Questions tagged [muscles]

The contractile tissue of animals derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells.

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49 views

does being battered build muscle?

My crude understanding of how people normally go about building muscle is something like this following 2 step process: 1) a person can lift weights (for example), which tears muscle and stimulates ...
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What are potential side effects of myostatin inhibitors?

Myostatin inhibitors, which are being developed to treat muscle wasting diseases like muscular dystrophy, are likely to be abused by athletes. What are the potential long-term side-effects of taking a ...
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34 views

Myoglobin in meat

When looking at the reason why some meat is white and the rest is red, I found out it is down to the levels of myoglobin as higher levels of myoglobin are found in "slow twitch" muscles. I have also ...
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why do we tighten out muscles against cold?

When I'm in shower and I want to open the cold water on myself suddenly I make my muscles so tight before I open the water and that helps so much in being able to handle the shock. Why does tightening ...
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141 views

Difference between reciprocal inhibition and regular muscle movement?

I was looking into a condition I have, anterior pelvic tilt, quite a bit. I ran into a website describing part of the issue as reciprocal inhibition. This was my confusion: Reciprocal inhibition, ...
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If hands are folded with both index fingers parallel, they will come closer and touch eventually?

I have a question out of curiosity. It is just something I found out/discovered: if I fold my hands into each and let my two index fingers (see picture) be in parallel then they will eventually come ...
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Bending your little finger without bending ring finger

It is possible to bend each finger without bending any other, except one for most people. It is more difficult for the ring finger, but when I try to bend my little finger independently my ring finger ...
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1answer
114 views

Is the ACh receptor more permeable to sodium ions?

The AChR is permeable to sodium and potassium ions only and has a reversal potential of 0mV. However the Nernst potentials for sodium and potassium ions is ~ +60mV and -88mV respectively. Taking a ...
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1answer
33 views

Pictures of trigger point muscle fascia

Are there any pictures of an actual trigger point looks like? All I am able to find online are animations.
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Exhaustion of skeletal muscle and ligaments

I read somewhere that while doing lifting back should be straight(means normal curve), so that erectors muscle in back do the work but it gets tired easily. Hence we form curve on our back like when ...
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1answer
105 views

Could the protein dystrophin be artificially synthesised?

Could the protein dystrophin be artificially synthesised and if so could patients with DMD (Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) benefit from it? //Now I don't have much scientific background other than a ...
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seafood muscles - how do they work?

Today, first time in my life I ate seafood. It was a squid and a calamar. Note that I am biology layman, so please be merciful :( While dissecting my food I noticed that the tissues of those ...
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Is there a correlation between muscle fibers and body types?

I have been told the number of muscle fibers a particular muscle has varies from person to person. Unfortunately, the person who told me this did not know much more than this. Initial searching on the ...
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1answer
180 views

advantages of shivering in cold environments

When we feel cold, our the muscle tries to generate heat by shivering and the brown adipose tissue tries to generate heat by non-shivering methods. The muscle generates heat but also spends energy on ...
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944 views

What are the max angles of human eyeball rotation?

How much can our eyeballs rotate towards the nose, away from it, towards the top and bottom?
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How strong of an electric field is dangerous to adult humans?

Given that "a potential difference is introduced over the membrane, the associated electric field induces a conformational strong in the potassium channel" is required for our muscles to move, how ...
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What was the first known organism to exhibit muscle growth based on activity?

Being able to grow bigger muscles to match an organism's personal habits seems like a pretty nifty feature since most organs grow to one specific size, aside from some stretching. Was this a feature ...
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What is the point in the Neuromuscular Junction?

Surely a direct connection (i.e. an electrical synapse) between motor neurone and the sarcolemma would allow for much faster neuromuscular transmission? It is my understanding that chemical synapses ...
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Typical firing patterns of (some) motor neurons

Since it is not so easy to imagine and visualize the behaviour of the muscles in the fingers, hand, and arm of a violinist performing a fast and accentuated trill vs. a slow and soft vibrato, I try to ...
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1answer
4k views

What happens when we stretch?

From the wikipedia page on stretching: Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the ...
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examples of transitional fossils showing development of internal skeleton

What fossils exist that show the development of skeletons, and muscles attached to bones?
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1answer
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How does use an action potential from innervation selectively modify tropomyosin over time?

Within a myofibril, the myofilaments move past one another to product muscle contraction if and only if the actin binding sites are exposed to the myosin by locally removing the tropomyosin by binding ...
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How can myoglobin be responsible for the red color of meat if it is located in the cytoplasm?

How can myoglobin be responsible for the red color of meat if it is located in the cytoplasm, as the visible part of muscle cells is the membrane (at least as I believe)? Sources: https://en....
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1answer
476 views

Function of Smooth Muscles in the skin

I understand that the overall function is voluntary movement, but is it the same in the skin? Is the main function in the skin movement or is there a greater function? Could anyone could provide this ...
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1answer
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brain and fingers movement theorie

I heard somewhere that when we want to do a repetitive movement of one finger (ex the index) . Our brain (in a very crude way) sends a first message to move all the fingers, and then a second message ...
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Muscle involved in carrying load on head

I have seen people carrying heavy load on their head especially in 3rd world countries, does carrying on head any benefit or harm, which muscle get strengthen in doing it?
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1answer
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What is a complex? [closed]

In my text book it says that "Troponin" is a complex of Troponin C, I and T. In this sense, what is the relation between Troponin complex and C, I, T?
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What is the cause of muscle cramps?

