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Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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How were genes located before the development of bioinformatics?

I would like to know the detailed procedure of how scientists in earlier time were able to locate genes like how we were able to locate Huntington gene in 1983?
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Why are not both alleles knocked out at the same time in knock out mouse?

I was reading this little 'article' about homologous recombination and knockout mouse. According to this article you first remove embryonic stem cells from a gray-fur blastocyst, then insert the ...
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Is there a distinction between linkage phase and haplotype?

Linkage phase- combination of alleles that are coinherited Haplotype- combination of alleles an organism has at different loci. So could an informative meiosis be defined as a meiosis in which a ...
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What is the difference between alarmones and riboswitches

An Alarmone is an intracellular signal molecule that is produced due to harsh environmental factors. They regulate the gene expression at transcription level. A riboswitch is a regulatory segment of a ...
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What are the interactions between mtDNA and nucelus' DNA?

In an exam situation I have been presented with the following question by the teacher: What are the interactions between the mitochondrial DNA and the cell's nuclear DNA? To my knowledge there is ...
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Will the addition of 3 amino acids in the C-terminal of a membrane protein affects its properties?

I am planning to use 2A self-cleavage peptide to express my gene of interest downstream of an intrinsic gene in my model organism so that I can exploit the intrinsic promoter, instead of cloning it ...
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Why may some telomeres not appear on metaphase chromosomes using Q-FISH?

There are some chromosomes that appear to have missing telomeres e.g. 2 instead of the expected 4, but there appears to be no fusions or breaks.
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What is the chemical mechanism by which PcP(c) is converted to PcP(Sc) in Fatal Familial Insomnia

I know the gene PRNP and it's location. There’s a mutation at codon 178 (asparagine found instead of normal aspartic acid) on the prion protein gene (also found in fCJD) and more uniquely there is a ...
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Reversal of cross-linking in ChIP-seq

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used to investigate the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell. A summary of the protocol for ...
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What are the advantages of using interphase cells rather than metaphase cells for gene mapping purposes using FISH?

I have been told that interphase cells are better for gene mapping purposes than metaphase cells but don't know why.
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Do tRNAs that recognize multiple codons have any preference for one over another?

What are the effects of the different binding strength/affinity between the synonymous codons corresponding to a single tRNA ?
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Looking for neuronal gene expression database

I am looking to see if there is a database that contains gene expression profiles differences of differentially stimulated neurons.
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Can I use commercial DNA loading dye for my RNA samples without degrading them?

I was wondering if I have to use special RNA loading dye or can I run RNA samples with regular loading dye that is used for DNA?
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How to attain a deep conceptual grasp of key atomic/molecular/genetic/ notions? [closed]

It's a total noob question, I know. I'm a layperson trying to come to grips with basic scientific terminology. I always face a conceptual hurdle in trying to understand micro-talk. The way I'm using ...
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Do all E. coli Express OmpC Membrane-Protein?

In a lot of papers I am reading, people are amplifying the OmpC gene (which codes for the OmpC membrane protein), from 'E. coli' but they do not specify the strain they used. According to my ...
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Gene terminology - is one gene a concrete, single physical sequence?

Suppose you have two identical copies of the same, coding nucleotide sequence (e.g. two copies of BCL2 - a random gene I found on Wikipedia). Could you say that these are two genes (i.e. the name "...
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196 views

Molecular genetics textbook (free?) suggestion for first time

I have never taken a molecular genetics course but want to prime myself for graduate school in the future. Does anyone have any suggestions or advice? A professor recommends "the molecular biology of ...
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Are pheromones capable of activating changes to the Phenotype of a complex organism?

I know that pheromones are means of communication between the same species, but are they capable of changing the phenotype of an organism, may be influencing the expression of the genes of a said ...
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32 views

Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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Gene density percentage

What do we mean when we say that: Haemophilus influenza genome is 85% genic. How do we measure gene density in percentage, especially for the above-mentioned case?
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How to Calculate how many times an enzyme would cut a plasmid

I'm a little confused as to how to figure out the formula needed to figure this out. I have a plasmid that is 7.3Kb and am told that it is cut with an enzyme of 4bp. For some reason I thought that ...
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Why is my DNA below the ladder?

I have run a gradient PCR.. and band 6 after the ladder is clearly the brightest. But all bands appear below the ladder. What does that mean? It is extracted mDNA that was loaded. Thank you in ...
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Gene expression system

What is the mechanism of action of Gal4-UAS expression system in Yeast and it's application in Drosophila ? I want to know the steps by which the Gal4-UAS expression system is able to over express or ...
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What determines the differences between differentiated cells?

Given two multi-cellular species with obviously different phenotypes. The reason for the different phenotypes reflects their different DNA. However two types of cells in an adult organism may have ...
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Downstream Promoter Element’s Role

The promoters‘ role is to bind polymerase to get started transcription. And in fact: by Wikipedia “Like all core promoters, the DPE plays an important role in the initiation of gene transcription by ...
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Is it possible to use virus for genetic modification of embryos during the fetus stage

I know this probably sounds rather hypothetical and not very feasible but I would very like an answer telling why it is possible or not possible and why. With the advancement of crispr and other dna ...
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Transcripts with complete ORF from the UTR

I assembled transcripts from several RNA-seq libraries. I find that quite a few of highly expressed transcripts can be mapped to be within the 3'-UTR of annotated genes in the genome. What is bizarre ...
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Why does HIV chooses the Macrophage cells to infect first?

