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Questions tagged [molecular-biology]

The study of the molecular processes underlying life.

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G3P, GP and GALP

Are these three molecules all the same thing? Also, where does TP fit into the picture? I was taught GP and G3P were the same thing, which gets reduced to TP Many thanks
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35 views

Does the molecular composition of human body change after a period of time?

I was discussing change in human biology over time and my two in-laws charged in saying, "we're molecularly different after x". I didn't pay attention to what time period they exactly mentioned (hence ...
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1answer
27 views

When are neuropeptides loaded into vesicles?

It is well known that small neurotransmitters like monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, etc), acetylcholine, glutamate, etc are loaded into vesicles at the axon terminal. Stated differently, synaptic ...
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0answers
21 views

Techniques of molecular medicine/biology for aesthetic medicine?

Are there scientifically valid methods (possibly in the developmental stage) that can be used for aesthetic medicine. Usually surgical of physical therapies are used for aesthetic medicine, but ...
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0answers
15 views

What phosphorylates tau protein & and what causes tau to be phosphorylated?

I want to know what phosphorylates tau protein and its 6 isoforms. I know kinases cause phosphorylation events, and in tau it can be phosphorylated in a healthy neuron in the trans conformation, but ...
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0answers
23 views

Molecular biology [duplicate]

Does every protein start with methionine? The start codon is AUG (which corresponds to methionine),then why doesn't the methionine present in the protein after the translation has done. I have ...
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1answer
22 views

Human Stem Cells and Disease

Can human stem cells be stored for use by future family members as a way to combat generational diseases like diabetes
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24 views

Intein Splicing

Currently I am trying to read and understand this paper on intein splicing. https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001202 However, I'm a little confused with Figure 4. Why do the ...
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0answers
14 views

RNAi termination

Can you stop an ongoing RNAi after transfection with a vector containing siRNA? I want to experiment on gene function loss effect, using RNAi, and gene function gain, using stopping the RNAi.
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1answer
47 views

Is it possible to stop more/extra fat from being stored in the body?

I don't mean simply by restricting eating or upping the activities, but a way to basically stop the body from adding more fat on itself down on the bio level. For example, I'm not too knowledgeable on ...
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1answer
184 views

Why did they expect Astronaut Scott Kelley's telomere shortening to accelerate? (they got longer!)

The NPR News article and podcast Scientists Share Results From NASA's Twins Study says: SCOTT KELLY (NASA Astronaut): You know, the symptomatic stuff is fine. I don't have any long-term negative ...
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1answer
27 views

Spatially Encoded GPCRs?

I'm reading this paper, and I'm already lost in terms of what they mean by GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. How can signaling be spatially encoded?
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2answers
71 views

What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
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Rhodamine 123 Staining Function

How does Rhodamine 123 act as a probe for Mitochondrial Staining? What is the Exact Biochemical Basis? and can it Stain Chloroplast as well? Thanks in Advance
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0answers
13 views

Gene cluster of interest not being amplified in PCR

In a lab, I currently have a sample of Rhizobium sp. NT-26. This bacteria is a chemolithoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizer, and I want to clone the arsenite oxidase genes into another bacteria strain in ...
3
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0answers
21 views

Can sperm cells penetrate the cell membrane of non-ovum cells?

Sperm cells have tiny bags of enzymes on their tip (the acrosome) which allow them to penetrate the ovum. My question is whether or not the process that allows sperm cells to penetrate the cell ...
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0answers
5 views

What is a secretion target family protein?

I came across this link: https://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?btw:BF38_3398 What is this protein, is it a secreted effector protein or is it something else? What is the difference between type ...
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0answers
21 views

Why are Barr Bodies usually seen along the edge of the nucleus under the light microscope?

We do a typical class exercise of aceto-orsein staining of buccal epithelial cells from female students to visualize Barr bodies under the light microscope. All the illustrations and pictures in the ...
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0answers
32 views

How to detect specific mRNA dsRNA by Northern analysis?

