Questions tagged [molecular-biology]

The study of the molecular processes underlying life.

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1answer
66 views

Photolysis in the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis [duplicate]

I'm a bit confused concerning photolysis. During the light reactions, photons are used to excite the chlorophyll molecules so they are passed to the primary electron acceptor. The electrons initially ...
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1answer
27 views

Why does opening of the Ca-channels trigger the release of neurotransmitters?

I understand that the opening of the Calcium channels trigger the release of stored neurotransmitter in granules, but what is it about the flow of positive ions that makes the vesicles fuse with the ...
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54 views

Analysis of post transplantation lineage tags

I'm having some trouble understanding some bits of a study, mostly about the Sleeping Beauty system and TARIS model, from this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408613/ I ...
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119 views

Is p53 a cyclin dependent kinase? [closed]

I've been reading some research papers about p53 and associated tumour suppressor proteins, such as p21. I see them referred to and associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. Is p53,p63 et cetera part ...
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33 views

Prokaryotes Genome

What function of repetitive sequences of Prokaryote? I see a gap (intergenic region) between 2 coding strand. But just only a single origin region in Prokaryotes. How it can transcription coding ...
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1answer
231 views

Lab technique to distinguish between single stranded and double stranded DNA?

What lab techniques exist to differentiate between single-strand and double-stranded DNA?
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61 views

Can two proteins activate/inhibit the same gene at the same time?

Suppose there are two proteins inhibiting a particular gene. Its not necessary that both will inhibit the gene at the same time instance right? So if one protein has already inhibited that gene before ...
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3answers
675 views

How is incomplete dominance explained at the molecular level?

What happens at the molecular level between two alleles that demonstrate incomplete dominance? Do the proteins coded by each allele have different functions, or is there an interaction at the RNA ...
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2answers
497 views

Can different proteins be produced during translation of a single mRNA in eukaryotes?

Is there a translational mechanism that eukaryotes can use to produce different proteins from a single transcribed mRNA?
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96 views

Can enzymes be modeled using classical mechanics?

When enzymes interact with substrates (i.e. a small ADP molecule and the much larger ATP synthase), does quantum mechanics play a significant role? Or can the interactions be relatively accurately be ...
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1answer
91 views

What would be the effect of excess taq polymerase on the PCR?

I just had one question regarding the possible effect of putting to much Taq polymerase in my PCR tube? Instead of 5µl I put 50µl (10x more). Do you think it will have a bad effect on the reaction??...
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1answer
61 views

Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
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59 views

Fluorescence assays to identify protein concentration without adding a large peptide sequence?

I'm trying to find a way of tagging a protein with something visually quantifiable to track protein concentration through potential purification steps and screen for the most efficient such steps. ...
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1answer
343 views

During DNA foot-printing, what is the purpose of radioactively labeling only one end of the DNA fragment?

I read that during DNA foot-printing analysis, DNA is radioactively labeled on one end before being cleaved by DNase 1. I understand that it is labeled so in order to locate the fragment on a gel, but ...
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How do I prepare a Basal medium for autotrophic mutant creation

Minimal medium (MM) was prepared by adding 2.0 g sodium nitrate (NaNO3) to 1 L of basal medium (BM) fol- lowing Correll et al. (1987). Chlorate resistant sectors (CRSs) were generated on two media i.e....
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29 views

Which one is better to use for water stress experiment GWAS or RNASeq?

This is my first time in this area of research. I am working on 95 varieties of bambara groundnut. I have done the agromorphological characterization of these varieties as well as the genetic ...
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1answer
334 views

Why is the Tm defined as the temperature at which 50% of dsDNA has changed into ssDNA?

