Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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310 views

why is DNA better for storing genetic info while RNA better for transmission of it?

I do know that RNA cannot be used for transmission since it is unstable, but how does it prove to be a better transmitter of genetic information?
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How can cancer preventing genes from animals be transferred to humans? [closed]

I recently read this non-peer reviewed article that states that the prevalence of cancer in crocodiles or elephants is really low, much lower than humans. It is said below A team of researchers ...
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How big is the change in proteins due to alternative splicing?

How different can the proteins be that are coded from the same DNA-sequence but undergoe alternative splicing? What I am trying to wrap my head around is why we are so fixated with the DNA-sequences ...
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What is the purpose of two cell divisions in meiosis?

At the moment, my thoughts are that the two cell divisions are necessary for recombination to occur, although I am not sure. I cannot really see why technically, the chromosome from each parent cannot ...
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At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often do chromosomal rearrangements occur? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the descendants, i.e. germ line chromosomal rearrangements. The ...
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Effect of UV radiation on retinoid (vitamin A) receptors in the skin

The retinoid receptors in the skin (face) can be disabled by UVA sun radiation as these study states : https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/03/990331063314.htm In this article it says the same :...
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What is the difference between a response element and a enhancer?

I have been confused as to the difference between a response element and an enhancer. Wikipedia has the definition of response element as the following: Response elements are short sequences of ...
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1answer
132 views

What biotechnology can be used to treat lazy eye, and possibly cure lazy eye? [closed]

I tried very hard researching and finding the root cause of amblyopia. It is mainly because of imbalance in eye muscle. But, there are a lot more complicated causes of this disease. Thus, I need some ...
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Why do I see so many kinetochores?

I am analysing RPE-1 cells from humans and I do not understand why I see so many kinetochores by immunofluorescence (more than 100 in many cells). They are in prometaphase.
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Combination of different antibodies

How can I know if I can combine anti Cenp-C and anti Rod1 antibodies? I want to use them to label those protein and analysing cells by fluorescence microscopy. *Cenp-C is kinetochore protein and Rod1 ...
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1answer
295 views

Does crossover happen between chromosomes from grandparents?

Rephrasing question: does crossover happen after sperm and egg meet each other, but before formed fetus starts to grow? As I understand sperm and egg of human are haploid cells. That means this cells ...
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Is there variation of AT/CG ratio along species?

Chargaff's rules say that the number of Adenine of the number of Thymine in a genome are equal (nA=nT) and similarly nC=nG. This makes obvious sense knowing that C binds to G and A to T. But what ...
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Inheriting Modified DNA after CRISPR editing

If CRISPR is used to modify the DNA sequence to cure a disease - say MS in a woman - will the RNA guides also modify the sequence in her eggs so her children could be born without MS inherited from ...
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1answer
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What is a CAG::ChR2 rat?

I am reading the paper: Pyramidal Cell-Interneuron Interactions Underlie Hippocampal Ripple Oscillations. The authors use CAG::ChR2 rats (for example in Figure 2) and I don't know what it means. I ...
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What came first? The DNA or the DNA polymerases?

I know this sounds a lot like chicken and egg question and while the latter has an answer, I am intrigued about the former. A modified form of the question would be, in the course of abiogenesis, ...
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DNA base pair heading

Does it make ANY difference to which strand of DNA double helix base pair heads? I mean, could base pair AT and base pair TA makes any difference when interpreted by biochemical mechanisms which use ...
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How does aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognize different tRNAs?

There are about 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, one for each amino acid. Each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase has a binding site that recognizes a specific amino acid, and other binding areas that recognize ...
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Correlation of non-coding DNA with coding DNA

I sequenced the first exon of the MC1R gene of 15 labradors (genomic DNA) to look for the loss-of-function mutation (C.916C>T) and as expected, it was where it should have been (916th base pair). As i ...
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What is the difficulty with cloning and genetic engineering in humans?

I asked this question many years ago and was told by my molecular biology professor that humans were (simply) more complicated than goats. So, I didn't get a straight answer, but supposing he told ...
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What is wrong with this analogy: Individuals are to alleles what governments are to individuals

I'm an amateur when it comes to genetics, I'm hoping to learn something from the corrections. I am taking epigenetics into account (kind of); all 3 entities are susceptible to external physical ...
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Function and Characterization of poly(T) and (AT)

I came across three terms; "poly(T)45", "poly(A)45" and "(AT)15". Can anyone explain what they are? I know the number refers to strand length, possibly poly-T is a strand of thymine monomers and that ...
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How to edit/insert new gene after cutting with CRISPR/cas9

I'm a student started who has started learning about CRISPR/Cas9. As I understand it, CRISPR/Cas9 is an enzyme that is used to cut a gene at a specific sequence. I would like to know how scientist do ...
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What is allele-specific gene expression?

I read somewhere that the two different alleles which we (and other species) inherit from our parents are not expressed equally in our cells. Which genes show allele-specific expression? How and why?
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Why is compensatory negative supercoiling generated in a positively supercoiling ccDNA?

