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Questions tagged [mrna]

Messenger RNA is produced during transcription before it leaves the nucleus to be be translated by a ribosome. This produces a sequence of nucleic acids for which mRNA is considered the template.

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Open Reading Frame problem

Problem An mRNA of 999 bases codes for a protein with 300 amino acids and the open reading frame (ORF) starts from base 38. If the base at position 903 is deleted the length of the ORF increases by 3 ...
Soumyojyoti Pal's user avatar
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helm notation for ribosyl in a siRNA

I need the helm notation for the compounds in this patent by Dicerna: WO2023220351A1. The chemical modifications, defined on page 141, are all like ...
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In mRNA translation, why are there so many factors?

When the small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA’s 5’-cap, it looks for the complex of three eLFs bound to the poly-A-binding protein (PABP), which circularises the mRNA. It is then this circular mRNA ...
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How long does therapeutic mRNA last in vivo?

How long does mRNA delivered therapeutically to cells last in the human cell once it's gotten there? I've seen sources say that endogenous mRNA lasts around 8-10 hours in humans, but wasn't sure if ...
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Why is the codon size three, rather than four? [duplicate]

The genetic code consists of triplets, each of which (apart from the stop codons) yields an amino acid when the mRNA is translated. But why did triplets evolve, rather than a longer or shorter codon ...
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Can the UGA codon be used as a drop-in replacement when adapting genes for Paramecium?

Question It is well established that Paramecium translate UAG and UAA mRNA codons to amino acid, although they are STOP codons ...
IntegralPilot's user avatar
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Does RNA of virus have poly adenylate tail before or after entry into the host cell?

I understand that RNA needs to have 5' cap and poly(A) tail to be recognised by eukaryotic ribosomes for translation. Some viruses are RNA based(like influenza and HIV). Does the RNA of these ...
green onion's user avatar
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If RNA transcription is 5' end to 3' end, what is the directionality of the promoter for?

I am confused. If RNA transcription always grows from the 5' end to the 3' end, what does the direction of the promoter do for the mRNA transcribed? From what i understand the RNA polymerase always ...
green onion's user avatar
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What is the ratio of pre-mRNA to mRNA?

What is the ratio of spliced to unspliced introns in a cell? I found, that the median half-life of a human mRNA is roughly 10h [1], while transcription and splicing each take around half a minute [2, ...
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"mutant" codon translations?

AFAIK codon->protein translation is pretty much universal (very few exceptions). I've seen people explaining this means every living organism descends from the same ancestral. That's certainly a ...
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Why do cells use microRNA to break down mRNA, instead of not transcribing it in the first place?

As I understand it, microRNAs are used to ensure that certain genes are only expressed when needed. The way this apparently works is that when the translation products of an mRNA are not required the ...
Sam's user avatar
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Why is cDNA usually lacking in terminal sequences of the template mRNA?

It appears from presentations I have attended that cDNA often lacks terminal sequences (usually 5′) which have not been copied from the mRNA. This puzzles me a lot, but I have not been able to find ...
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Zayed et al. (2022) "Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA virome"; expressed sequences or transcribed?

Phys.org's Ocean water samples yield treasure trove of RNA virus data summarizes Zayed et al. (April 7, 2022) in Science Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA ...
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Use of different biotinylated GTP compounds in molecular biology

In the Cappable-seq technique 3′-Desthiobiotin-GTP can be used to label the 5′ end of mRNA. However in a commercial technical article on biotinylated-RNA affinity probes I encountered the following ...
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How is mRNA made in a lab

I'm not a biologist, but I think I have a sound layman's understanding of how mRNA vaccines are made. At least this is how it was explained to me: create some mRNA get it into a cell (with the lipid ...
Peter's user avatar
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Meaning of "acute LSD"

I am currently reading this research paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/1395848, and I'm confused by this line: "Serotonin Receptor mRNA Levels Are Unchanged by Acute LSD". What is the ...
Timotej Leginus's user avatar
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mRNA vaccines: Can a spike protein by itself have different side-effects than the virus itself? [duplicate]

I was wondering, is it possible for the isolated spike protein, as resulting from an mRNA vaccine, to cause harmful side effects in an individual, that would not have developed in that individual if ...
Thomas Hirsch's user avatar
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

If we can make RNA vaccines against COVID-19 and we know which errors in our DNA leads to different kinds of cancer, can we make a vaccine that will teach our immune system to detect and destroy ...
Robotex's user avatar
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Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

I ain't no biologist, but I came across a paper recently and tried to understand it: SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro My question: Is it a correct ...
csstudent1418's user avatar
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3 answers
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Effects of mRNA vaccines on human body processes

I would like to understand the effect of an mRNA vaccine on more complex processes in the human body. To what extent does this "artificial", external addition of mRNA interfere with the body'...
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Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
against very long user names's user avatar
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How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen?

