Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

So I am trying to brush up on my knowledge of HATs and HDACs. I am reading the just the 1st paragraph of the background of this study I remember learning that HATs turn things on on, and HDACs turn ...
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GenBank help needed: save multiple records

I am trying to create a file from the https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov website that contains all the gene sequences of T. cruzi surface antigens, and haven't yet found a practical way to do it. There are ...
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Mapping of genes: are genes for physically close things close to each other?

I am not sure how to google this but the question is pretty simple: would the genes for the index finger be located "near" the genes for the thumb? Would all genes concerned with the heart be ...
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“challenges associated with drug design” What does it mean?

I was reading the news here: https://www.drugtargetreview.com/article/60516/developing-immunotherapies-for-hard-to-treat-cancers/ And then I saw "challenges associated with drug design" in this ...
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Cloning using pET28a and Protein Expression in DH5alpha and BL21

Can someone please direct me to an e-resource or a book that will help a newbie like me learn in depth about Cloning using pET28a and Protein Expression in DH5alpha and BL21. Though I have done ...
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What metabolic processes do dormant and ungerminated seeds carry out?

What metabolic processes does a dormant embryo in a seed carry out? Seeds will not germinate, either because of a lack of favourable conditions, seed hibernation, or because of a genetically pre-...
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Can DNA be used directly to determine the age of a mutation?

I've studied that proteins found in a sample as biochemical evidences for evolution. Its variation in structure and configuration can be used to date the age when that mutation occured, effectively ...
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Questions regarding serial passage of virus through animals arising from the paper The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2

In this answer on bioinformatics.stackexchange.com to the question inquiring about the validity of the paper Kristian G. Andersen et al, The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2, the author asserts the ...
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Do proteins contain phosphorous? If its true then how alfred hershey and martha chase used the statement that proteins do not contain phosphorous?

I hv heard about phosphorus that it is a constituent of certain protein, although we know that no amino acids have phosphorus... and if its true then how Alfred hershey and Martha chase experiment got ...
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How expensive are biotechnological methods (e.g. CRISPR)?

How expensive is it to edit a gene (i.e. cut or insert a section) using CRISPR? I could not find the pricing for a non-commercial gene edit (I mean if it's just done for research purposes and not sold)...
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How do we know that the “original animal exposure event” of a human to the Covid-19 virus occurred between October and December 2019?

In a Yale med page (interview) on Covid-19 from January it is said that The molecular dating of the virus genomes indicates that the original animal exposure event happened sometime between late ...
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How many histidine tags are in the glucose dehydrogenase?

How many histidine tags are in the glucose dehydrogenase (from Bacillus subtilis) and how does this number influence the process of affinity chromatography?
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True examples of common variation due to Mendelian Inheritance

Classic examples of mendelian inheritance are genetic diseases such as sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and xeroderma pigmentosa. For some of these diseases, it is believed that they ...
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Are the alleles that code for the same phenotype all the same exact sequence?

The idea that you can be homozygous for a gene means that there are limited options or alleles , correct ? My question is, if the mom has the allele b which codes for a blue eye, and the dad has an ...
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Best fundamental literature about genetics [closed]

I'm seeking for good genetics literature. I'm not afraid of it's complexity, because I want to have relevant knowledges about molecular genetics. After Wikipedia articles and basic molecular-biology ...
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How do cis-regulatory elements and trans-regulatory elements behave differently?

Suppose you are working with an operon in a diploid organism. I'm looking for either a biochemical or genetic explanation. What I'm having trouble with mainly is understanding how something would ...
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Recommend any Molecular lab LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System) [closed]

We are looking to develop or customize a LIMS for our molecular lab. Do you know of a LIMS that you've used in a molecular lab before, or one that could be used. Thanks for the help (Edit) Some of ...
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Getting some concept of cancer genetics

I have two groups of patients : Responders to chemotherapy and non-responders to chemotherapy. I treat this as a dichotomous ...
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Understanding DNA supercoiling

While trying to understand DNA supercoiling, I came across these lines in the book Genetics by Ursula Goodenough : All natural DNA is superhelical. The axis of the duplex itself follows a helical ...
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How do homologous pairs find each other

If I'm not mistaken the only time homologous pairs of chromosomes need to find each other is during gamete formation in preparation for crossover recombination. How do they find each other?
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What factors make iSCNT less effective than SCNT?

When comparing the efficiency of SCNT vs iSCNT, specifically what percent of transfers that generate a living animal; it appears that genetic distance between the receiving cytoplasm and the donor ...
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Insertion Confirmation Cloning Strategy

So I am in a bit of a time constraint. Essentially, I inserted a DNA fragment via molecular cloning which contains a unique RE site. I need to confirm whether my colony has or does not have the ...
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Question about alternative polyadenylation

I know that alternative polyadenylation creates different transcript isoforms. My question is whether alternative polyadenylation ever results in differences in the terminal/last exon? The only case I ...
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How can you band wheat chromosomes using Giemsa dye?

