Questions tagged [molecular-evolution]

The study of evolutionary mechanisms in operation at the molecular scale, primarily DNA, RNA, and proteins.

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Is genetic purging based on random shuffling of the genes of an individual or is it more intentional way of removing deleterious recessive alleles?

Inbreeding depression may be reduced by selection against deleterious alleles, which eliminates, or purges, them from the population. I have two questions: Is genetic purging based on random ...
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New evidence about the beginning of life? [closed]

The cover story of the August Scientific American is about new evidence suggesting "volcanic pools" as the location for "first life" as opposed to deep sea smokers like "The Lost City". I was under ...
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is there any theory about why life evolved to have DNA with 4 different bases and not 6 or other number like in organisms created with artificial DNA? [duplicate]

If organisms can carry DNA with 6 bases which supposedly stores increased genetic information, why living organisms evolved to have DNA made of 4 bases and not 6 or other number? is there any theory ...
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What theories exist as to how self-replicating molecules organised into the first cells?

When I was a biology student in the early 90's, what I learned and read seemed to indicate a gap in theories around the origins of life. There was, of course, no real evidence about how the first self-...
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Evolutionary advantage of F plasmid in bacterial conjugation

Hi I would like to ask a question on bacterial DNA exchange, namely conjugation via F plasmid. It seems to me that all the F plasmid codes for is the sex pilus. What is the evolutionary advantage of ...
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Are ITS1 and ITS2 good for divergence time estimation?

I had a discussion with a colleague who told me internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) are not good for divergence time estimation: Because they are non protein coding genes; Because they belong to a ...
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How does epigenetics affect the birth conditions via alcohol?

Recent study has shown that epigenetics can play role in male-caused infertility and it cites for example studies which showed an enhancing of silent genes when drinking alcohol. Since the study ...
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How is “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in the stickleback PitX1 paper?

I'm working through this paper for a class. I'm a bit confused by the methods they used in one experiment. So the researchers are studying spine development in stickleback fish. They noticed some ...
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What genetic distance model should be used when calculating genetic differences in Arelquin?

I'm using Arelquin to look at the genetic structure between a number of different populations. I want to compare the populations by producing pairwise FST values, however I don't know what model for ...
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How far in evolutionary distance is the P-distance estimator “accurate”?

I'm reading Yang's computational molecular evolution and in the very first chapter it says the P distance is a "simplistic distance measure" between two sequences. It is the number of different sites /...
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Why doesn't evolution converge on perfection? [duplicate]

I got to know about an organism called "Tardigrade(water bear)" which is an extremely hardy organism and can survive in most conditions. My question is that if the aim of life in general is to ...
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Is it possible to have a mechanism to use carbon dioxide as a source of oxygen in human body?

Is it possible to seperate O2 from CO2 and use it for energy In Human? Why Plants and not Humans can do it?
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Mutation rate and Evolutionary rate?

What is the difference between then?I have read some jobs that describes analysis about mutations rates and another ones with evolutionary rates.I want to know the diferrence between then.
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What is the best way to make a phylogeny from a list of genera?

All I have is a list of about 500 eukaryotic genera, and I need a neighbor-joining tree to show their relationship. I want to cast on top of this tree the loss of a particular enzyme. Is the best ...
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515 views

Have there been any macro-evolution experiements?

I'd like to start first by saying that I don't believe in creationism at all, nor any non-Darwinian-evolution explanation of the diversity of life on Earth. The theory, the fossil record, and the ...
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What is the point at which abiogenesis is complete and evolution begins? [closed]

Is the minimum criterion for life a single cell? It seems that self-replicating RNA is not enough, but I don't know. What would be the most basic cell that could fit this criterion and what cells ...
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Does low gravity exposure to early stages of human fetus have potential to unloc unused genetic information from earlier stages of evolution?

The title seems quite self explanatory but let me elaborate. New mutations do take a very long time and many generations to occure in the genetic code. But our genetic code already holds all the ...
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Can I simulate a previous and next sequence of my fasta files?

