Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [molecular-biology]

The study of the molecular processes underlying life.

1
vote
0answers
13 views

What is the difference between DNA vs RNA Editing in the context of gene therapy?

As a someone with beginner knowledge on biology, I have come across the terms "RNA editing". Take this paper for example : RNA Editing with CRISPR-Cas13 From my understanding, DNA -> RNA -> Proteins ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Why do NK cells not destroy bacteria, even though bacteria don't have MHC-I?

Part of the function of NK cells is to destroy cells that are unable to bind their KIR receptors. Or in other words, cells that don't express MHC class I. This is why they can kill MHC supressed ...
-1
votes
1answer
41 views

Dna based question [duplicate]

We know that dna is an acid which is elaborated by deoxyribo nucleic acid.It has 4 nucleo bases.Now,the question arises, why dna has no uracil base?
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Can a lentivirus expressed protein that is undetectable by western blot be detected by BioID?

Cloned a single herpesviral gene into pCDH-EF!-GFP and see phenotypic effect on cells of interest and viral gene transcripts BUT unable to detect ANY protein using HRP boosted western blot. Even with ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Need help in identifying and understanding the origin of an expression variant

We usually denote the origin of a mutation as either somatic or germline. This information is usually available in certain databases such as CIVIC, ClinVar, COSMIC etc. But when we come to variants ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

How to map the N6-dimethyladenosine by primer extension?

I am trying to map N6-dimethyladenosine on rRNA using primer extension (low dNTPs assay) method. But i am not able to detect map my position. I went through some articles they mentioned like they ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Insight on HPV vaccine to prevent/control reactivation of latent infections in those already infected

Some women experience reactivation of HPV infection in their 50's due to weakened immune system and weakened immune memory. Is it outside the realm of possibility that giving the HPV vaccine to those ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Protein misfolding [on hold]

Protein misfolding is usually prevented by molecular chaperons. Rarely, the chaperons are not able to prevent the misfolding as a result of which the infectous molecules called prions will form. My ...
2
votes
3answers
521 views

Getting PCR amplification at annealing higher than Tm!

I am amplifying a gene where in a gradient pcr i am getting amplification at an annealing temperature about 5 degrees (67) higher than Tm (62.5)? What is wrong here? Also, I am getting a very strong ...
5
votes
2answers
626 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Could Wobble Base Pairing ultimately yield an amino acid that was originally uncalled for or not expected?

For the purpose of this question I'm picking UGC, UGA and UGG codons (Cys, Stop and Trp aa's) so that the 3rd position of the codon really makes a difference (if it does). I know there are other ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

In HIV-1, what produces Tat?

The Trans-activator of transcription (Tat) plays a crucial role in regulating the transcription process of HIV-1. But which state of the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) produces Tat? Is it the "...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Do molecular motors have a life time?

Most of the enzymes have a certain lifetime. I want to know that do molecular motors have a certain lifetime after which they degenerate? Any reference will be appreciated. Basically, I just want to ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

What is the difference among biochemistry, molecular biology, molecular genetics and structural biology?

I have never heard of straigthforward definitions of these fields in my college lectures, and the Internet searches were not very helpful. However, from what I have learned at different subjects, this ...
-1
votes
0answers
24 views

If there is a list of all major bioactive compounds on the web

There are many databases of every molecule we've discovered, but I haven't seen just a list of the major bioactive compounds, which would be helpful for better understanding what chemicals have an ...
0
votes
1answer
131 views

How are single-stranded binding proteins removed from the lagging strand during DNA replication?

The lagging strand, downstream of the Okazaki fragment, is covered in single-stranded binding proteins (SSBPs) during DNA replication. What is the mechanism which ensures that SSBPs are removed from ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Does the lack of “mirror life” tell us anything about abiogenesis?

My (extremely rudimentary) understanding of Biology is that many of the building blocks of life are chiral and that life on earth is entirely made up molecules with the same chirality. Does this ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

what is ideal dose of peptide injection for mice? [closed]

What would be ideal concentration of 15 amino acidic antibacterial peptide and water (or buffer)? Injection rout is tail vein of mice and peptide is synthetic.
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Why magnesium ion is needed for activity of G-proteins?

I was studying about G-protein coupled signaling sysytem, somewhere they have mentioned about need of Mg$^{2+}$ for acticty of G-protein and related it to increase of cyclic AMP production. On further ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Immunoprecipitation compared to western blotting

Immunoprecipitation and western blotting are both used to locate a specific protein within a sample and to isolate it. In immunoprecipitation, a specific antibody and agarose beads ( or other ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Design rules for DNA linkers

I want to use double stranded DNA linkers to physically bind two "things" together, by grafting ssDNA on each one of them and using DNA hybridization as the locking mechanism. I do not expect the ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Endocytic pathway: Macropinocytosis

So I'm trying to understand this phrase: Unlike other endocytic pathways, macropinocytosis is acutely induced by growth factors From the following paper The 4 endocytic pathways I know of are ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Can cysteine alone change pigmentation?

According to this graph (from here): cysteine contributes to pheomelanogenesis, and having a high enough concentration of cysteine makes the shift towards pheomelanin instead of eumelanin. So my ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

why transcription error rate is high than that of dna replication

The error rate of RNA polymerase is observed to be pretty high about 1 in 10^4 than that of DNA polymerase which about 1 in 10^7, why?
3
votes
4answers
273 views

How to find suitable qRTPCR reference gene for a inflammatory response experiment?

