Questions tagged [molecular-genetics]

The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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What would an organism be like if its entire genome “worked”? [closed]

It is known that a large fraction of the genome of almost any organism "does not work", that is, it does not encode any proteins and does not participate in gene expression, in protein ...
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Is there any way to identify if chromosomes are inherited from the same parent?

I'm a PhD student in bioinformatics working on genomic data, and I was wondering: If I have access to a person's chromosomes, is there an assay that can determine that two chromosomes come from the ...
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Can Monsanto's (in)famous hybrid seed crops be cloned/grafted? If not, is there a technical or legal reason?

I understand that the seeds of a crop made from modern-day super hybrids will not, usually, produce the same quality plants in the next generation.... Therefore, farmers have to buy new hybrid seeds ...
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Are SNPs or SSR copy number variation mutations more prominent?

I'm trying to get a sense of the dominant way that mutations occur. I have seen various numbers which seem at least at first glance to conflict, and I was curious if anyone had clarification on this. ...
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Genomic library preparation: Why does the restriction enzyme not cut into the gene?

I am currently trying to understand creating a genomic library more profoundly. In most textbooks I read (as well as wikipedia), they mentioned that the genomic library is created by isolating the DNA ...
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Is CRISPR being utilized when scientists use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit genes?

"CRISPR" and "Cas9" are different things. When a virus attacks a bacteria, the bacteria stores the viral code of the virus in CRISPR. And when the virus attacks again the Cas9 ...
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How was gene knock out done in pre CRISPR era?

I am trying to understand how CRISPR has made the gene knockout or gene editing process simpler to make transgenic animals. Here is an old (pre CRISPR) flowchart from Manis, 2007 that shows how ...
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How to identify the GPD gene when the sequence varies between organisms?

I'm reading a paper on genetic transformation of a fungi and the plasmid used in the paper uses two forms of the same GPD (glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter to drive a GFP gene, one ...
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Production of plant derivatives using genetic engineered micro-organisms

I saw a Thought Emporium video where spider silk was produced by genetically modifying yeast. I have also read about companies making vanillin (vanilla flavour) using this technique. I am curious to ...
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Forward or Reverse Strand: Is there a difference when encoding genetic devices?

Background: In synthetic biology, and also in nature, there are lots of examples of genes in both the forward and reverse orientation. It seems in synthetic biology/bioengineering, most genetic ...
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Geometric Interpretations of the DNA Double Helix

In mathematics, a helix is a shape which has constant curvature and constant torque (see Wikipedia here. What are the biological implications of the DNA double helix having constant curvature and ...
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What does z in lac z, y in lac y and a in lac a gene stand for?

In lac operon the 3 structural genes lacz, lacy and laca must have some reason behind their names. While lac refers to lactose but what does z, y and a refer to?
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How can I change the payload of a bacteriophage used to transform E. coli?

I was looking at bacteriophages and how they're used to transform E.coli. While the whole process of how a bacteriophage works makes sense theoretically, I wanted to know how one goes about changing ...
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Why are almost all inborn errors of metabolism autosomal recessive? [closed]

Technically, the only inborn error of metabolism I know that is autosomal dominant is acute intermittent porphyria. Also, the only inborn of metabolism I know that is X-linked recessive is Lesch-Nyhan ...
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Is there a difference between ISH and ISHH? (In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry)

I came across the term ISHH in my document and discovered that it stands for In Situ Hybridization Histochemistry. I's translating to Russian a document that uses this abbreviation. Example from the ...
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Can a cell receive multiple copies of an insert when using different MOIs?

I want to transduce a cell line with virus that carries a specific insert. When using different Multiplicity of Infection (MOI), I expect to get different percentage of transduced cells, but is it ...
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How to assemble three 60mer nts by pcr?

Good morning, I am new to molecular biology. The question might be silly but i would like to know the answer. I have three 60mer single strand synthetic oligonucleotide. Namely Tag 1 - 3. My goal is ...
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DNA complementarity against reverse complementarity [duplicate]

I am sorry to bother with this question (i study genetics for about few hours, because I need to understand my data) and I am really confused about these two terms, because I dont know if the books ...
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What are the effect of radioactivity on grey wolves in Chernobyl?

I am doing some research about the effects that radioactivity has and is having on grey wolves in Chernobyl and more particularly on their genetics, but maybe also looking at the populations in the ...
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UCP1-3826 A>G rs1800592 different effects in moderately obese vs obese

UCP1 gene encodes an uncoupling protein which promotes the transformation of fatty acids into heat (thermogenesis) redirecting from oxidation to ATP. By merit of the fatty oxidation redirection, UCP1 ...
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Blood and plucked-feather sample storage

This next field season I will be collecting both blood and feather samples and I wondered how best to store the samples. The blood samples will be used for microsatellite and/or SNP analysis. The ...
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1answer
59 views

Exact average molecular weight of a dsDNA basepair

I am trying to calculate the exact weight of a given dsDNA. On the Internet and the literature, different values for the av. molecular weight of one basepair are given : 660 g/mol (probably wrong), ...
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What is the difference between non-coding and intergenic regions?

The initial question was about understanding what is in the downstream of a gene in a eukaryotic organism. I understand that this region is located 3' of a gene, and therefore I would expect to find ...
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Questions regarding transformation in bacterial cells

First off, in transformation the donor DNA aligns itself with the complementary bases in the recipient DNA. Now a "perfect" alignment of the donor DNA ( Sorry if my terminologies are ...
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What is the difference between mutation per base pair and mutation per genome? [closed]

Isn't genome size considered to be the number of base pairs present in DNA? So what is the difference between the mutation per base pair and mutation per genome? Are they similar or different?
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How does the availability of a reference genome aid in microsatellite analysis?