According to Wikipedia, muscle cramps are caused by the inability of myosin fibers to break free from the actin filaments during contraction, resulting in a prolonged contraction. A lack of ATP would ...
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10k views

What do you call that part of the muscle that connects directly to the bone?

When you open up a chicken leg or a clam and you remove the meat, there is this little part that is connected to the bone and is not easily scraped off. What is this part called and what mechanism ...
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What is meant by a muscle fiber being glycerinated?

I was popped this questions today, "what is a glycerinated muscle fiber, and what is required for its contraction," and had little idea. I'm assuming the question is "what's required for its ...
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Calcium levels and nerve hyperexcitation

Why does lower blood calcium levels (or lower calcium levels in ECF) cause nervous hyperexcitaton? Why does it cause over stimulation of nerves and muscles and spasmic contractions of muscles? This is ...
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Do eye's muscle share the same nerve?

When I try to rotate my eye, both of my eyes will rotate the same amount and in the same direction (obviously). I'm wondering if it is possible to control each eye separately. I've never seen anyone ...
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Under which circumstances does muscle hyperplasia happen in humans?

What circumstances allow humans to have muscle hyperplasia in the prenatal and immediately postnatal period that doesn't exist later? Is it about specific hormones that follow through our veins?
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Does muscle get bigger by increase in size of individual cells or increase in number?

Somewhere in the back of my mind, I have the claim that a muscle never increases its amount of cells but, if the muscle gets bigger, it's simply because individual cells get bigger. The book Anatomy ...
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Is an adaptation against impact of fall a factor in babies' bones' structure?

Obviously, babies' bones need to be flexible to get through the pelvic bone. But is that the only reason? Could it be that as babies aren't able to maintain stability, they need bones less prone to ...
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How did the largest/longest dinosaurs hold their head and necks up?

After seeing the images in the articles shown below, I am having a tough time understanding the mechanics of how these incredibly long and heavy necks can be supported outstretched like this. A rigid ...
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1answer
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Why fingers in human fists get folded in absence of neural stimuli?

Background: I noticed that the fingers in our fist tend to get folded in absence of neural stimuli. The same thing happens in case of our hands and legs. Question: What is the mechanism behind this ...
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Why is there smooth muscle in our bronchioles?

Having muscle tissue in our bronchioles that can constrict seems like a poor choice for tissue. Why would our airway want to ever close up? Wouldn't it be more beneficial for our bronchioles to just ...
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When a muscle contracts, does it store potential energy like a spring that is released upon relaxation?

A colleague of mine who mainly focuses on clinical chiropractic work claimed recently in a book he wrote that muscles in the pelvic floor have "elastic recoil." What he means by this is that a ...
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1answer
134 views

In myosin II are regulatory and essential light chains calcium binding proteins or sites of phosphorylation?

According to my medical physiology by Rhodes and Bell their description is as follows: the essential light chain is necessary for myosin stability, and the other chain called the regulatory light ...
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What chemical conversions are involved , and what's the name for the process, when the muscles use lactate as an energy source?

I understand that muscles do anaerobic metabolism, specifically, "lactic acid fermentation", which I understand produces lactate. I'm not asking about that process. What chemical conversions are ...
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Why does it hurt the next day after doing significant exercise?

I think this is a fairly common observation that if one does some significant amount of exercise, he/she may feel alright for the rest of the day, but it generally hurts bad the next day. Why is this ...
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362 views

At what levels of muscle energy intake does catabolism start?

From my own reading, there are three ways used by the body to produce energy: Alactic anaerobic (direct degradation of ATP and creatine phosphate for regeneration of ATP) Lactic anaerobic (breakdown ...
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What do we mean when we say that a muscle fiber contracts strongly?

Sounds dumb but anyway, i heard that superfast fibers contract more strongly than fast twitch fibers. And i never thought of muscle contraction as something that has a magnitude (i thought of it as "1 ...
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849 views

Why do hand/fore-arm muscles “lock up” after very high-powered effort?

Inspired from Why does it hurt the next day after doing significant exercise? with its excellent answer: In climbing, you can put tremendous load on the hand/fore-arm muscles (specifically, flexor ...
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Why Doesn’t Hypercalcemia Cause Muscle Spasms?

If you have more calcium in the cell, wouldn’t more attach to troponin and initiate muscle contraction? Why does hypercalcemia cause muscle weakness instead of spasms?
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By What Mechanism Does Heat Cause Muscle Relaxation?

Heat is commonly used "loosen" muscles, but what exactly is happening to relax the muscle? It wouldn't make sense that increased blood flow alone would relax muscle.
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Why is it that cats can jump so high for their size, compared with humans?

My cat is about 1' high at the shoulder, and I am a little over 6', but my cat can easily jump onto something as high as I am. That is 6x it's height. If a cat can do this, then Why can't I jump up ...
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Lengthening muscles not good from evolutional perspective? Why do we do it with explicit stretching?

Stretching has many advantages, among other things it helps us to be flexible in our movement (which is an advantage?!). But why do we need to actively stretch, it seems that the body wants to ...
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How is atrophied muscle different than normal muscle in a chemical or biological way?

I am a writer with a question for a story I'm working on. In it, the character suffers from muscle atrophy due to spinal damage. So that I can portray this accurately, what would cause this type of ...