I have fasta sequences of a virus protein that had suffered a mutation in 2008 and this mutant had increase it fitness when compared to wild strain (according to literature).I want to simulate if my ...
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Is transition more common than transversion during the evolution of duplicated genes?

Transitions are base mutations of purine to purine (A <-> G) or pyrimidine to pyrimidine (C <-> T). Transversions are purine to pyrimidine or vice versa (A <-> C, A <-> T, G <-> C, G &...
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Is there a specific terms to describe variant of existing genes in bacteria?

I have a question regarding a specific term that describes the variant of existing genes. I am analyzing whole-genome sequencing of a bacterial isolate. I found there are a large number of genes that ...
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728 views

Pros and cons of amino acid structure vs DNA sequences for evolutionary comparison [closed]

This is an analysis question for a lab on the amino acid differences in beta globin amongst different primates, and using such differences to construct a cladogram and infer evolutionary relationships ...
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363 views

Random Mutagenesis vs Directed Evolution as Strategies to boost expression

Do people use random mutagenesis (say using UV) to generate host variants that have high expression of a metabolite / enzyme? I've seen it mentioned as a strategy but it confuses me as to why. How ...
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Effect on gene loss because of compartmentalisation of plastids/mitochondria/endosymbiont?

Considering the transfer of genes during endosymbiosis a gene transfer event (at least fundamentally, even if it's a special case), how does the fact that in this case the genes are inside a ...
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What are the methods for detecting anagenetic versus cladogenetic change?

I'm new to the study of phylogenetics and am wondering if there are ways of identifying evolutionary changes that associate with cladogenetic events versus those that arise via anagenesis.
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Is there a software simulator for monomeric formation, a la Miller-Urey?

At the moment, does any widely-available software exist for small-scale, programmable simulation of monomeric formation in specific conditions? Could one, for instance, recreate the Miller-Urey ...
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Can I make an population genetic analysis from incomplete protein?

I have an dataset of fasta sequences. This proteins are not complete (My sequences have 700 nucleotides,while complete sequences have 1725 nucleotides)I would like to know if i can make an population ...
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Coacervater were more like Viruses or Cells?

The answer considers them as first formed living cells as they were precursor of life. But they had no lipid bilayer nor any cellular organization, shouldnt they be more like Viruses ,or like Prions ...
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Evolution of blood types [duplicate]

What are the popular theories regarding how our blood divided into 4 groups. Particularly I'm interested in whether this was originally linked to disease. Thanks for your answers, useful articles and ...
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What causes the complementary copy of an RNA molecule to separate?

I have recently read an article which explains that, in the RNA World hypothesis, an RNA molecule gets 'scanned' by nucleic acid, catalysed by a different specifically-folded RNA molecule, to arrange ...
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Proteins in different organisms

I know that DNA is universal meaning that all organisms have the same 4 base pairs and also that the same codons code for the same amino acid in all organisms. What I am wondering is that say humans ...
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Approaches towards a theory of innovation in evolution

Evolutionary biologist Andreas Wagner writes in his book "The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems" (Oxford University Press, 2011): We are ...
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Evolution of the common honey bee's stinger

Has the common Honey Bee evolved a stinger designed for penetrating human skin so it will cause as much damage possible even if it means death? A honey bee can sting other insects and mammals more ...
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Can anyone help me with these Biology evolutionary properties homework questions? [closed]

my teacher assigned these worksheet questions, they are ungraded, but he said something might come up on the test really similar to this so I really want to get all of them right. I am pretty ...
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What was the precursor of testosterone? [closed]

Testosterone evolved about 500 million years ago (says 8fact.com). What was the precursor of testosterone (if any)? If possible, what caused the 'precursor' to evolve?
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Two 20 million yr old fossils of Hummingbirds found "The amazing thing about the fossil is that it's essentially a modern hummingbird [closed]

does this only mean that the Hummingbird is perfect in creation and needs no change to survive? http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3691169.stm