I was reading DNA replication in E.coli in Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 6th Ed. and stumbled upon the following -- The tight right handed wrapping of DNA around DnaA oligomeric complex ...
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Is it possible to obtain single strands of DNA in solution? [closed]

Being that it is relatively simple to extract DNA from a variety of sources, what further technique can be used to separate the two complementary strands in solution?
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What's the difference between Phage DNA and Recombinant DNA

Genetic engineering: In my textbook the following sentences describe the two, but to me they seem the same: The new combination of bases in the DNA (vector DNA + DNA fragment) is called recombinant ...
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Is human genome editing more complicated than mice genome editing?

A lot of genome editing trials are being done on mice and rats, but I often read that the step from mice- to human genome editing is complicated. What are precisely? I guess it has something to do ...
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Why are most mutations recessive? [duplicate]

Why are most of deleterious mutations recessive in nature? I understood that if it's recessive then one reason may be that the mutant gene doesn't code for a functional protein and so there is no ...
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what is the meaning of VIP-cre::LSL-TOM::SOMGFP(GIN) mice?

I am reading the following paper and the researchers use "VIP-cre::LSL-TOM::SOM-GFP(GIN)" mice (page 4) for multi cell patch clamp and "VIP-cre::LSL-TOM and SOM-cre::LSL-TOM" mice injected ...
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981 views

Why some cells don't produce purines?

It is said that erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and brain cannot produce purines. And the reason given as per this site is: Human brain tissue has a low level of PRPP glutamyl ...
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411 views

What is open complex in E.coli DNA replication?

The E.coli DnaB helicase is essential for replication initiation from the chromosomal origin of replication ( oriC ) and is present in vivo as a protein complex with six monomers of the DnaC ATPase ...
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College Genetics: Xist vs. transposon

I'm taking introduction to genetics and I'm trying to understand the following question: Lets say there is a male cat with blue ears, a single gene mutation called BLU. We try to obtain pure bred ...
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How can DNA profiling be used to determine the number of organisms from a specific species that is within a certain area?

Here is the tedious exam question that asks this: question 8(b). https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B23NLD5L6099VWJya3dfLVJpbmc The question states: In 2007, the brown bear was a threatened ...
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Human Papillomavirus E7 (HR HPV16)

So there's a protein that binds to E7 viral protein, I want to remove a sub domain of the protein to see which exact domain the E7 binds to. What is the procedure for this? Edit: I believe the virus ...
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1answer
4k views

How do major and minor grooves arise in the DNA helix? [duplicate]

I understand that they arise due to the pairing of bases of two opposite stands and are sites through which important proteins needed for replication and transcription of DNA interact. But I don't get ...
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Understanding PAM and BLOSUM matrices

This question might be silly but I need some clarification. I'm slightly confused about if there are multiple PAM and BLOSUM matrices? Is there a different matrix for each sequence? My ...
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378 views

Recommend any Molecular lab LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System)

We are looking to develop or customize a LIMS for our molecular lab. Do you know of a LIMS that you've used in a molecular lab before, or one that could be used. Thanks for the help (Edit) Some of ...
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1answer
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Does mechanotransduction of cells play a role in the biocompatibility of titanium?

What exactly is mechanotransduction as the information varies between sources. Some sources indicate that mechanotransduction is the underlying principle where cells pull on the surface they grow on ...
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Are RNA transcripts always synthesised from the same DNA strand? [duplicate]

The DNA is read 3'->5' (and RNA synthesized 5'->3'). But due to the DNA strands having to be complementary, it seems to me that the origin can only appear on the correct side of the ORF on one of the ...
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What is the role of tracrRNA in CRISPR-cas9?

From what I understand, in a CRISPR cas9 complex, gRNA is comprised of tracrRNA and crRNA. I've read that crRNA is the part which is matched to the DNA which is targeted, but what role does tracrRNA ...
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How would circular dominance of alleles be determined on the genetic level?

The distinction between dominant and recessive alleles seems to be due to loss or gain of function in the proteins they code for. Alleles have been observed exhibiting incomplete and hierarchical ...
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585 views

Meaning of ‘NC number’ associated with a gene?‘

Genes in listings etc. often have a number of the type NC_000012.12 associated with them. How should this be interpreted?
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Does DNA helicase or topoisomerase actually “unwind” DNA?

I am reading through my textbook (Genetics, Brooker 4th edition) and the summary it gives seems imprecise for the functionality of helicase and topoisomerase. The following is an exerpt: ...
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Understanding DNA supercoiling

While trying to understand DNA supercoiling, I came across these lines in the book Genetics by Ursula Goodenough : All natural DNA is superhelical. The axis of the duplex itself follows a helical ...
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Do all polygenic traits involve epistasis?

Consider the following statement All polygenic traits involve epistasis. I think its true because polygenic traits involve several genes interacting together to result in a certain phenotype and ...
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What are Expressed Sequence Tags (EST)?

I read in an article that ESTs are partial or sub-sequences of cDNA. What are ESTs exactly? Which part of cDNA is cut in order to make ESTs? Why are they so instrumental in genomic research?
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Is there any technique can quickly expand one set of cell chromosomes?

Assume a cell type is very scarce while isolated out and hard to expand in vitro, and I wanna have more of its chromosomes, is there any technique , in vivo or in vitro or ex vitro, any would count, ...