Upon entering our body HIV directs the macrophage cells to manufacture more virus particles. It injects the Viral RNA into the Macrophages. With the help of the enzyme reverse transcriptase the Viral ...
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Have we ever observed fertile offspring with a different number of chromosomes than the parents?

Chimpanzees are supposedly the closest relative of humans from a DNA perspective, they are both diploid, and they both undergo meiosis. However, chimpanzees have 24 chromosome pairs while humans have ...
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plasmid purification

I am a biochemist who is conducting a research in-which I need a plasmid purification kits to purify plasmid (Addgene, #42230) from LB liquid culture shall I use miniprep or midiprep or maxiprep ...
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193 views

SNP vs common SNP

Wikipedia citing Nature defines SNP to be a one where each (thus the lowest frequency) allele exceeds some percentage threshold in the population. But I see a lot of papers and books calling such an ...
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Microsatellites and Minisatellites: Which of these form the basis of DNA fingerprinting?

I'm in a fix. Prepare yourself for a long read We've just learned about minisatellites and microsatellites at class (okay, by "learned", I mean we were told their definitions and essentially ...
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What is the difference between average sperm epimutations and intersection sperm epimutations, in the context of the attached article?

The paper of interest is Manikkam et al. (2014). In research for a school Year 10 Science project, I came upon this article and the following two graphics. I don’t quite understand the difference ...
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187 views

Can a novel protein domain arise de novo in nature or did all protein domains evolve from a single ancestor?

I know there is extensive research into the taxonomy and evolution of protein domains and many connections are, and are continuing to be, found between numerous domains. However, as far as I can see, ...
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Specific primer design

I'm designing primers for species-specific amplification (inside ITS1-ITS2 region). The problem is that when I blast (GenBank) my primer pair, the Forward primer anneals with some isolates (of the ...
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Cancer and Evolution [duplicate]

Edit: just to clarify, I am asking what, if anything, the literature says can be gleaned about evolution by studying cancer, especially relating to how multicellularity evolved and the traits used to ...
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225 views

why is DNA better for storing genetic info while RNA better for transmission of it?

I do know that RNA cannot be used for transmission since it is unstable, but how does it prove to be a better transmitter of genetic information?
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57 views

How can cancer preventing genes from animals be transferred to humans? [closed]

I recently read this non-peer reviewed article that states that the prevalence of cancer in crocodiles or elephants is really low, much lower than humans. It is said below A team of researchers ...
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How big is the change in proteins due to alternative splicing?

How different can the proteins be that are coded from the same DNA-sequence but undergoe alternative splicing? What I am trying to wrap my head around is why we are so fixated with the DNA-sequences ...
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What hold and inject pressure to be used in microinjection?

I am planning to set up micro-injection apparatus in our lab. Normally what hold and inject pressures are used to inject DNA in fly embryo? I couldn't find in any literature as far as I've come across....
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Effect of UV radiation on retinoid (vitamin A) receptors in the skin

The retinoid receptors in the skin (face) can be disabled by UVA sun radiation as these study states : https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/03/990331063314.htm In this article it says the same :...
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What is the difference between a response element and a enhancer?

I have been confused as to the difference between a response element and an enhancer. Wikipedia has the definition of response element as the following: Response elements are short sequences of ...
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61 views

What biotechnology can be used to treat lazy eye, and possibly cure lazy eye? [closed]

I tried very hard researching and finding the root cause of amblyopia. It is mainly because of imbalance in eye muscle. But, there are a lot more complicated causes of this disease. Thus, I need some ...
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2answers
120 views

Differential Gene Expression

I have a matrix two gene expression datasets, one from 10 normal individuals and ten from diseased individuals, which are normalised log fold change values--, i.e., already processed. My question is:...
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Why do I see so many kinetochores?

I am analysing RPE-1 cells from humans and I do not understand why I see so many kinetochores by immunofluorescence (more than 100 in many cells). They are in prometaphase.
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Combination of different antibodies

How can I know if I can combine anti Cenp-C and anti Rod1 antibodies? I want to use them to label those protein and analysing cells by fluorescence microscopy. *Cenp-C is kinetochore protein and Rod1 ...
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262 views

Does crossover happen between chromosomes from grandparents?

Rephrasing question: does crossover happen after sperm and egg meet each other, but before formed fetus starts to grow? As I understand sperm and egg of human are haploid cells. That means this cells ...
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36 views

Inheriting Modified DNA after CRISPR editing

If CRISPR is used to modify the DNA sequence to cure a disease - say MS in a woman - will the RNA guides also modify the sequence in her eggs so her children could be born without MS inherited from ...
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1answer
173 views

What is a CAG::ChR2 rat?

I am reading the paper: Pyramidal Cell-Interneuron Interactions Underlie Hippocampal Ripple Oscillations. The authors use CAG::ChR2 rats (for example in Figure 2) and I don't know what it means. I ...