I'm planning to use microsatellites to examine fine-scale population structure between several breeding colonies of birds. Most of my DNA will be extracted from feathers and the yield isn't sufficient ...
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Should I consider one or two DNA chains to find how many nucleotides are in a gene?

I am trying to solve an exercise. How many nucleotides does a gene contain if information about 287 amino acids is encoded in it? What is the molecular mass and length of this gene? AFAIK, I have to ...
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Why we need a plasmid for r-DNA technology [closed]

Recently I was studying Biotechnology. When I went through the texts, I had a doubt: both plasmids and gene of interest are made of DNA stretches and bacteria directly absorb plasmids in a test tube (...
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How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?

I'm unclear as to the molecular mechanism whereby mRNA is translated into proteins, but non-coding RNA is not similarly translated. How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?
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Creating a phylogenetic tree from my selected publicly-available sequences (WGS) in NCBI

I'm currently writing a paper on the comparison of virulence genes for a group of bacteria. I got my data from publicly-available whole genome sequences in NCBI. Now, I want to create a phylogenetic ...
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Does the magnitude of gene-expression changes decrease the more downstream a gene is from the origin of change?

If I have a decrease or increase in expression in one gene, will the decrease/increase in expression in the downstream genes always be of a magnitude lower than the previous ones, or can they be ...
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Could a mutation on neutral part of genome become deleterious?

I know that silent mutations are neutral because they dont affect function of the protein/gene, and a missense mutation would. But lets say both occur on a neutral portion, could one or the other ...
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Why is a solution of cesium chloride used in Meselson & Stahl's DNA replication experiment?

Centrifugation involves separating particles of different sizes, masses, density and etc. In the experiment, the DNA macromolecules are suspended in a solution of cesium chloride gradient and then ...
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A mutation question from the Indian National Biology Olympiad

DNA was isolated from wild type (Gal+) and mutant (Gal-) E. coli cells and separated by density gradient centrifugation technique. DNA from Gal- strain acquired a lower position. This indicates that ...
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Clarifying distinction between genetic recombination , translocation. and transposition

Having thought about the distinciton between these terms I have come up with the following definitions, are these correct? Translocation describes the relocation of a chromosomal segment to a ...
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Specific mechanism behind lethality of yellow coat color in mice

Our high school genetics chapter has some extra information about L.Cuenot. It only covered his research, and the fact that mice homozygous for yellow coat color would die before birth. It was an ...
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Inbreeding of selfing and outcrossing plant

I am reading John H. Gillespie's Population Genetics A Concise Guide Section 4.3 Inbreeding. I do not understand these two paragraphs quoted below concerning selfing and outcrossing. The first ...
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Reason for partially double-stranded DNA of Hepatitis B virus

According to my school biology textbook and also Wikipedia, hepatitis B is the only Hepatitis virus to possess partially double-stranded DNA. I found an image from here What is the reason for the ...
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Meaning of “gene expression heterogeneity” of embryonic stem cells

What does it mean if a gene has a heterogeneous expression? Does it describe the differences of patterns of expression of that particular gene in a population of cells that are identical? The papers I ...
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Biochemical Mechanism behind red hibiscus flower on a cream hibiscus plant

I have two 3-4 yrs old cream hibiscus shrubs in my garden. The shrubs seemed normal enough, giving cream colored petals with a red center. But soon I noticed that there are specific branches, which ...
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Estimate mutation rate in UVC treated cells

I am wondering how to get a coarse estimate of the number of mutation I obtain doing UVC treatment on eukaryotic cells (microalgae) starting from information such as the survival rate, genome size, ...
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Which was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced?

The Wikipedia article on phi X 174 states that: The phi X 174 (or φX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus that infects Escherichia coli, and the first DNA-based genome to be ...
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Why is my DNA band bulging?

This is the only image my the TA was able to get for us. And, we're using it for our lab report. The image isn't even ours. It's another group's image that we're sharing. But I don't understand why in ...
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Use of restriction endonucleases to analyse Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs)

The textbook I’m using states that “Ends of VNTR have conserved sequences. These can easily be cut by restriction endonucleases.” But restriction endonucleases cleave palindromic sequences. Does this ...
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How can we determine which chromosome came from which parent? [closed]

In this article there is a graph (figure 1) describing different levels of methylation in the maternal and paternal chromosomes after karyogamy. How can the researchers identify which chromosome ...
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What would happen if we place denatured DNA in acidic medium?

DNA can be denatured at high temperatures or in alkaline solutions. But DNA can be annealed at low temperatures. I want to ask, could it be annealed in acidic medium?
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Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
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Truncated ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV2! Why? How does it formed?

Across the world so far, we have three truncated ORF3a proteins in SARS-CoV2 in India only. Can you illuminate me how does a protein (here accessory protein of SARS-COV2) generally get such nonsense ...
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Evolution: Can the genotype frequencies change, but the allele frequencies remain constant?

If a population isn't evolving because it's in Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium, then I know that both genotype and allele frequencies must stay constant. My question is, can evolution still not occur ...
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Different Mutations Leading to Same Allele?

Can different mutations lead to the same allele? In my genetics books, I always see alleles referenced as, eg. Aa where A = dominant and a = recessive, but are these strictly binary phenotypes? Since ...

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