In molecular biology, Tm is defined as the temperature at which 50% of dsDNA is converted to its single stranded form. Intuitively it would seem that the melting temperature should have been defined ...
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1answer
49 views

What causes the elongation of Genome down the evolutionary time line [closed]

Theory of natural evolution says that complex life forms arose from simpler ones e.g. starting from Eubacteria to modern day multicellular eukaryotes. {If we try to reduce these changes happening at ...
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1answer
233 views

Viral RNA to DNA

I have a question concerning reverse transcriptase. Why is it that when the viral rna is converted to viral dna( as in the case for hiv), the virus develops resistance to medicine? Under what ...
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4answers
257 views

Why do mutations not take place in mRNA of higher eukaryotes?

Is it because it is too short-lived to be mutated? Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids so how is mRNA protected? RNA viruses undergo mutations to evolve so I guess it is not immune to mutations
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1answer
454 views

Which are more beneficial: lyophilized or hydrolized collagen peptides?

Looking at two different manufacturing methods for collagen peptides: hydrolyzed vs lyophilized (freeze dried), I read that hydrolyzed results in a hydrophobic biolayer molecule collagen peptide. Re:...
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1answer
215 views

A little help understanding DNA supercoiling

I am studying molecular biology from Lewin's Genes XII and got confused in the supercoiling topic. Since then I read from several other sources and so far understood the following. However, I can't ...
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1answer
166 views

Can any one explain me the structural difference between Proteins and Peptides? [closed]

I have read in books that Proteins and Peptides are fundamental components of cells which carryout important biological functions.Can any one explain me the structural difference between Proteins and ...
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2answers
110 views

Software to model and analyse protein–ligand interactions

I am currently trying to model a certain protein (Golgi Mannosidase II) and compare the induced fit of the inhibitor swainsonine. I would like to be able to analyse the distances between bonding ...
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1answer
213 views

Why is it thought that protein folding is determined solely by amino acid sequence?

It seems that it is a generally accepted idea that protein folding is completely determined by the sequence of amino acids, but why do people believe that? Is it simply that no example of a protein ...
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1answer
145 views

What is ApoCas9 in the CRISPR-Cas9 system?

I am currently reading an article about a particular assay of Cas9 nucleases. In one of the experiments, they have used ApoCas9 (Apo variants of other CRISPR nucleases) as some sort of control. But ...
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1answer
49 views

Non-coding DNA as a protection to deleterious mutations

We know that most part of our genome (at least 75 percent) is non-coding DNA. Can it be a way to protect the organism from mutations in important genes, such as the ones which control cellular cycle, ...
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1answer
132 views

What are the uses of Helical Wheel Projections in Structural Biology?

I have seen helical wheel projections used to illustrate amphipathic helices in proteins. Are there any other uses for these models?
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1answer
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What Ultimately Controls DNA Transcription?

Transcription of DNA and further splicing of mRNA is regulated by various transcription factors, small nuclear RNAs and so on; similarly such related mechanisms as transposition of transposons. All ...
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2answers
143 views

Why isn't the human zygote considered a human life how is a living anatomically modern human defined biologically? [closed]

It has 46 chromosomes by default when healthy(Differences almost always are pathological) and has almost every biological functions, processes a Newborn or and Adult person has. It even invades ...
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1answer
77 views

How can I improve efficiency of Ecoli transformation?

I am an intern in biology institute. I have a 17.3kbp plasmid need to transform to Ecoli. But I have tried many time but have no or very few colony on LB plate. I know large plasmid have less ...
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1answer
67 views

Can denatured GFP show fluorescence?

GFP ( green fluorescent protein) can show green fluorescence. And its fluorescence is due to the tri peptide chromophore which is given in below I was wondering, can we observe fluorescence, if we ...
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92 views

Which animals don't have pheromones?

