Questions tagged [mrna]

Messenger RNA is produced during transcription before it leaves the nucleus to be be translated by a ribosome. This produces a sequence of nucleic acids for which mRNA is considered the template.

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delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

In latest news, it is reported that: if vaccinated people get infected anyway, they have as much virus in their bodies as unvaccinated people. That means they're as likely to infect someone else as ...
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How is it possible that the Pfizer efficacy dropped to 39% when it induces long lasting memory T cell response? [closed]

Israel is now contemplating a third dose of Pfizer because it was found that after 6 months, the efficacy of Pfizer is reduced to 39% or less. But I can't square this with the fact that mRNA-based ...
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How long will the spike protein from mRNA stay in the body?

Somewhat related to this question,how long will spike proteins produced as a result of mRNA covid 19 vaccines (Pfizer, moderna) stay in the body? How is it expected to be in comparison with adenovirus ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
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mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
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Understanding mRNA vaccine for COVID

As I've learned, mRNA helps us to produce virus spikes proteins to induce learning of the immune system. But then, I remember to have read that the coronavirus has some trick to pretend to be "...
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

I realize there are several different mRNA vaccines. I would be happy to know the ballpark figure for any of them. As a follow-up, is it known about what percentage of injected mRNA strands are ...
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How many times is a single strand of mRNA translated into a protein?

In other words, is the mRNA damaged or somehow "marked completed" in the translation process? Or does it pop out the other side of a ribosome ready to be translated again? If the latter, how ...
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Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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Does the mRNA of the covid19 spike protein contain any nuclear localization signals

Does the covid19 spike protein amino acid sequence, as used in the covid19 vaccines, contain a nuclear localization signal. Because if they do, isn't there a chance that the RNA can find its way to ...
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Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

How different in principle is using the bodies own mRNA to create the coronavirus spike protein differ from other methods of using genes to manufacture other drugs or proteins and is there a cost ...
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
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Why do genes, encoding the same proteins and in the same conditions, have different expression?

Is it possible that two genes, which come from two different cell cultures and which encodes the same protein, produces different quantity of mRNA? If yes, why? My question comes from the fact that I ...
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

Someone asked me if SARS-COV2 mRNA vaccine could create the wrong spike protein and have a negative effect on our immune system. Since I know too little about biology I couldn't answer that and ...
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How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

In prokaryotes, if there is an mRNA with a good (almost the consensus sequence) Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, ribosome proteins will bind to it. In eukaryotes, ribosome binds to the 5' cap, then start ...
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Why is the mRNA not damaged at -70 C temperature Corona vaccine?

Why is the mRNA not damaged at -70 C temperature Corona vaccine? Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine I assume that if I, for example, were to freeze, say, a chicken egg after heating to ...
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Why is the 3'UTR AES of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine preceded by a CUC GAG?

According to the WHO submission and one of the preprints from BioNTech/Pfizer, the 3'UTR of their Covid-19 vaccine's mRNA is the combo of the AES and mtRNR1 sequences, which (in the preprint) BioNTech ...
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Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
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Do mRNA vaccines encoded proteins get glycosylated?

per recent hype around the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (or sars-ncov-2) it got me thinking about the mRNA vaccine principle. From my biochem education I've taken, that human proteins are usually ...
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
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What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
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Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
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Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
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Do antigen presenting cells present only antigens they have receptors for?

Although this sounds like a good beginner's question I have found no corresponding textbook passage. It should make sense for antigen presenting cells - APCs - to present only antigen that can be used ...
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Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine

Recent news of Pfizer vaccine for corona needing -70C temperature, made me thinking why such a low temperature is needed for mRNA based vaccine? Are there other vaccine around which need such a low ...
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Quantifying Gene Expression

I have found that many studies use the mRNA concentration as a “proxy” for protein activity because there should be correlation between mRNA levels and proteins expression levels. How is protein ...
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Is the mRNA produced constant during time?

I am doing a statistical data analysis of a dataset of P. Furiosus cells exposed to gamma radiation. For the samples exposed to gamma radiation, I have the values of mRNA produced over time. For the ...
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What is the amount of mRNA transported by exosomes?

I would like to better understand, if possible, what kind of RNA molecules exosomes transport in human cells. The experiment behind this general question is our goal to do a combination of mRNA-Seq ...
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Why are the other bases not used for RNA capping and tailing?