I silenced a gene by RNAi method, for that i chose the gene and the size of the gene is 1.5kb and my insert size is 500nts. i did the transfection and i want to confirm the silencing by northern ...
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0answers
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What is the frequency of AUG near-cognates (as start codon) in ‘Leaderless’ mRNA?

In typical bacteria that use SD-dependent translation initiation, the AUG start codon may sometimes be replaced by near-cognates (GUG, UUG, etc.). The frequency of these near-cognates is somewhat ...
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0answers
34 views

Is there other unknown-compound in Blood?

Blood is made of red blood cells, platelets, plasma etc. Let's say, then, there are these $x$ known compounds in blood. But how can one be sure that there is no other compound other than those $x$ ...
3
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1answer
30 views

Relationship between the ambiguity (wobble) at codon position 3 in elongation and codon position 1 in initiation

In prokaryotes the usual observed start codon frequency is AUG > GUG > UUG. An explanation for this is that AUG is the most common initiator codon because it forms the most stable interaction with ...
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3answers
92 views

Why are there three stop codons but only one start codon?

I was wondering whether there is any specific reason that there are three stop codons but only one start codon in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoplasmic mRNAs.
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1answer
32 views

How are primary monoclonal antibodies for screening mutant cells made, physically?

I'm working with a fairly common protein expressed in a large numbers of organisms, let's say a keratin-associated beta-protein. I'm trying to develop a process which requires primary-secondary ...
2
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0answers
41 views

What regulates cyclic AMP?

After reading a textbook chapter on GPCRs I am still confused by what regulates cAMP. I took in my notes that cAMP is made by adenylyl cyclase and destroyed by cAMP phosphodiesterases (also another ...
2
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1answer
76 views

What is meant by “heads” and “tails” in the context of gene orientation?

I have a hard time understanding what this paper is talking about when it says: We observed maximal cleavage at sites oriented tail-to-tail and separated by -10 bp to +30 bp (Fig. 2d). Finally, ...
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1answer
55 views

How do biologists discover information from fossils? [closed]

I have a query about the study of fossils (palaeontology). Let me know about the study of fossils. How do biologist discover "DNA" information from dead and old fossils such as a dinosaur? (answer ...
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0answers
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What is the structure of DNA during Interphase? Chromatin Fibre or Beads on a string(nucleosomes)?

During Interphase, does DNA predominantly exist as Chromatin Fibre (30nm fibre) or Chromatin/beads on a string structure(10nm) ?
2
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1answer
30 views

Why does 4-thiouracil labelling to map RNA-binding proteins cause a T-C change?

I am now reading a paper about the purification and identification of mRNAs and its RNA binding proteins by using UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation. I came upon this sentence which puzzled me ...
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0answers
14 views

the Oxidization reaction of NADH [duplicate]

Does oxidization of NADH need H+? I've seen a reaction like this👇 NADH + H+ >>>> NAD+ + 2H+ What's the use of the proton in here?
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1answer
32 views

Approximate Cell Doubling Time?

If I know it takes 12 min to occur in mitotic fibroblast cells and I count there are 32 dividing cells in the microscope slide out of a total population of 32034 cells, how do I calculate the ...
4
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1answer
51 views

What chemical test can be used to tell apart meat and plant-based meat?

Long story short, I thought about this question and simple Google searches weren't enough. I know there must be some nutrient that can only be found in one of the meats but not the other, but I can't ...
0
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1answer
20 views

Measuring transgenic gene expression with a microplate reader

I have been working on genetically engineering an E. coli strain to autotrophically oxidize arsenite into arsenate for bioremediation of arsenic contamination in groundwater. For my research, I have ...
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1answer
44 views

What impedes the understanding of genotype/phenotype relationship without statistics? [closed]

Most genetic research tries to establish a relationship between a certain genotype and certain phenotype. To me this is like trying to understand a system as a black box, where you try to establish ...
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0answers
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Can Dpn1 digest hybrid PCR product with only one methylated strand?

