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The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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How does transcription end?

In rho-dependent termination in prokaryotes, how does RNA polymerase “know” that it has reached the end of a gene and that it has to stop so that the rho-factor can bind mRNA’s rut site? Is there a ...
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Young family members to learn genetics - Amino Labs?

I'm an engineer but want to learn about biology with a niece and nephew who are early teens. I saw Amino Labs (https://amino.bio/) and thought because I work a lot with my hands, doing hands on ...
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1answer
22 views

How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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1answer
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What is the role of CRISPR-dCas9 in gRNA-dCas9 transcription regulator complexes?

In this paper, I read that mutant versions of Cas proteins such as a deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) are used alongside a guide-RNA (gRNA) to form variants of CRISPR tool that can function as transcription ...
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2answers
33 views

Can a viable embryo develop from the fusion of two egg cells?

For a zygote to form, two haploid gametes undergo meiosis and fuse during fertilisation. Since two egg cells (or even two sperm cells) are both haploid, is it theoretically possible for them to make ...
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85 views

How does DNA codon (5`-3`) convert to mRNA?

There is a problem I stumbled upon when doing a lesson on molecular genetics (Grade 12 level). The lesson contains many tables in this format: I don't understand how it got to the mRNA codon ...
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1answer
58 views

About The Selfish Gene Book - How Replicators Molecules forms duplicates?

I was reading The Selfish Gene. In the 2nd chapter - "Replicators" I read: Think of the replicator as a mold or template. Imagine it as a large molecule consisting of a complex chain of various ...
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43 views

True examples of common variation due to Mendelian Inheritance

Classic examples of mendelian inheritance are genetic diseases such as sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and xeroderma pigmentosa. For some of these diseases, it is believed that they ...
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17 views

How to calculate the Marker Index(MI) for a dominant marker such as RAPD and ISSR?

I am working in the genetic diversity analysis of a plant species and have used RAPD and ISSR markers. After scoring the data in a binary matrix, I am trying to find the marker index of the primers. I ...
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2answers
44 views

What dictates which protein to synthesize at a given time?

I understand how DNA is replicated and how it directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids through RNA polymerase, RNA and ribosomes. Now I want to understand how it works in the big picture. ...
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12 views

Question Concerning Plasmid Transplant

Upon reading a report today, I discovered a interesting technic of plasmid transformation. Triparental Conjugation, a bacterial conjugation including three parts , a conjugative plasmid, a donor cell ,...
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Increasing my PCR efficiency to be able to better visualise my bands

I run an electrophoresis in agarose gel and my expected bands are extremely week, is even hard to see them. It looks I need to increase my PCR efficiency. I have read about a Hot start setp, which ...
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2answers
56 views

Do all retroviruses evolve into dna viruses? [closed]

Since even nonprocreative sex transfers genetic material it seems redundant for viruses to destroy the host. Retroviruses are sufficiently simple to fit into DNA. So why not just become DNA viruses?
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Isolation of Intact Granules from Mast Cells

How to isolate intact granules from mast cells without using sucrose and percoll?
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1answer
52 views

Is it Theoretically Possible to Create a Male clone from the donor Cell of a Female?

I understand that Dolly the Sheep was created without the presence of a sperm cell. Instead, nucleus DNA from somatic cells of adult sheep were used. Since Dolly was female, i am assuming that the ...
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0answers
7 views

primer blast for BSP methylation

How can I blast my BSP(Bisulfite sequencing) primers? I designed in this way that C nucleotide converted to T and my primers just sit on the converted DNA! I blast it with Bisearch but I don't know ...
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1answer
12 views

Is there a biological explanation for a 0.5 difference in allele size with PCR product?

CONTEXT I am currently working on a set of diversity, this diversity in interspecific (within the same genus). I am using SSR markers, the primers were designed on one species and are working really ...
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0answers
31 views

how can I get stronger staining for my lymph node sections

I am using the same protocol and same antibodies that the literature says but still I cannot get good staining for my lymph node sections, I tried to change the fixation method and I am using now ...
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31 views

Control for Bisulfite sequencing

I am wondering how can I control my converted DNA! I converted my DNA with bisulfite then I amplified the converted DNA with specific primers of BSP and purified my product and finally sequenced the ...
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1answer
24 views

Expected bands in polyacrylamide gel

I have something in my notes that doesn't seem right. If I use restriction enzymes on a PCR product how many bands should I see provided I know the restriction enzimes will cut the DNA? If I use two ...
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1answer
35 views

Antibiotic resistance

I have a biological puzzle that's been perplexing me for years. Can you review my logic and tell me where I'm wrong or if I'm on to something. As I understand it, most, if not all genetic ...
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1answer
30 views

How do I reverse my insert within a plasmid?

I have a plasmid with: ...T7pro. -- RBS -- XBa1 cut site -- ProDpro. -- RBS -- AmilCP -- T -- Spe1 cut site -- T... How do I design primers to reverse the portion in bold, such that the T7 and ProD ...
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1answer
35 views

What are the types of interactions in biological network (protein networks)?

In the KGML files, the types of relations between genes or proteins are precisely activation, inhibition, expression, repression, indirect effect, state change, binding/association, dissociation, ...
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2answers
62 views

How were genes located before the development of bioinformatics?

I would like to know the detailed procedure of how scientists in earlier time were able to locate genes like how we were able to locate Huntington gene in 1983?
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1answer
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Why are not both alleles knocked out at the same time in knock out mouse?