Why does the addition of a 5' cap and that of a 3' tail involve guanine and adenine respectively? Why aren't any of the other two bases added to an mRNA to protect its ends or act as a signal to ...
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What is a subgenomic promotor? [closed]

I am looking for a good definition of the term "subgenomic promotor". Can someone help me out?
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How do ribosomes interpret stop codons as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine?

How does the protein synthesising machinery determine that UGA and UAG in mRNA should be decoded as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, in certain circumstances, rather than as stop codons?
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How is Open Reading Frame (ORF) chosen?

I understand that AUG is the "start codon", and, because of this, most proteins begin with methionine as their first amino acid. However, this ORF problem on Rosalind.info states that "...
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Why can oligo-U not be used to isolate mRNAs, instead of oligo dT?

dTTP oligonucleotides are used to isolate mRNAs because mRNAs (in eukaryotes) have a poly A tail which binds to the complementary oligo-dT. However, why can we not use oligo-U instead (uracil)? I ...
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Modeling the production of mRNA

I have the following example of how an equation for the production of mRNA in a particular organism could look like: Consider the following equation for the production of mRNA for a gene Y. Gene Y ...
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Can mRNA that codes for a disease-specific antigen mutate into a prion? [closed]

Can the mRNA (that codes for a disease-specific antigen), especially if breaks down, can mutate into a prion or some other kind of pathogen? RNA vaccines: an introduction | PHG Foundation Delivery: ...
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Why majority of synthesized mRNAs are halted at Nuclear Pore Complex?

I was reading about mRNA export process. I came to know that only 36% of synthesized mRNA transport events at Nuclear Pore Complexes(NPC) of the nuclear membrane get successful in crossing to the ...
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From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

The book "Understanding bioinformatics", says that "RNA polymerase transcribes the anticoding strand in the direction from 3' to 5', so that the mRNA strand is produced from the 5' to the 3' end". ...
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What prevents mRNAs that are localized to a specific part of the cell from being translated before they reach their destination?

One of the methods of mRNA localization, for example, is random diffusion of mRNAs where the mRNA binding proteins are localized to a certain part of the cell. However, I was taught that the ribosome ...
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How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer?

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer? I know that a mutation in DNA can cause the triplet code on the mRNA to change so different amini acids are made and a different order means a ...
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The genetic code and the effect of point mutations on proteins

I was asked a question, "Considering degenerate and non ambiguous nature of genetic code, Why is that certain mutations don't disturb the protein synthesis leading to synthesis of functional proteins ...
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The shape of mRNA

I was wondering about the shapes assumed by mRNA. I have read some sources quoting that it is linear (quora, so not very reliable) and also a source that says a hairpin shape is common (nature, so I ...
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flavivirus virus genome, methylated guanine

I'm looking at the sequence of a flavivirus virus genome (mRNA). Kindly see the link MH900227.1. How can I identify the Guanine nucleotide that is methylated in the capping process? Thanks,
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Relationship between the ambiguity (wobble) at codon position 3 in elongation and codon position 1 in initiation

In prokaryotes the usual observed start codon frequency is AUG > GUG > UUG. An explanation for this is that AUG is the most common initiator codon because it forms the most stable interaction with ...
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Why does a cell need siRNA?

My question is about small non-coding RNAs. miRNA and siRNA are both known for mRNA regulation. miRNA can both transcriptionally inhibit and degrade mRNA by cutting it. For inhibition just a small ...
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Who created the codon wheel chart (not as a table)

I'm trying to find out who created or first used the codon wheel chart as far as we can know? (I don't mean the tabular format)
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mRNA bonding to itself

Does a mRNA molecule bond to itself? I heard that only tRNAs have hydrogen bonds that let them have second structures, but after searching the web i found multiple answers. If yes, does anybody have a ...
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Are RNA cleavage sites always polyadenylated?

During RNA processing (including both mRNA and non-coding RNAs), is the end of 3'UTR always polyadenylated after cleavage? I could not find the answer to my question in the Wikipedia entry for ...
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mRNA Sequencing Basepair from Polyadenylation Site?

I was wondering how many basepairs are usually sequenced with mRNA/cDNA illumina methods from upstream of the polyedenlation site? Thanks.