I have tried several housekeeping genes – Hprt, β-actin and GAPDH, to analyze the relative expression of a cytokine for measuring the inflammatory local response in mice ears. However, all ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Is NMDA produced in the body?

On the wiki page for NMDA it says that NMDA is a synthetic substance that mimics glutamate. So why does the body not use glutamate instead of NMDA? Also how is it possible that our body can produce ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Will DNA nanostructures be useful for medical applications?

There is a lot of work being done on developing small nanomechanical structures and even small nanomechanical actuators built with DNA. I have heard researchers motivate this research with claims ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

What is an acceptable qPCR efficiency when adjust using the Pfaffl equation?

I have efficiencies of 76% and 85%. THis is clearly below what is normally acceptable. But the pfaffl equation corrects this, doesnt it? However is it acceptable to publish this data?
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Emergence of novel protein interactions by mutation of amino acids

Are there any examples of proteins that, without coming from a recent duplication event, underwent a mutation(s) that caused it to have a novel interaction with a new ligand, substrate, other protein ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Can Dpn1 digest hybrid PCR product with only one methylated strand?

In Site directed mutagenesis using PCR, after a cycle we obtain a hybrid molecule with one parental strand and other newly synthesized unmethylated strand. This is followed by Dpn1 digestion. Does ...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Gene cluster of interest not being amplified in PCR

In a lab, I currently have a sample of Rhizobium sp. NT-26. This bacteria is a chemolithoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizer, and I want to clone the arsenite oxidase genes into another bacteria strain in ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Can mRNA be used by ribosomes more than once?

Can mRNA be used by ribosomes more than once? I mean can mRNA be translated more than one time? If not what will happen to it after translation?
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Does the molecular composition of human body change after a period of time?

I was discussing change in human biology over time and my two in-laws charged in saying, "we're molecularly different after x". I didn't pay attention to what time period they exactly mentioned (hence ...
7
votes
1answer
197 views

Does depolymerisation take place at the minus end of microtubule?

Wikipedia says that Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the 'ends' of a microtubule. but Karp's Cell Biology, 7th edition says Dynamic instability is ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

When are neuropeptides loaded into vesicles?

It is well known that small neurotransmitters like monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, etc), acetylcholine, glutamate, etc are loaded into vesicles at the axon terminal. Stated differently, synaptic ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Why replication collapse but not stall leads to DNA break?

I have been looking into the concept of replication dynamics and was wondering why collapsing but not stalling leads to a DNA break.
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Is it possible to stop more/extra fat from being stored in the body?

I don't mean simply by restricting eating or upping the activities, but a way to basically stop the body from adding more fat on itself down on the bio level. For example, I'm not too knowledgeable on ...
19
votes
6answers
5k views

Why are some genes dominant over others? What is the mechanism behind it?

If I have a brown eye gene which encodes the protein that is responsible for the brown color and have a blue eye gene as well, what is the reason that my eye color is brown? How does one gene maintain ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Human Stem Cells and Disease

Can human stem cells be stored for use by future family members as a way to combat generational diseases like diabetes
3
votes
0answers
23 views

What phosphorylates tau protein & and what causes tau to be phosphorylated?

I want to know what phosphorylates tau protein and its 6 isoforms. I know kinases cause phosphorylation events, and in tau it can be phosphorylated in a healthy neuron in the trans conformation, but ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Techniques of molecular medicine/biology for aesthetic medicine?

Are there scientifically valid methods (possibly in the developmental stage) that can be used for aesthetic medicine. Usually surgical of physical therapies are used for aesthetic medicine, but ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Molecular biology [duplicate]

Does every protein start with methionine? The start codon is AUG (which corresponds to methionine),then why doesn't the methionine present in the protein after the translation has done. I have ...
7
votes
1answer
199 views

Why did they expect Astronaut Scott Kelley's telomere shortening to accelerate? (they got longer!)

The NPR News article and podcast Scientists Share Results From NASA's Twins Study says: SCOTT KELLY (NASA Astronaut): You know, the symptomatic stuff is fine. I don't have any long-term negative ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Intein Splicing

Currently I am trying to read and understand this paper on intein splicing. https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001202 However, I'm a little confused with Figure 4. Why do the ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

RNAi termination

Can you stop an ongoing RNAi after transfection with a vector containing siRNA? I want to experiment on gene function loss effect, using RNAi, and gene function gain, using stopping the RNAi.
2
votes
2answers
361 views

number of chromatids seen in karyotype

The karyotype is performed on a cell whose cycle has been stopped in metaphase or pro metaphase, using colchicine or by other means. In the textbooks I read that during the S phase each of the 46 ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Insertion Confirmation Cloning Strategy

So I am in a bit of a time constraint. Essentially, I inserted a DNA fragment via molecular cloning which contains a unique RE site. I need to confirm whether my colony has or does not have the ...
4
votes
2answers
95 views

How can you band wheat chromosomes using Giemsa dye?

I am working with wheat chromosomes and trying to stain the chromosomes. However, during staining with Giemsa dye chromosomes appear totally dark. I'm not sure why this might be. Anyone have any ideas?...
1
vote
2answers
96 views

What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
11
votes
4answers
12k views

Why is AUG the initiation codon?

Is there any reason why AUG is the initiation codon? Can’t translation start with different codons?