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Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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6 views

Map view on PopART (Population Analysis with Reticulate Trees)

Does anyone know how to improve map display quality? Images looks pixelated and you cannot zoom in too close.
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What are the forces involved in giving each and every one of the $DNA$ (out of kazillions) the helix shape?

I am not a biology student. So please bear with me if the question is nonsense. Almost all of the heavenly bodies are almost spherical. This can be easily explained using theory of gravity. But each ...
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Title for research in the field of Genetics of Carps Fish Disease

I want to perform research in the field of Genetics (molecular study) of (any Asian fish such as Chinese Carps or Indian Carps) Fish Disease. Please suggest a suitable title and recommend research ...
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Do we actually know the Huntington chorea molecular mechanism?

I mean, did we know all genes involucrated on the dynamic mutation, and the protein that are used or it will be affected? I found this paper on chorea genetics from 2016 where literally concludes: ...
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Difference between CDS and cDNA

What is the difference between Coding Sequences (CDS) and cDNA? Are Coding sequences the sequences that is transcribed to mRNA and cDNA in contrast DNA obtained by reverse polymerization of matured ...
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1answer
400 views

Do telomeres appear at just one end of the chromosome?

I have just studied DNA Replication for my Biology Class and I have this question that leaves me stuck, though I have tried to figure it out myself. During telomere replication, I am aware Telomerase ...
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Methods: Homologous recombination and retroviral infection

I'm looking for a textbook that explains these methodologies: Use of homologous recombination to insert a gen-cassette into another organism's gen. Use of retroviral transduction to deliver genes ...
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2answers
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What are the potential dangers (if any) facing the twin girls recently born in China with their CCR5 gene modified?

According to this Nature news article, a Chinese researcher claims to have made the world's first genome-edited baby using the popular CRISPR–Cas9 genome-editing tool. A gene called CCR5 was modified ...
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1answer
33 views

During DNA foot-printing, what is the purpose of radioactively labeling only one end of the DNA fragment?

I read that during DNA foot-printing analysis, DNA is radioactively labeled on one end before being cleaved by DNase 1. I understand that it is labeled so in order to locate the fragment on a gel, but ...
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what is minimal promoter and what is basal promoter?

what is minimal and basal promoter and what are their elements and what is the difference between the two?I'm confused. searched a lot, but didn't found any satisfactory answer. please help
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1answer
34 views

What causes the elongation of Genome down the evolutionary time line [closed]

Theory of natural evolution says that complex life forms arose from simpler ones e.g. starting from Eubacteria to modern day multicellular eukaryotes. {If we try to reduce these changes happening at ...
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How many recombinations occur in an average human chromosome?

And is it a different number depending on which chromosome we choose (disregarding the change of this probability due to the differential size of the chromosomes)?
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1answer
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Insertion Confirmation Cloning Strategy

So I am in a bit of a time constraint. Essentially, I inserted a DNA fragment via molecular cloning which contains a unique RE site. I need to confirm whether my colony has or does not have the ...
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1answer
31 views

Question about alternative polyadenylation

I know that alternative polyadenylation creates different transcript isoforms. My question is whether alternative polyadenylation ever results in differences in the terminal/last exon? The only case I ...
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2answers
102 views

How can you band wheat chromosomes using Giemsa dye?

I am working with wheat chromosomes and trying to stain the chromosomes. However, during staining with Giemsa dye chromosomes appear totally dark. I'm not sure why this might be. Anyone have any ideas?...
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97 views

What Ultimately Controls DNA Transcription?

Transcription of DNA and further splicing of mRNA is regulated by various transcription factors, small nuclear RNAs and so on; similarly such related mechanisms as transposition of transposons. All ...
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4k views

Are mutations a source of genetic variation?

Here is a question from the book SAT II Success Biology E/M (where the SAT is the exam taken by the American high school students): Which of the following statements is true about mutations? (A) ...
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1answer
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Can Cas13 be used with multiple crRNAs in the same reaction?

CRISPR-Cas13 equipped with crRNA (complementary to transcripts of interest) can be designed to target ssRNA transcripts in cells. Upon successful crRNA and ssRNA binding, a fluorescent domain on ...
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1answer
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Difference Junk DNA and Pseudogenes [duplicate]

1-Are Pseudogenes and Junk DNA both Non-Coding DNA or they are different entity? How much Pseudogenes & Junk DNA do we have respectively? 2-I read that Non-Coding DNA has functions, my question ...
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Is brachydactyly due to mutation?

I have this so called "clubbed thumbs"also known as brachydactyly. It is of D-type. I searched for it on internet and found that it is a dominant inherited disease. But to my surprise,none of my ...
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Is the genetic term “polycistronic” still used in modern biology?

Is the term "cistronic", meaning an ORF on a mRNA, still commonly used in modern genetics? I´ve seen "polycistronic" being applied to prokaryotic mRNA in old textbooks, but I´ve rarely stumbled upon ...
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Can different cell lines of same type symbolise samples from different patients in ChIP-seq?

Can I simulate different patients by using different cell lines of the same cell type and from the same tissue? Can I also study apoptosis in an immortalised cell line? I have a gene X (transcription ...
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1answer
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What advantages could there be for using the unseen variant chosen by He Jiankui instead of the naturally occurring CCR5-∆ 32 mutation?

Jennifer Doudna mentioned in https://youtu.be/9Yblg9wDHZA?t=2566 on 2019-02-21 that He Jiankui introduced an unseen variant of the CCR5 gene when gene editing the twin humans Lulu and Nana. What ...
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Confusion about result of monohybrid cross in Mendelian genetics

I was studying monohybrid crosses in genetics where the character considered is stem height. Whenever I came across punnett squares, I used to calculate the probability of the genotype of the ...
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1answer
53 views

How evolutionarily conserved are UTRs?

