Questions tagged [mrna]

Messenger RNA is produced during transcription before it leaves the nucleus to be be translated by a ribosome. This produces a sequence of nucleic acids for which mRNA is considered the template.

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Zayed et al. (2022) "Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA virome"; expressed sequences or transcribed?

Phys.org's Ocean water samples yield treasure trove of RNA virus data summarizes Zayed et al. (April 7, 2022) in Science Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA ...
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Use of different biotinylated GTP compounds in molecular biology

In the Cappable-seq technique 3′-Desthiobiotin-GTP can be used to label the 5′ end of mRNA. However in a commercial technical article on biotinylated-RNA affinity probes I encountered the following ...
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How is mRNA made in a lab

I'm not a biologist, but I think I have a sound layman's understanding of how mRNA vaccines are made. At least this is how it was explained to me: create some mRNA get it into a cell (with the lipid ...
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Meaning of "acute LSD"

I am currently reading this research paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/1395848, and I'm confused by this line: "Serotonin Receptor mRNA Levels Are Unchanged by Acute LSD". What is the ...
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mRNA vaccines: Can a spike protein by itself have different side-effects than the virus itself? [duplicate]

I was wondering, is it possible for the isolated spike protein, as resulting from an mRNA vaccine, to cause harmful side effects in an individual, that would not have developed in that individual if ...
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

If we can make RNA vaccines against COVID-19 and we know which errors in our DNA leads to different kinds of cancer, can we make a vaccine that will teach our immune system to detect and destroy ...
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Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

I ain't no biologist, but I came across a paper recently and tried to understand it: SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro My question: Is it a correct ...
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Effects of mRNA vaccines on human body processes

I would like to understand the effect of an mRNA vaccine on more complex processes in the human body. To what extent does this "artificial", external addition of mRNA interfere with the body'...
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Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
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How do mRNA vaccines work with respect to presentation of the antigen?

As I understand it, mRNA vaccines operate by taking a gene for some distinctive feature of the target virus and arranging for the cells of the vaccine recipient to manufacture the proteins that make ...
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Does an N1-methyl-pseudouridine substitution in the first codon position (in mRNA) result in a different amino acid?

Because of the possibility of ‘wobble’ in the base-pair made between the third (5’) position of the anticodon and the third (3’) base of the the mRNA codon , single tRNAs with appropriate bases in ...
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How is it determined which parts of an mRNA precursor are to be spliced?

According to my textbook, the same pre-mRNA sequence can get spliced in multiple different ways. But how is this regulated by the cell? How are the introns and exons to be spliced determined?
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How do the lipid nanoparticles in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines contain and release the mRNA payloads at the right time?

The engineering challenge with mRNA vaccines is that mRNA is fragile and degrades quickly. The solution, then, is to encapsulate the mRNA within lipid nanoparticles that carry the payload into cell. ...
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Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

I am a mechatronics engineer who stopped learning biology after high school - but this is bothering me. mRNA is, if I recall correctly, created in the nucleus of the cells and migrates out of the ...
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delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

In latest news, it is reported that: if vaccinated people get infected anyway, they have as much virus in their bodies as unvaccinated people. That means they're as likely to infect someone else as ...
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How long will the spike protein from mRNA stay in the body?

Somewhat related to this question,how long will spike proteins produced as a result of mRNA covid 19 vaccines (Pfizer, moderna) stay in the body? How is it expected to be in comparison with adenovirus ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
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mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
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Understanding mRNA vaccine for COVID

As I've learned, mRNA helps us to produce virus spikes proteins to induce learning of the immune system. But then, I remember to have read that the coronavirus has some trick to pretend to be "...
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

I realize there are several different mRNA vaccines. I would be happy to know the ballpark figure for any of them. As a follow-up, is it known about what percentage of injected mRNA strands are ...
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How many times is a single strand of mRNA translated into a protein?

