

Before abscission - senescence of a plant structural components that contain mineral nutrients (E.g. Magnesium, Potassium...) are re-mobilized from the senescent tissue and used in other plant tissue ...
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Is there a chemical reaction that blocks two cysteines by reacting with a third molecule?

The idea is to block the two cysteines so they can't react in the future. We need the reaction to remove the -SH groups of the two cysteines, or modify them. Also important, the reaction should not ...
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Gene of interest number of copies in transformed K. pastoris

When transforming a K. pastoris strain, is there a way to predict how many copies of the gene will be integrated following the homologous recombination? More specifically is it something that a ...
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Pet 28a plasmid is obtained from which type of bacterial strain

I want to ask some question which is very confusing Pet28a is a vector.I want to know which strain of bacteria have pet28a plasmid? E.coli DH5 alpha strain have pet28a plasmid? Please help me .......
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Horizontal gene transfer in a bacteria

I encountered an old examination question: Which of the following is not required in Bacteria for horizontal gene transfers? Infection 2. Translation 3. Transformation 4. Conjugation 5. Transduction ...
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What would happen if we place denatured DNA in acidic medium?

DNA can be denatured at high temperatures or in alkaline solutions. But DNA can be annealed at low temperatures. I want to ask, could it be annealed in acidic medium?
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What is a Protein contact map, and how do I read one?

Protein contact maps are symmetrical and look great, but how does one read one? I tried to underside the following source: 'Understanding contact patterns of protein structures from protein contact ...
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Has a beating cardiomyocyte organoid with 'chamber/s' been generated? if not, why?

Commonly artificial organs are generated though stem cell technology. E.g. IPSC-technology. Cardiomyocytes (Heart cells) spontaneously beat and have been used to create organoids. To further define ...
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DNA denaturation and Renaturation

If we denature dsDNA by heating it and then rapidly cooling it then what would happen? I read this question, where it was written that if we were given dsDNA sample which was completely denatured and ...
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Why are the other bases not used for RNA capping and tailing?

Why does the addition of a 5' cap and that of a 3' tail involve guanine and adenine respectively? Why aren't any of the other two bases added to an mRNA to protect its ends or act as a signal to ...
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Truncated ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV2! Why? How does it formed?

Across the world so far, we have three truncated ORF3a proteins in SARS-CoV2 in India only. Can you illuminate me how does a protein (here accessory protein of SARS-COV2) generally get such nonsense ...
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What is a subgenomic promotor? [closed]

I am looking for a good definition of the term "subgenomic promotor". Can someone help me out?
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Evolution: Can the genotype frequencies change, but the allele frequencies remain constant?

If a population isn't evolving because it's in Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium, then I know that both genotype and allele frequencies must stay constant. My question is, can evolution still not occur ...
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RNA polymerase Sigma subunit: transcription factor, coenzyme, or what?

Studying prokaryotic transcription, it seems that the α2ββ′ω core enzyme + the sigma (σ) subunit comprise the ‘holoenzyme’ required for prokaryotic transcription. In traditional enzyme nomenclature, ...
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Different Mutations Leading to Same Allele?

Can different mutations lead to the same allele? In my genetics books, I always see alleles referenced as, eg. Aa where A = dominant and a = recessive, but are these strictly binary phenotypes? Since ...
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Are Flippase Recognition Target sites read through during transcription?

I believe it is quite straight forward, but if i have a FRT site following the last exon of a gene (with the stop codon removed), would the transcription factors read through the FRT site and ...
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Why is the 5′ end of DNA a monophosphate?

According to my textbook: While the 5′ end of a DNA strand is typically a monophosphate, the 5′ end of an RNA molecule is typically a triphosphate. Source: Biology: How Life Works, 3rd Edition How ...
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Book recommendation: protocols and recipes handbook for molecular biology / biochemistry

I'm a 5th-year PhD student in chemical biology. I've mostly been doing computational work, so my bench skills are rusty. To help me, I'd like a handbook of common techniques -- transformations, ELISA, ...
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TMB vs ECL for ELISA: which detection method is more sensitive?

I failed to find a comparison, does anyone know which ELISA detection method is more sensitive of these two: ECL, TMB? Many thanks!
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Absence of cytoplasmic Intermediate Filaments in Arthropods

Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments such as vimentins support the architecture of the cell and have been known to aid signaling processes. However, as in this article, it is stated that out of all ...
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Why are some parts of an rRNA structure diagram not labelled?

I've been looking at this structure diagram of the 16S rRNA and have been wondering why some parts of the diagrams have labelled base pairs while other parts are just lines and dots. I'm new to this ...
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Why do doctors reccommend vegetable oils in high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease?

