Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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What exactly is a DNA molecule? [duplicate]

Are the two strands of the double helix collectively called the DNA molecule, or is each individual strand the DNA molecule?
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Meaning of “standard reactions” in a DNA extraction procedure description

From a DNA extraction procedure description (an in-house pharma document I'm translating into Russian): Preparation of Standards All the standard reactions should be prepared at least in duplicates. ...
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How do you experimentally prove that conjugation has occured (in bacteria) and the recipient cell has received the F plasmid? [closed]

I was studying conjugation with 2 bacterial strains, the donor was Kanamycin resistant and the recipient cell was Kannamycin sensitive. After conjugation plated the cells on LB+ Kannamycin medium. How ...
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How do the CFTR alleles interact within an individual with Cystic Fibrosis when mutations of different classes are present?

So mutations in CF are classified by the severity of the impact on the production of the CFTR. But an individual may have two different CFTR mutations. I assume that the least severe mutation of the ...
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Can base editors be anything else than SpCas9 and SaCas9 variants?

I found out that only variants of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) are used with adenine or cytidine base editors, and I was wondering why. Can Neisseria ...
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gene inversion and DNA directionality

The directionality of the DNA goes from the 3-prime end to the 5-prime end. Thus, the inversion of a gene would connect a 5-prime to a 5-prime. How could that be? Maybe inverting a gene also ...
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About genomic imprinting

In the context of genomic imprinting, how does a human cell "know" whether a chromosome is paternal or maternal(out of a homologous pair), in order to silence genes?
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Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

So I am trying to brush up on my knowledge of HATs and HDACs. I am reading the just the 1st paragraph of the background of this study I remember learning that HATs turn things on on, and HDACs turn ...
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Mapping of genes: are genes for physically close things close to each other?

I am not sure how to google this but the question is pretty simple: would the genes for the index finger be located "near" the genes for the thumb? Would all genes concerned with the heart be ...
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Cloning using pET28a and Protein Expression in DH5alpha and BL21

Can someone please direct me to an e-resource or a book that will help a newbie like me learn in depth about Cloning using pET28a and Protein Expression in DH5alpha and BL21. Though I have done ...
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Can DNA be used directly to determine the age of a mutation?

I've studied that proteins found in a sample as biochemical evidences for evolution. Its variation in structure and configuration can be used to date the age when that mutation occured, effectively ...
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Questions regarding serial passage of virus through animals arising from the paper The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2

In this answer on bioinformatics.stackexchange.com to the question inquiring about the validity of the paper Kristian G. Andersen et al, The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2, the author asserts the ...
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How do we know that the “original animal exposure event” of a human to the Covid-19 virus occurred between October and December 2019?

In a Yale med page (interview) on Covid-19 from January it is said that The molecular dating of the virus genomes indicates that the original animal exposure event happened sometime between late ...
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How many histidine tags are in the glucose dehydrogenase?

How many histidine tags are in the glucose dehydrogenase (from Bacillus subtilis) and how does this number influence the process of affinity chromatography?
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Are the alleles that code for the same phenotype all the same exact sequence?

The idea that you can be homozygous for a gene means that there are limited options or alleles , correct ? My question is, if the mom has the allele b which codes for a blue eye, and the dad has an ...
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Best fundamental literature about genetics [closed]

I'm seeking for good genetics literature. I'm not afraid of it's complexity, because I want to have relevant knowledges about molecular genetics. After Wikipedia articles and basic molecular-biology ...
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What factors make iSCNT less effective than SCNT?

When comparing the efficiency of SCNT vs iSCNT, specifically what percent of transfers that generate a living animal; it appears that genetic distance between the receiving cytoplasm and the donor ...
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Getting some concept of cancer genetics

I have two groups of patients : Responders to chemotherapy and non-responders to chemotherapy. I treat this as a dichotomous ...
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Do proteins contain phosphorous? If its true then how alfred hershey and martha chase used the statement that proteins do not contain phosphorous?

I hv heard about phosphorus that it is a constituent of certain protein, although we know that no amino acids have phosphorus... and if its true then how Alfred hershey and Martha chase experiment got ...
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Absent gene expression from one of two vectors co-transformed into the BL21(DE3) strain of E. coli

I've been trying to express two proteins in the BL21(DE3) strain of E. coli. One gene is in a pCR2.1 vector and the other in a pET-expression vector. When I induce with IPTG and run on an acrylamide ...
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Open Reading Frames vs Coding Sequences (CDS), are they different?

The two terms confuse me for a long time. What is the difference between ORF and CDS. Some people say ORF could contain intron and CDS does not. The wikipedia definition of ORF does not contains ...
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92 views

Expression of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA

The Wikipedia page for rDNA says "Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA" Also, the figure next to it says "The gene segment of eukaryotic rDNA contains 18S, 5.8S, and 28S ...
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Is one DNA molecule same as one chromosome [duplicate]

Is one DNA molecule = one chromosome or is one DNA molecule = all the chromosomes, ie, all the genetic material in our cells? I have googled it but I am not getting clear answers ?
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How to calculate the quantification of qPCR to the equivalent of the number of nuclei in fungi?

I have a question about the quantification through qPCR. The my question is: if I made the qPCR of a fungal functional gene, how is possible to obtain from the quantification number (in nanogram) the ...
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How does an antisense RNA molecule restore protein function in CF patients?