In Site directed mutagenesis using PCR, after a cycle we obtain a hybrid molecule with one parental strand and other newly synthesized unmethylated strand. This is followed by Dpn1 digestion. Does ...
3
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1answer
99 views

How to interpret this PubChem record of L-Alanine

Using the PUG service from NCBI, I am retrieving 3d structure data for a molecule. Raw data here. I am trying to understand this record, specifically for the purpose of rendering in a 3D coordinate ...
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0answers
16 views

Why both forward and reverse primer are added in asymmetric PCR?

If the purpose of Asymmetric PCR is to amplify single targeted strand of dsDNA then instead of adding just one primer for targeted strand why do we add both forward and reverse primer? Upon addition ...
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0answers
40 views

What is the electric field strength of microalgae?

Question: What is the electric field strength of microalgae? Background: So I have been having some problems with fungi contaminating my chromera velia algae cell cultures. I haven't determined what ...
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1answer
34 views

Where do the lysines come from during ubiquitination?

I know that Ub forms an isopeptide bond with lysine, but where do the lysine come from? Are they just always available for the Ub to find to during the ubiquitination process? Is there a free lysine ...
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0answers
12 views

What proteins are assisted by chaperone folding?

I've been looking into a lot of papers, and most say that chaperones assisted in the folding of misfolded proteins, or Ubiquitin markers aggregates for degradation by the proteasome. Or it will say ...
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2answers
64 views

Why are restriction sites palindromic in nature? [duplicate]

Any restriction site given in any fragment of DNA or vector molecule is a palindrome. eg restriction site for the endonuclease EcoRI is ...
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0answers
13 views

Cadmium Poisoning and Toxicity Mechanisms

Is anyone aware of the toxic mechanisms of specific instances in which cadmium ions can interfere with cellular functions resulting in acute cadmium poisoning?
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1answer
33 views

How do you dilute forward and reverse primers for a master mix?

I apologize for the very naive question, but I'm just starting out in a high school biology lab and I am very confused. If I have stocks of 100μM for forward and reverse primers separately, I can ...
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0answers
14 views

Toxic Metals and Oxidative Phosphorylation

I was reviewing the toxicity of certain toxic metals, specifically cadmium and their effect on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Cellular Respiration, I have found that metals such as cadmium inhibit ...
2
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0answers
29 views

If bacterial plasmid DNA is methylated then how do we digest it using restriction enzyme in cloning experiments? [duplicate]

So, I was reading about how bacteria protects its own DNA by methylation against restriction enzyme. But if the plasmid DNA is also methylated then we can't cut plasmid using restriction enzyme for ...
5
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3answers
78 views

Double Digestion with Restriction Enzymes Using Different Buffers

I am currently working on preparing a 9 kb sequence of DNA for restriction digestion into the pBAD30 expression vector. There are very few restriction enzymes that do not have a restriction site ...
2
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0answers
18 views

Using expression vector to express arsenite oxidase genes in E. coli

So I am trying to express a gene cluster that can oxidize arsenite into arsenite autotrophically. The arsenite oxidase gene cluster sequence is linked here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/...
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3answers
113 views

Is oxygen's paramagnetism biologically relevant?

It seems our most common everyday O2 molecule happens to be a paramagnetic one (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen). But, does this have a biological relevance as well? In other words, Do any ...
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0answers
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How does Hayflick limit relate to cellular senescence

If the Hayflick limit says that there are a maximum of around 60 cell division before a cell becomes senescent, I assume this is because the cell looses length of telomere. But how can this be if, for ...
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1answer
48 views

Is there a data base, tool or method I can use to find out which of my genes code for cytokine receptors?

I have a list of over 600 differentially expressed genes from my single cell RNA seq data analyses. I want to proceed to find out which of my genes code for cytokine receptors so that I can show on a ...