As there is high cholesterol in body why the patient need more fats and why the doctors are recommending it Transcribed: Vegetable oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The fatty acids ...
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What is the role of pyrophosphatase in RNA polymerization?

In Molecular Cell Biology (8th edition) there's a fragment in chapter 5.2 that says: The energetics of the polymerization reaction strongly favor the addition of ribonucleotides to the growing RNA ...
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Meaning of “standard reactions” in a DNA extraction procedure description

From a DNA extraction procedure description (an in-house pharma document I'm translating into Russian): Preparation of Standards All the standard reactions should be prepared at least in duplicates. ...
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Are there any companies that sell Totalseq antibodies that can bind fluorophores conjugated on another antibody?

Are does anyone know of any company which sells Totalseq antibodies that are capable of binding to fluorophores conjugated to another antibody? In this context, I plan to use the Totalseq antibody as ...
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How do the CFTR alleles interact within an individual with Cystic Fibrosis when mutations of different classes are present?

So mutations in CF are classified by the severity of the impact on the production of the CFTR. But an individual may have two different CFTR mutations. I assume that the least severe mutation of the ...
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Help Finding Specific BlaZ Gene Type Sequences on Genbank

I am doing an undergraduate research project that involves blaZ gene typing for different strain types of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; for reference, here are some of papers on this topic that ...
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Delta G and Temperature

I'm now designing primers for PCR. I use Oligo analyzer to check the primer secondary structures. Ex: Delta G: -4.16 kcal/mole Base Pairs: 4 ...
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Examining antibody - target interactions in PyMOL

I'm a student currently looking at antibody responses against a viral target protein of interest. I have my own, annotated PyMOL session of my protein and I also have .pdbs of crystallised antibody ...
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Cellulose structure

In cellulose structure, some beta glucose are inverted. I’ve read that therefore the hydroxyl groups stick on both sides, but aren’t there hydroxyl groups on both sides anyways whether it was inverted ...
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Reverse oxidative phosphorylation?

I noticed that all of the cellular energy production methods that I covered have a fixed ratio of ATP to NAD(P)H out. For example, in the combined process of glycolysis, pyruvate oxidization, and the ...
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Can Stem-loop RT primer bind to the position inside mRNA?

I knew that Stem-loop RT primers bind to the 3' portion of miRNA molecules and then reverse transcriptase to cDNA. But what about mRNA, can it: bind to the 3' portion of mRNA and then reverse? bind ...
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Why does the high consumption of saturated fats lead to more risk of cardiovascular diseases and increased cholestrol levels? [duplicate]

People with higher consumption of saturated fats are more at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases as compared to people who mostly consume unsaturated fat. The only structural difference is a ...
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What is the meaning of the word “Ligandable” in “ligandable proteome”?

I see "ligandable proteome", "ligandable proteins" and "ligandable targets" an awful lot. But really I don't know what exactly the word "ligandable" means? Is that it means, for example, "ligandable ...
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What exactly happens to hydrogen atoms in step 4 of citric acid cycle?

It seems that there are four hydrogen atoms in alpha-ketoglutarate and one in HS-CoA (not counting the ones in CoA), five in total. Two of them go to NADH and H+, so there should be three atoms in ...
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Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

So I am trying to brush up on my knowledge of HATs and HDACs. I am reading the just the 1st paragraph of the background of this study I remember learning that HATs turn things on on, and HDACs turn ...
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Doubt related to nerve impulse transmission

Naturally, the extracellular fluid has more sodium ions and the axoplasm has more potassium ions. Since there are more potassium leakage channels than sodium leakage channels on axoplasm, it is more ...
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Why does insertion of transmembrane domains occur in the rough ER?

To elaborate on that question, why in the secretory pathway does the insertion of transmembrane domains into the membrane occur in the rough ER as the protein is translated and threaded across the ER ...
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How is energy stored in the cotransport of molecules down to its electrochemical gradient?

I am talking about symporters and antiporters, that transport usually an amino acid against its concentration gradient while at the same time transport another molecule down its electrochemical or ...
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If a cell has two different GPCRs, how does the cell differentiate between the phosphorylation cascade caused by each?

In my biochem course, we learned that GPCR receptors trigger a phosphorylation cascade, with the end result being a large amplification of the signal in the form of cAMP. We never studied any ...
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When purifying plasmid DNA after cloning, do you get endogenous plasmid in addition to your vector of interest?

Since bacteria naturally contain plasmids, when you do a cloning experiment and purify the plasmids at the end, do you get plasmid naturally present in that bacteria in addition to your vector? The ...

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