I was reading this little 'article' about homologous recombination and knockout mouse. According to this article you first remove embryonic stem cells from a gray-fur blastocyst, then insert the ...
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Is there a distinction between linkage phase and haplotype?

Linkage phase- combination of alleles that are coinherited Haplotype- combination of alleles an organism has at different loci. So could an informative meiosis be defined as a meiosis in which a ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between alarmones and riboswitches

An Alarmone is an intracellular signal molecule that is produced due to harsh environmental factors. They regulate the gene expression at transcription level. A riboswitch is a regulatory segment of a ...
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0answers
39 views

What are the interactions between mtDNA and nucelus' DNA?

In an exam situation I have been presented with the following question by the teacher: What are the interactions between the mitochondrial DNA and the cell's nuclear DNA? To my knowledge there is ...
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0answers
17 views

Will the addition of 3 amino acids in the C-terminal of a membrane protein affects its properties?

I am planning to use 2A self-cleavage peptide to express my gene of interest downstream of an intrinsic gene in my model organism so that I can exploit the intrinsic promoter, instead of cloning it ...
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0answers
13 views

Why may some telomeres not appear on metaphase chromosomes using Q-FISH?

There are some chromosomes that appear to have missing telomeres e.g. 2 instead of the expected 4, but there appears to be no fusions or breaks.
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0answers
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What is the chemical mechanism by which PcP(c) is converted to PcP(Sc) in Fatal Familial Insomnia

I know the gene PRNP and it's location. There’s a mutation at codon 178 (asparagine found instead of normal aspartic acid) on the prion protein gene (also found in fCJD) and more uniquely there is a ...
4
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1answer
36 views

Reversal of cross-linking in ChIP-seq

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used to investigate the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell. A summary of the protocol for ...
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1answer
80 views

What are the advantages of using interphase cells rather than metaphase cells for gene mapping purposes using FISH?

I have been told that interphase cells are better for gene mapping purposes than metaphase cells but don't know why.
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Do tRNAs that recognize multiple codons have any preference for one over another?

What are the effects of the different binding strength/affinity between the synonymous codons corresponding to a single tRNA ?
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Looking for neuronal gene expression database

I am looking to see if there is a database that contains gene expression profiles differences of differentially stimulated neurons.
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1answer
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Can I use commercial DNA loading dye for my RNA samples without degrading them?

I was wondering if I have to use special RNA loading dye or can I run RNA samples with regular loading dye that is used for DNA?
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1answer
51 views

How to attain a deep conceptual grasp of key atomic/molecular/genetic/ notions? [closed]

It's a total noob question, I know. I'm a layperson trying to come to grips with basic scientific terminology. I always face a conceptual hurdle in trying to understand micro-talk. The way I'm using ...
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0answers
16 views

Do all E. coli Express OmpC Membrane-Protein?

In a lot of papers I am reading, people are amplifying the OmpC gene (which codes for the OmpC membrane protein), from 'E. coli' but they do not specify the strain they used. According to my ...
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2answers
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Gene terminology - is one gene a concrete, single physical sequence?

Suppose you have two identical copies of the same, coding nucleotide sequence (e.g. two copies of BCL2 - a random gene I found on Wikipedia). Could you say that these are two genes (i.e. the name "...
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1answer
123 views

Molecular genetics textbook (free?) suggestion for first time

I have never taken a molecular genetics course but want to prime myself for graduate school in the future. Does anyone have any suggestions or advice? A professor recommends "the molecular biology of ...
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9 views

importance of double stranded oligos during ligation

what is the exact mechanism or principle involved in adding double stranded oligos in GBS during ligation ( genotyping by sequencing)
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1answer
27 views

Are pheromones capable of activating changes to the Phenotype of a complex organism?

I know that pheromones are means of communication between the same species, but are they capable of changing the phenotype of an organism, may be influencing the expression of the genes of a said ...
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1answer
30 views

Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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1answer
87 views

Gene density percentage

What do we mean when we say that: Haemophilus influenza genome is 85% genic. How do we measure gene density in percentage, especially for the above-mentioned case?
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1answer
75 views

How to Calculate how many times an enzyme would cut a plasmid

I'm a little confused as to how to figure out the formula needed to figure this out. I have a plasmid that is 7.3Kb and am told that it is cut with an enzyme of 4bp. For some reason I thought that ...
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1answer
41 views

Why is my DNA below the ladder?

I have run a gradient PCR.. and band 6 after the ladder is clearly the brightest. But all bands appear below the ladder. What does that mean? It is extracted mDNA that was loaded. Thank you in ...
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23 views

Gene expression system

What is the mechanism of action of Gal4-UAS expression system in Yeast and it's application in Drosophila ? I want to know the steps by which the Gal4-UAS expression system is able to over express or ...
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61 views

What determines the differences between differentiated cells?

Given two multi-cellular species with obviously different phenotypes. The reason for the different phenotypes reflects their different DNA. However two types of cells in an adult organism may have ...
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43 views

Downstream Promoter Element’s Role

The promoters‘ role is to bind polymerase to get started transcription. And in fact: by Wikipedia “Like all core promoters, the DPE plays an important role in the initiation of gene transcription by ...
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Is it possible to use virus for genetic modification of embryos during the fetus stage

I know this probably sounds rather hypothetical and not very feasible but I would very like an answer telling why it is possible or not possible and why. With the advancement of crispr and other dna ...