In other words, is the mRNA damaged or somehow "marked completed" in the translation process? Or does it pop out the other side of a ribosome ready to be translated again? If the latter, how ...
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Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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Does the mRNA of the covid19 spike protein contain any nuclear localization signals

Does the covid19 spike protein amino acid sequence, as used in the covid19 vaccines, contain a nuclear localization signal. Because if they do, isn't there a chance that the RNA can find its way to ...
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Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

How different in principle is using the bodies own mRNA to create the coronavirus spike protein differ from other methods of using genes to manufacture other drugs or proteins and is there a cost ...
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
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Why do genes, encoding the same proteins and in the same conditions, have different expression?

Is it possible that two genes, which come from two different cell cultures and which encodes the same protein, produces different quantity of mRNA? If yes, why? My question comes from the fact that I ...
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

Someone asked me if SARS-COV2 mRNA vaccine could create the wrong spike protein and have a negative effect on our immune system. Since I know too little about biology I couldn't answer that and ...
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How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

In prokaryotes, if there is an mRNA with a good (almost the consensus sequence) Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, ribosome proteins will bind to it. In eukaryotes, ribosome binds to the 5' cap, then start ...
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Why is the mRNA not damaged at -70 C temperature Corona vaccine?

Why is the mRNA not damaged at -70 C temperature Corona vaccine? Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine I assume that if I, for example, were to freeze, say, a chicken egg after heating to ...
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Why is the 3'UTR AES of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine preceded by a CUC GAG?

According to the WHO submission and one of the preprints from BioNTech/Pfizer, the 3'UTR of their Covid-19 vaccine's mRNA is the combo of the AES and mtRNR1 sequences, which (in the preprint) BioNTech ...
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Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
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Do mRNA vaccines encoded proteins get glycosylated?

per recent hype around the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (or sars-ncov-2) it got me thinking about the mRNA vaccine principle. From my biochem education I've taken, that human proteins are usually ...
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
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What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
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Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
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Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
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Do antigen presenting cells present only antigens they have receptors for?

As APCs take up whole virus or bacteria their receptors may be restricted to antigens "they have receptors vor", i.e. those antigens that are on the outside of virus or bacteria. Put ...
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Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine

Recent news of Pfizer vaccine for corona needing -70C temperature, made me thinking why such a low temperature is needed for mRNA based vaccine? Are there other vaccine around which need such a low ...
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Quantifying Gene Expression

I have found that many studies use the mRNA concentration as a “proxy” for protein activity because there should be correlation between mRNA levels and proteins expression levels. How is protein ...
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Is the mRNA produced constant during time?

I am doing a statistical data analysis of a dataset of P. Furiosus cells exposed to gamma radiation. For the samples exposed to gamma radiation, I have the values of mRNA produced over time. For the ...
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Why are the other bases not used for RNA capping and tailing?

Why does the addition of a 5' cap and that of a 3' tail involve guanine and adenine respectively? Why aren't any of the other two bases added to an mRNA to protect its ends or act as a signal to ...
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What is a subgenomic promotor? [closed]

I am looking for a good definition of the term "subgenomic promotor". Can someone help me out?
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How do ribosomes interpret stop codons as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine?

How does the protein synthesising machinery determine that UGA and UAG in mRNA should be decoded as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, in certain circumstances, rather than as stop codons?
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How is Open Reading Frame (ORF) chosen?

I understand that AUG is the "start codon", and, because of this, most proteins begin with methionine as their first amino acid. However, this ORF problem on Rosalind.info states that "...
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What are the reasons for using oligo-dT instead of oligo-U to isolate mRNAs?

dTTP oligonucleotides are used to isolate mRNAs because mRNAs (in eukaryotes) have a poly A tail which binds to the complementary oligo-dT. However, why do we not use oligo-U instead (uracil)? I would ...
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Modeling the production of mRNA

I have the following example of how an equation for the production of mRNA in a particular organism could look like: Consider the following equation for the production of mRNA for a gene Y. Gene Y ...
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Why majority of synthesized mRNAs are halted at Nuclear Pore Complex?

I was reading about mRNA export process. I came to know that only 36% of synthesized mRNA transport events at Nuclear Pore Complexes(NPC) of the nuclear membrane get successful in crossing to the ...
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From which end of mRNA does transcription start?

The book "Understanding bioinformatics", says that "RNA polymerase transcribes the anticoding strand in the direction from 3' to 5', so that the mRNA strand is produced from the 5' to the 3' end". ...
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