As I understand it, mRNA vaccines operate by taking a gene for some distinctive feature of the target virus and arranging for the cells of the vaccine recipient to manufacture the proteins that make ...
Imprisoned Rhesus's user avatar
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2 answers
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Does an N1-methyl-pseudouridine substitution in the first codon position (in mRNA) result in a different amino acid?

Because of the possibility of ‘wobble’ in the base-pair made between the third (5’) position of the anticodon and the third (3’) base of the the mRNA codon , single tRNAs with appropriate bases in ...
Alan's user avatar
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How is it determined which parts of an mRNA precursor are to be spliced?

According to my textbook, the same pre-mRNA sequence can get spliced in multiple different ways. But how is this regulated by the cell? How are the introns and exons to be spliced determined?
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How do the lipid nanoparticles in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines contain and release the mRNA payloads at the right time?

The engineering challenge with mRNA vaccines is that mRNA is fragile and degrades quickly. The solution, then, is to encapsulate the mRNA within lipid nanoparticles that carry the payload into cell. ...
JunkWarrior's user avatar
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Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

I am a mechatronics engineer who stopped learning biology after high school - but this is bothering me. mRNA is, if I recall correctly, created in the nucleus of the cells and migrates out of the ...
Mister Mystère's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
338 views

delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

In latest news, it is reported that: if vaccinated people get infected anyway, they have as much virus in their bodies as unvaccinated people. That means they're as likely to infect someone else as ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
 venice makeen's user avatar
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How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
Kyuri Oseetea's user avatar
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mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
Kyuri Oseetea's user avatar
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Understanding mRNA vaccine for COVID

As I've learned, mRNA helps us to produce virus spikes proteins to induce learning of the immune system. But then, I remember to have read that the coronavirus has some trick to pretend to be "...
J. Doe's user avatar
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

I realize there are several different mRNA vaccines. I would be happy to know the ballpark figure for any of them. As a follow-up, is it known about what percentage of injected mRNA strands are ...
Brian Rak's user avatar
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How many times is a single strand of mRNA translated into a protein?

In other words, is the mRNA damaged or somehow "marked completed" in the translation process? Or does it pop out the other side of a ribosome ready to be translated again? If the latter, how ...
Brian Rak's user avatar
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Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
Blue Various's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
362 views

Does the mRNA of the covid19 spike protein contain any nuclear localization signals

Does the covid19 spike protein amino acid sequence, as used in the covid19 vaccines, contain a nuclear localization signal. Because if they do, isn't there a chance that the RNA can find its way to ...
ejectamenta's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
270 views

Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

How different in principle is using the bodies own mRNA to create the coronavirus spike protein differ from other methods of using genes to manufacture other drugs or proteins and is there a cost ...
vfclists's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
Felix Z.'s user avatar
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2 answers
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Why do genes, encoding the same proteins and in the same conditions, have different expression?

Is it possible that two genes, which come from two different cell cultures and which encodes the same protein, produces different quantity of mRNA? If yes, why? My question comes from the fact that I ...
Manuela's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

Someone asked me if SARS-COV2 mRNA vaccine could create the wrong spike protein and have a negative effect on our immune system. Since I know too little about biology I couldn't answer that and ...
Philippe B.'s user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
481 views

How can good Shine–Dalgarno or Kozak sequences enhance translation?

In prokaryotes the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, a polypurine consensus sequence near the initiation codon (usually AUG), is required for the mRNA to bind to the small ribosomal subunit, allowing ...
Questions's user avatar
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Why is the mRNA not damaged at -70 C temperature Corona vaccine?

Why is the mRNA not damaged at -70 C temperature Corona vaccine? Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine I assume that if I, for example, were to freeze, say, a chicken egg after heating to ...
user1785960's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
481 views

Why is the 3'UTR AES of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine preceded by a CUC GAG?

According to the WHO submission and one of the preprints from BioNTech/Pfizer, the 3'UTR of their Covid-19 vaccine's mRNA is the combo of the AES and mtRNR1 sequences, which (in the preprint) BioNTech ...
against very long user names's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
849 views

Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
74 views

Do mRNA vaccines encoded proteins get glycosylated?

per recent hype around the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (or sars-ncov-2) it got me thinking about the mRNA vaccine principle. From my biochem education I've taken, that human proteins are usually ...
Marek Schwarz's user avatar
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
DisasterlyDisco's user avatar
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0 answers
100 views

What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
fdierre's user avatar
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1 answer
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
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10 votes
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Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
albin's user avatar
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19 votes
4 answers
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Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
mihirb's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Do antigen presenting cells present only antigens they have receptors for?

As APCs take up whole virus or bacteria their receptors may be restricted to antigens "they have receptors vor", i.e. those antigens that are on the outside of virus or bacteria. Put ...
Peter Bernhard's user avatar