Which animals are known to not have pheromones besides humans? I can't find any research on this. There are examples of every class that uses pheromones. However nobody seems to answer conclusively ...
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1answer
52 views

Difference Junk DNA and Pseudogenes [duplicate]

1-Are Pseudogenes and Junk DNA both Non-Coding DNA or they are different entity? How much Pseudogenes & Junk DNA do we have respectively? 2-I read that Non-Coding DNA has functions, my question ...
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18 views

Holder for 75 mm x 25 mm glass slides that can handle vibration

Hello Biology Stack Exchange, I have an application where I have cells on a glass slide (dimensions: standard 75 mm length x 25 mm width x 1 mm thick). I want to vibrate/shake the cells rapidly ...
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1answer
100 views

Does this article call into question the theory of evolution?

https://www.quantamagazine.org/neutral-theory-of-evolution-challenged-by-evidence-for-dna-selection-20181108/ The article above challenges how mutations work in evolution. Does this disprove the ...
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1answer
45 views

How to do desalt reaction by passage through a Micro Bio-spin 6 column?

I want to perform the bisulfite sequencing on rRNA to detect the 5-mC. I followed this protocol • DNA-free™ DNA Removal Kit (Invitrogen) • Purified RNA, Treat RNA according to manufacturer's ...
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1answer
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Does anyone know a good pancreatic-cancer metastasis cell line?

Researching about pancreatic cancer. We have mostly "main-tumor" cell lines in our lab, and I´m currently looking for cell lines originating from metastases (liver, lung, etc.). Does anyone know a ...
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1answer
49 views

Problem with joining the gene of interest into the open plasmid when their lengths are not the same

Before the recombinant plasmid is obtained in recombinant DNA, the gene of interest is inserted into a linearized plasmid by DNA ligase. What happens if the length of the gene of interest is not the ...
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2answers
303 views

What is the subcellular location of synthesis of non-essential amino-acids?

What is location of non-essential amino acids synthesis in a cell? Is it some specific organelle? And what is the gene driver behind this? I thought the whole point of DNA is coding for how to ...
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1answer
72 views

What buffer should I choose for IEX chromatography for purifying IgY

I will use ion exchange chromatography with an anion exchange column to purify chicken IgY. Prior to this I did dialysis to remove salts from previous purification steps, is it possible after this ...
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23 views

Chemical inhibition of fertilization in plants

Are there any chemical compounds that inhibit fertilization in plants after gametogenesis? Simply put, I am talking about spermicide or emergency contraception for plants. Specifically, I am ...
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61 views

ATP and Muscle Contraction

I have a question regarding how molecular interactions manifest in physical actions - such as hanging from a bar. To the best of my understanding, when it comes to the contraction of muscles, ATP is ...
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1answer
47 views

Can I use a basic compound microscope to analyze the ploidy of plant chromosomes?

So, I'm not really any kind of trained botanist. But I do have two things: some dandelion seeds from France, and, collecting dust in my garage along with related accessories, this thing. Normally, ...
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33 views

How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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53 views

How do receptors lose their sensitivity?

Recently, I learned that one of the causes of Type II diabetes is that insulin receptors on cell surfaces lose their sensitivity due to long-term high exposure to insulin (which occurs as a result of ...
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1answer
60 views

Application of molecular dynamics simulation (or alternatives) for the full pathways of protein interactions?

If one would like to control the biological system (e.g. to treat disease or aging/senescence) then one should introduce the drugs in the system, that initiate complex protein interaction pathways ...
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1answer
77 views

Can Cas13 be used with multiple crRNAs in the same reaction?

CRISPR-Cas13 equipped with crRNA (complementary to transcripts of interest) can be designed to target ssRNA transcripts in cells. Upon successful crRNA and ssRNA binding, a fluorescent domain on ...
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What is the typical concentration of Calcineurin (PP2B) in CA1 dendritic spines?

I am trying to find the concentration of CaN (PP2B) in dendritic spines, there is a computational model (doi:10.1073/pnas.0804672105) that uses the quantity of 1uM in the dendritic spine. I think this ...
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1answer
142 views

What is the difference between DNA vs RNA Editing in the context of gene therapy?

As a someone with beginner knowledge on biology, I have come across the terms "RNA editing". Take this paper for example : RNA Editing with CRISPR-Cas13 From my understanding, DNA -> RNA -> Proteins ...

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