I am researching a treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) called Eluforsen and I am trying to understand the mechanism by which an RNA molecule can restore proper protein function. In many research ...
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How do I identify and then isolate a Gene that codes for a particular observable phenotype

How do I identify and then isolate a Gene that codes for a particular observable phenotype. It is a novel bacteria and I do not know the gene sequence or the protein that it codes for.
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Is the total of all human DNA (23 pairs) the longest of all species?

The human DNA molecule is about 2 meters in length. See here. We have 46 of them, so in total 82 meters. In this article it is said that the genome of the Protopterus aethiopicus (a.k.a The marbled ...
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Are all carcinogens mutagens?

I assume that all carcinogens must be mutagens, but I've read that this is not the case. However, I can't find any good examples or an explanation of why it is not the case. How can a non-mutagenic ...
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Can bacteria pick up lethal plasmids?

I am sorry if this question is too general, and does not have any concrete answer. I was explaining to my non-biology-background friend about plasmids and how they are picked up by bacteria from the ...
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How does a lymphocyte produce an antibody from an antigen?

I am studying the immune system, and I have a question about the inner workings of antibody production in lymphocytes. As I understand it now, lymphocytes are able to create antibodies based on ...
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How do mutations of viruses lead to drug resistance?

For instance, after starting zidovudine monotherapy against HIV, resistance develops against the drug because of a point mutation in the RNA transcriptase enzyme to which the drug binds. So how does ...
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What prevents mRNAs that are localized to a specific part of the cell from being translated before they reach their destination?

One of the methods of mRNA localization, for example, is random diffusion of mRNAs where the mRNA binding proteins are localized to a certain part of the cell. However, I was taught that the ribosome ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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How do cis-regulatory elements and trans-regulatory elements behave differently?

Suppose you are working with an operon in a diploid organism. I'm looking for either a biochemical or genetic explanation. What I'm having trouble with mainly is understanding how something would ...
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How do homologous pairs find each other

If I'm not mistaken the only time homologous pairs of chromosomes need to find each other is during gamete formation in preparation for crossover recombination. How do they find each other?
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Prokaryotes Genome

What function of repetitive sequences of Prokaryote? I see a gap (intergenic region) between 2 coding strand. But just only a single origin region in Prokaryotes. How it can transcription coding ...
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How can we say that a gene is spacio-temporally regulated?

Gene expression is depending on the space and time of the cell. How can we distinguish the function of a gene without a chance of changing its expression? And also how is it possible to find the exact ...
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What controls specific gene silencing during cell differentiation?

I am intrigued by the fact that all cells of our body use the same DNA. How do the cells differentiate during the post fertilisation divisions? I read about gene silencing, which can be an answer to ...
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Study on Introns?

I am curious whether there has been a study done on the effects of removing introns. Specifically, what happens if you genetically edit a eukaryote genome to no longer contain introns? Or maybe just a ...
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Methods: Homologous recombination and retroviral infection

I'm looking for a textbook that explains these methodologies: Use of homologous recombination to insert a gen-cassette into another organism's gen. Use of retroviral transduction to deliver genes ...
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During DNA foot-printing, what is the purpose of radioactively labeling only one end of the DNA fragment?

I read that during DNA foot-printing analysis, DNA is radioactively labeled on one end before being cleaved by DNase 1. I understand that it is labeled so in order to locate the fragment on a gel, but ...
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what is minimal promoter and what is basal promoter?

what is minimal and basal promoter and what are their elements and what is the difference between the two?I'm confused. searched a lot, but didn't found any satisfactory answer. please help
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What causes the elongation of Genome down the evolutionary time line [closed]

Theory of natural evolution says that complex life forms arose from simpler ones e.g. starting from Eubacteria to modern day multicellular eukaryotes. {If we try to reduce these changes happening at ...
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How many recombinations occur in an average human chromosome?

And is it a different number depending on which chromosome we choose (disregarding the change of this probability due to the differential size of the chromosomes)?
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What Ultimately Controls DNA Transcription?

Transcription of DNA and further splicing of mRNA is regulated by various transcription factors, small nuclear RNAs and so on; similarly such related mechanisms as transposition of transposons. All ...
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Difference Junk DNA and Pseudogenes [duplicate]

1-Are Pseudogenes and Junk DNA both Non-Coding DNA or they are different entity? How much Pseudogenes & Junk DNA do we have respectively? 2-I read that Non-Coding DNA has functions, my question ...
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Question about alternative polyadenylation

I know that alternative polyadenylation creates different transcript isoforms. My question is whether alternative polyadenylation ever results in differences in the terminal/last exon? The only case I ...
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Is the genetic term “polycistronic” still used in modern biology?

Is the term "cistronic", meaning an ORF on a mRNA, still commonly used in modern genetics? I´ve seen "polycistronic" being applied to prokaryotic mRNA in old textbooks, but I´ve rarely stumbled upon ...
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Can different cell lines of same type symbolise samples from different patients in ChIP-seq?

Can I simulate different patients by using different cell lines of the same cell type and from the same tissue? Can I also study apoptosis in an immortalised cell line? I have a gene X (transcription ...
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Confusion about result of monohybrid cross in Mendelian genetics

I was studying monohybrid crosses in genetics where the character considered is stem height. Whenever I came across punnett squares, I used to calculate the probability of the genotype of the ...

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