Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
2 answers
31 views

Preserving a sample for mtDNA and nuclear DNA analysis

Imagine a person in the early half of the 20th century (1900 to 1950) took some kind of sample(s) from a living human body using any technology of the era. They then stored it using any technology ...
CXJ's user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
0 answers
12 views

With CRISPR-mediated gene editing, can the PAM for the guide RNA also be site of the desired edit?

I'm hoping to use CRISPR-Cas9 in yeast to change a single nucleotide in a gene of interest. While there are a couple potential guide RNA sequences I could use, the best option's PAM sequence (TGG) it ...
PigweedHater's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
11 views

Why is the expected time to coalesce the same as the ploidy times inbreeding effective population size?

The expected time to coalesce, in generations, is the same as the ploidy (e.g., 2 for humans) times Nef, the inbreeding effective population size, under coalescent theory. Why? Both ploidy * Nef and ...
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
92 views

Have there ever been "half-twins" who were halfway between siblings and twins?

Have there ever been two human siblings who were 75% or more genetically related?
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
41 views

Has perturbation theory been applied to mutation process frameworks?

For example, imagine this Feynman diagram: This is analogous to mutational homoplasy. When comparing haplotypes, there are many possible tree topologies. Under maximum parsimony, we ignore suboptimal ...
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
26 views

Sequencing a PCR product with no band

I did a PCR that successfully showed the appropriate bands one time, but when I tried to re-do the same PCR just at a larger quantity to send for Sanger sequencing, very faint or no bands were seen. ...
Nalonda's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
58 views

How come SSBPs in RPA don't bind primers?

I've started reading about the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). I'm learning that in RPA, recombinase enzyme binds to primers, then makes them anneal to the complementary target DNA strand, ...
Andrew Roots's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
94 views

Does recombination occur in both chromatid of a chromosome with homologous chromosome? Or only 1 chromatid participate in crossing over?

A chromosome has two chromatids. In meiosis weather both chromatid participate in crossing over or just only 1 chromatid does? So, I am asking whether 1 turquoise and 1 purple chromatid participate ...
Amit Kumar's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

What is the most accurate polygenic score for Alzheimer’s disease?

To date, which polygenic score (i.e. which study) has produced the largest effect size for Alzheimer’s prediction in out-of-sample validation?
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
17 views

Why do many plasmids for Flp-mediated Flip-Excision only flanked by one FRT site on each side and not two non-homologous?

I'm trying to build some molecular gene switches into a model, and want to use both Cre and Flp. I understand how to invert gene segments with Cre, double floxing (e.g. with loxP and lox2272, like in ...
immunoLogical's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Ubiquitous overexpression line of a gene expressed higher gene expression in leaf but not in seeds

I tried to make ubiquitous overexpression lines of a gene using a constitutive promoter vector in plant. I got multiple regenerated plants through tissue cultures. At T0, T1, T2 leaves tissues, the ...
bio's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
41 views

Gene Name Finding

X8HS20 - please help, I am not able to find the proper name or function of this gene in any database - can someone kindly help to figure out what it is ? I hypothesize that it is some gene of ...
Stack Man's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
107 views

What is the approx. diameter of a completely "folded up" human DNA molecule, in inches?

The human DNA molecule would be about 6ft if stretched out to a straight line. I'm curious what the diameter of the DNA molecule normally is when it is "all scrunched up" or "bundled&...
Doug Null's user avatar
  • 105
2 votes
0 answers
237 views

How pitch of a DNA Helix is 3.4 nm?

How pitch of a DNA Helix is 3.4 nm? In the image that I have attached, the numbers with prime represent the number of base pair and normal numbers represent the number of gap elements between two base ...
Peter swift's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

Does blunt end have a hydrogen bond?

I am an undergraduate student of biology. I saw a lecturer online, who said that sticky ends makes phosphodiester and hydrogen bonds cut. (also here). But why blunt end just makes phospodiester bonds ...
arsy's user avatar
  • 9
2 votes
3 answers
260 views

What is the exact definition of a "gene"?

(In this question, I'm only considering the molecular-biology notion of a gene, not the older Mendelian notion.) Wikipedia defines a "gene" as "a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that is ...
tparker's user avatar
  • 717
2 votes
1 answer
97 views

Programs/software used to create illustrations and scientific paper ready figures

I am new to the field of molecular biology. I am finding the need to generate illustrative figures displaying interplay between proteins, DNA and various other molecular constructs at different scales ...
Zebra Fish's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
117 views

How random is genetic recombination?