Coding sequences of genes have a certain degree of evolutionary conservation, so that comparisons based on sequences (BLAST, HMMER etc) can be informative. Generally speaking, the more two species are ...
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2answers
157 views

Is there an Exit site (E-site) on the eukaryotic ribosome?

One of my professors mentioned something about the e-site (the exit site for the t-RNA) on a eukaryotic ribosome. There was a student in the class who objected, saying that there is no e-site on ...
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1answer
60 views

What is the role of CRISPR-dCas9 in gRNA-dCas9 transcription regulator complexes?

In this paper1, I read that mutant versions of Cas proteins such as a deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) are used alongside a guide-RNA (gRNA) to form variants of CRISPR tool that can function as transcription ...
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Are all fusion genes somatic in origin or can fusion genes be germline?

Fusion genes should have an origin.These are essentially hybrid genes that are translocated in its entirety. Eg. BCR-ABL, EML4-ALK are known to be implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Do these ...
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1answer
51 views

Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
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1answer
37 views

How to determine if two mutations in a gene are on the same or different alleles?

I would like to know, except a familial study, is there another way to determine if a mutation/variation is cis or trans (i.e. on the same or different alleles)? For example by sequencing technique or ...
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Number of DNA strands per chromosome

As I was reading Griffith's Introduction to genetic analysis this evidence was provided for single DNA makes single chromosome. Eventually geneticists demonstrated directly that certain chromosomes ...
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1answer
41 views

What is the difference between DNA vs RNA Editing in the context of gene therapy?

As a someone with beginner knowledge on biology, I have come across the terms "RNA editing". Take this paper for example : RNA Editing with CRISPR-Cas13 From my understanding, DNA -> RNA -> Proteins ...
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1answer
55 views

Are epigenetic modifications the most stable mechanisms for cell differentiation?

Wondering what the general take is on what are the molecular mechanisms that are mostly responsible for cell type differentiation stability; ie, for a cell's identity to actually become 'locked in' ...
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Need help in identifying and understanding the origin of an expression variant

We usually denote the origin of a mutation as either somatic or germline. This information is usually available in certain databases such as CIVIC, ClinVar, COSMIC etc. But when we come to variants ...
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2answers
81 views

Organisms that use more than the 20+2 commonly occurring amino acids?

I know scientists have created synthetic bacteria, with a genetic code containing 6 letters instead of 4, with the aim of creating more complex proteins (using amino acids outside of the standard 20+2,...
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2answers
651 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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61 views

What is the difference among biochemistry, molecular biology, molecular genetics and structural biology?

I have never heard of straigthforward definitions of these fields in my college lectures, and the Internet searches were not very helpful. However, from what I have learned at different subjects, this ...
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2answers
87 views

Can DNA be flattened?

DNA is always shaped like a double helix. But could you flatten the double helix (which is essentially just a twisted ladder) and would DNA still be able to duplicate and control cells?
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1answer
4k views

Are SNPs and alleles the same thing?

It seems to be quite difficult to find an answer to this. Are SNPs the same thing as alleles?
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How does the difference in the sequences of a dominant and a recessive allele of a gene help in the expression of the gene? [duplicate]

When an organism is heterozygous at a specific locus for a gene and carries one dominant and one recessive allele, the organism will express the dominant phenotype. These alleles vary in their ...
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Will DNA nanostructures be useful for medical applications?

There is a lot of work being done on developing small nanomechanical structures and even small nanomechanical actuators built with DNA. I have heard researchers motivate this research with claims ...
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Is complete dominance actually a genotypic process?

An example often stated for codominance is blood groups, where both alleles version of the protein is expressed and can be found in the cell membrane. An example of incomplete dominance often given ...
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2answers
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Are mitochondrial genes decoded in the same way as nuclear genes?

Mammalian mitochondrial genomes contain only 22 tRNA-coding genes, which is an insufficient number to decode mRNAs under the standard wobble rules. How is translation of mitochondrial mRNAs achieved ...
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Computational approaches for making hypotheses about the effects of genetic engineering? Experiment planning methods?

Let's assume that I am searching for gene editing candidates for curing human adiposis. Are there computational frameworks that can allow me to select the best candidate-genes for editing via some ...
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1answer
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Selective breeding fluorescent sheep - possible?

I got into a small argument :-) Friends of mine try to draw fat line between "natural" selective breeding and applying molecular biology (CRISPR/Cas9) to put new traits in existing species. The line ...
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Increase rate of change in coding regions?

If a sequence is under selection will it acquire more changes over time because of faster fixation than if changes were neutral? Is this true or am I missing something?
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1answer
266 views

Calculating Possible Combinations of Bases in a DNA Strand of a Given Length

In my Biology class we were asked this question: This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. How many different sequences of eight bases can you make? Explain how you found your ...
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Why is AUG the initiation codon?

Is there any reason why AUG is the initiation codon? Can’t translation start with different codons?
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Why did translation develop a specific codon for initiation?

The translation of mRNA is initiated by a specific methionine-accepting tRNA at a specific initiation codon, usually AUG (complementary to the tRNA anticodon). However translation at suitable (albeit ...
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Why are Barr Bodies usually seen along the edge of the nucleus under the light microscope?

We do a typical class exercise of aceto-orsein staining of buccal epithelial cells from female students to visualize Barr bodies under the light microscope. All the illustrations and pictures in the ...