I am working with wheat chromosomes and trying to stain the chromosomes. However, during staining with Giemsa dye chromosomes appear totally dark. I'm not sure why this might be. Anyone have any ideas?...
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Absent gene expression from one of two vectors co-transformed into the BL21(DE3) strain of E. coli

I've been trying to express two proteins in the BL21(DE3) strain of E. coli. One gene is in a pCR2.1 vector and the other in a pET-expression vector. When I induce with IPTG and run on an acrylamide ...
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Can Cas13 be used with multiple crRNAs in the same reaction?

CRISPR-Cas13 equipped with crRNA (complementary to transcripts of interest) can be designed to target ssRNA transcripts in cells. Upon successful crRNA and ssRNA binding, a fluorescent domain on ...
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Calculating Possible Combinations of Bases in a DNA Strand of a Given Length

In my Biology class we were asked this question: This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. How many different sequences of eight bases can you make? Explain how you found your ...
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Open Reading Frames vs Coding Sequences (CDS), are they different?

The two terms confuse me for a long time. What is the difference between ORF and CDS. Some people say ORF could contain intron and CDS does not. The wikipedia definition of ORF does not contains ...
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Expression of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA

The Wikipedia page for rDNA says "Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA" Also, the figure next to it says "The gene segment of eukaryotic rDNA contains 18S, 5.8S, and 28S ...
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Is one DNA molecule same as one chromosome [duplicate]

Is one DNA molecule = one chromosome or is one DNA molecule = all the chromosomes, ie, all the genetic material in our cells? I have googled it but I am not getting clear answers ?
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How to calculate the quantification of qPCR to the equivalent of the number of nuclei in fungi?

I have a question about the quantification through qPCR. The my question is: if I made the qPCR of a fungal functional gene, how is possible to obtain from the quantification number (in nanogram) the ...
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Is the promoter region of a gene transcribed?

If the RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter region of the gene, would it form the initial mRNA portion soon after attachment by reading the promoter region? Or should it slide across the DNA then ...
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How does an antisense RNA molecule restore protein function in CF patients?

I am researching a treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) called Eluforsen and I am trying to understand the mechanism by which an RNA molecule can restore proper protein function. In many research ...
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How do I identify and then isolate a Gene that codes for a particular observable phenotype

How do I identify and then isolate a Gene that codes for a particular observable phenotype. It is a novel bacteria and I do not know the gene sequence or the protein that it codes for.
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Is the total of all human DNA (23 pairs) the longest of all species?

The human DNA molecule is about 2 meters in length. See here. We have 46 of them, so in total 82 meters. In this article it is said that the genome of the Protopterus aethiopicus (a.k.a The marbled ...
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How is the exogenous DNA protected from degradation during bacterial transformation?

During transformation, a bacterium can take up DNA from its environment. A small fraction of bacterial species are known to be naturally competent, meaning that they can engage in this sort of ...
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Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
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Are all carcinogens mutagens?

I assume that all carcinogens must be mutagens, but I've read that this is not the case. However, I can't find any good examples or an explanation of why it is not the case. How can a non-mutagenic ...
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Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
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Can bacteria pick up lethal plasmids?

I am sorry if this question is too general, and does not have any concrete answer. I was explaining to my non-biology-background friend about plasmids and how they are picked up by bacteria from the ...
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How does a lymphocyte produce an antibody from an antigen?

I am studying the immune system, and I have a question about the inner workings of antibody production in lymphocytes. As I understand it now, lymphocytes are able to create antibodies based on ...
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How do mutations of viruses lead to drug resistance?

For instance, after starting zidovudine monotherapy against HIV, resistance develops against the drug because of a point mutation in the RNA transcriptase enzyme to which the drug binds. So how does ...
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What prevents mRNAs that are localized to a specific part of the cell from being translated before they reach their destination?

One of the methods of mRNA localization, for example, is random diffusion of mRNAs where the mRNA binding proteins are localized to a certain part of the cell. However, I was taught that the ribosome ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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What is a holocentric chromosome?

I was doing this question that asked: "How many centromeres does a typical chromosome have?" I thought one and the answer was:"One, except for holocentric chromosomes." So then what are "...
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Prokaryotes Genome

What function of repetitive sequences of Prokaryote? I see a gap (intergenic region) between 2 coding strand. But just only a single origin region in Prokaryotes. How it can transcription coding ...
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How can we say that a gene is spacio-temporally regulated?

Gene expression is depending on the space and time of the cell. How can we distinguish the function of a gene without a chance of changing its expression? And also how is it possible to find the exact ...
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What controls specific gene silencing during cell differentiation?

I am intrigued by the fact that all cells of our body use the same DNA. How do the cells differentiate during the post fertilisation divisions? I read about gene silencing, which can be an answer to ...
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Study on Introns?

I am curious whether there has been a study done on the effects of removing introns. Specifically, what happens if you genetically edit a eukaryote genome to no longer contain introns? Or maybe just a ...
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Difference between CDS and cDNA

What is the difference between Coding Sequences (CDS) and cDNA? Are Coding sequences the sequences that is transcribed to mRNA and cDNA in contrast DNA obtained by reverse polymerization of matured ...

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