Two parents can have a very large number of different potential offsprings, and it's common knowledge that the daughter chromosomes in meiosis are produced randomly, i.e. in crossover, the exact spots ...
Alex L's user avatar
  • 131
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Testing primer for misspriming in 770 Mb lepidopteran genome

I designed primer pairs for a lepidopteran genome (Cydia pomonella, codling moth, ~770 Mb, ~60% transposable elements, Reference Genome Paper). I have around 60 primer pairs that bind to a specific ...
CoDa's user avatar
  • 103
0 votes
1 answer
72 views

CRISPR-Cas9 system, DNA repair

As a critical stage in the CRISPR-Cas9 system, two different mechanisms of DNA repair can occur in the target DNA after RNA has been introduced: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous ...
Wayne's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
215 views

Do we need to underline the name of a gene while handwriting?

While teaching about the cry genes and the Cry proteins in Biology class, my teacher told us that the names of genes are always written in lowercase and should be italicized, and the name of protein ...
Juhi Kumari's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Identification of cells containing the gene of interest at a double strand break instead of undergoing recombination

If I tried to knock in a gene for example KANMX and want to swap it with say some gene "x", but, since, there can be double strand break in the DNA and KANMX may get inserted within the ds ...
Adaintyflower's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
46 views

Is there a word to describe a sample of DNA that can be sequenced?

This is a question about terminology. I want to know if there is a word that is used to describe a sample as "able to be sequenced". My rough guess would be "sequencable". But that ...
Kevin Bowersox's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
108 views

What are the relative frequencies of dominance and codominance in genes underlying phenotypic characters?

Many questions already exist regarding dominance/recessive relationships, see e.g. here. I am asking this question because I have often wished to have it to refer to, and also genuinely curious ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
82 views

Is there a name for this type of diagram?

Is there any commonly used name for this type of diagram / symbology? I have not been able to find them referred to by any name.
tsj's user avatar
  • 151
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Single-cell subcloning of BV-2 cells?

I am trying to knock-out genes in BV-2 cell line. However, the majority of protocols require cell subcloning and expanding. I tried to subcone these cells and grow clones in DMEM+10% heat-inactivated ...
Monika1223's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
2k views

How did Mendel know if a plant was a homozygous tall (TT), or a heterozygous tall (Tt)?

I had some issues while studying Mendel’s rules of inheritance. How did Mendel, while running his test crosses, know if the plants in his F0 generation were TT (homozygous tall) or Tt (heterozygous ...
Smarika Singh's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
43 views

Receptors and their distribution over the human population

For humans it has been reported that there are three vasopressin receptors (AVPR1a) and four dopamine receptors (DRD2). (Source: UNIPROT) Question: Does every human contain all three variants of ...
SK SARIF HASSAN's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
64 views

When do retinal cells stop differentiating? [closed]

I am having a hard time recalling where I had heard this, but I do recall someone saying (perhaps in a video) that cells in the retina divide very rapidly during infancy due to ongoing development of ...
Zuhair Qureshi's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
81 views

Is retinoblastoma truly an autosomal dominant condition?

I am getting, in my opinion, very conflicting information from sources about the inheritance of retinoblastoma, a type of cancer. Hereditary retinoblastoma is associated with defects in the gene ...
Zuhair Qureshi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
172 views

Do cells not grow during mitotic S phase (synthesis phase of interphase of the cell cycle)?

Both these links mention cell growth during G1 and G2 phase, but not during synthesis phase (only DNA replication is mentioned). Is replication all that happens and is there no cell growth during S ...
vishesh jain's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
249 views

What precisely is the pairwise Fst calculated in GenAlEx 6.5?

A professor of population genetics informed me that there is not a unique notion of pairwise Fst scores in the literature. This information has made me more cautious about what may be implemented by a ...
Galen's user avatar
  • 1,045
1 vote
0 answers
98 views

Genetic modifications to produce blue hair

The following animals are known to produce blue pigmentation: Linckia laevigata (blue star, study reveals blue carotenoprotein, linkiacyanin) Nessaea batesii (obrina olivewing, study reveals blue ...
Dave Jarvis's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
22 views

What is the relationship between stress granules and circular RNAs?

I have read that circRNAs act as sponges for miRNAs and that stress granules help reduce chronic cellular stress and they are composed of proteins and RNAs. I'm interested in the relationship between ...
Shadan Alrawi's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
47 views

What forms a mutation hotspot?

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombination_hotspot#:~:text=Recombination%20hotspots%20are%20regions%20in,that%20of%20the%20surrounding%20region. I understand that hotspots may arise when certain ...
AnethOthbo's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
73 views

How is a haploblock defined with only one SNP location?

I am reading Impact of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms and mRNA levels on obesity and lipolysis – a cohort study and am looking at Figure 1. I understand that haplotypes are associated with ...
neurosciencecalc's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Biology (DNA electrophoresis with agarose)X

I'm researching a polymorphism using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gel electrophoresis. After RFLP, I should see fragments at 141bp and 111bp, but I can not see in 2% agarose, ...
seyed farhad sadr tabatabaie's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
994 views

How are DNA virus cladograms actually calculated in practice? Is the procedure different for RNA viruses? Are these processes somewhat subjective?

The May 24, 2022 Bloomberg opinion piece Monkeypox Isn’t Looking Like a Covid-Sized Threat; It’s still early, but contact-tracing efforts and analysis of the virus’s genome offer hope that this ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 5,418
2 votes
0 answers
57 views

Apparant inconsistency in DNA topology theory in formation of origin of replication [duplicate]

I'm studying an introductory course in genetics and came across something I don't fully understand. I obviously used Google to find where I'm thinking wrong, but I still can't understand it. To ...
cDirac's user avatar
  • 29
3 votes
1 answer
94 views

How can SNP arrays be used to detect deletions within a gene?

I am reading a journal paper where the researchers are studying the effect of disease-causing mutations in the IL1RAPL1 gene. In the first figure of this paper, they show pedigrees of families where ...
ceno980's user avatar
  • 1,671
1 vote
4 answers
210 views

How to look for different transcripts for a protein?

I am trying to find all the different transcripts for a protein that translate into different isoforms of the protein. However, when I look it up online, there is no clear organized data on different ...
Ramil's user avatar
  • 128
1 vote
1 answer
50 views

What is the importance of radiation hybrid (RH) mapping in terms of genes?

I'm currently reading about radiation hybrid mapping with a TSP (traveling salesman problem) application in order to find an ordering of the genetic markers (i'm a mathematics student) and was ...
PianoMath's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
265 views

Time required for DNA replication in E. coli

In a particular strain of E. coli, it was observed that DNA polymerase could add nucleotides to a growing chain of DNA at the rate of 600 per second. If the genome of this organism is 1.1mm long ...
Neerav Singla's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

Why can SPRITE measure many simultaneous interactions?

Why is the SPRITE method not limited to a number of simultaneous interactions that can be measured, while microscopy and proximity ligation are limited to 2-3 interactions?
katara 's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
1 answer
94 views

Problem involving genetic interactions in yeast

I'm having difficulty with the following problem: In yeasts, genes MEC1 and SGS1 favor survival in response to HU (hydroxyurea). In the figure below, Δ indicates homozygosis for the mutant allele ...
Horacio Bertorello's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
73 views

How many people need to have the same mutation of a gene in order for that gene to be seen as a feasible candidate for a disease?

I am learning about genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and I know that they are used to see whether certain SNPs are associated with a disease of interest. From everything that I have watched and ...
ceno980's user avatar
  • 1,671
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

How do geneticists determine if a gene mutation is pathogenic?

I am analysing information about patients with neurodevelopmental disorders using the DECIPHER genomics database. I am looking for patients who have only a specific gene deleted and no other mutations ...
ceno980's user avatar
  • 1,671
4 votes
1 answer
160 views

What does the 'y' mean in CHL1−/− / L1−/y double mutant mice?

I am reading a journal paper and I have come across the following statement: To investigate this, $CHL1^{−/−}$ / $L1^{−/y}$ double mutant mice were generated and analyzed for thalamocortical axon ...
ceno980's user avatar
  • 1,671
0 votes
0 answers
67 views

Recommendations for good books on bacterial genetics & molecular biology?

I'm starting a new phase of my PhD soon, and am feeling very under-prepared with respect to my general bacteriology knowledge. I was recommended to read up on basic bacterial genetics and molecular ...
mathematicalbiologist's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
199 views

Why is the genetic code so heavily conserved?

Except some organisms, most organisms follow the same Genetic Code tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, etc. comprise the translational machinery for converting nucleotide codons to proteins. My ...
Asmit Karmakar's user avatar

1
2 3 4 5
14