Questions tagged [mutations]

A change in an organism's genomic sequence.

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Is it possible to buy a DNA sample with a specific mutation?

I would like to test a genotyping method (ARMS) on a specific human snp (heterozygous or homozygous ). Unfortunally, we do not have any dna samples with the mutation. Is it possible to buy somewhere a ...
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What is the average number of alleles per gene we have today?

Yesterday I was making some calculations, and I started to wonder the average number of alleles per gene the human species have today. The best question would be how many mutations per base or how ...
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Who invented dN/dS?

I am writing a paper, and I want to refer to the original paper that coined the term dN/dS (or Ka/Ks for that matter). I have found early works on dN and dS (like Miyata and Yasunaga 1980), but cannot ...
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Why do mutations not take place in mRNA of higher eukaryotes?

Is it because it is too short-lived to be mutated? Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids so how is mRNA protected? RNA viruses undergo mutations to evolve so I guess it is not immune to mutations
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How many kangaroos would you have to add to a northern climate before they could start adapting to it? [closed]

If some enterprising billionaire wanted to introduce Kangaroos to a northern climate such as the northern boreal forest by Fort McMurray in Alberta, would it be possible for the Kangaroo's to survive ...
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Non-coding DNA as a protection to deleterious mutations

We know that most part of our genome (at least 75 percent) is non-coding DNA. Can it be a way to protect the organism from mutations in important genes, such as the ones which control cellular cycle, ...
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Is UV radiation more likely to cause mutations during mitosis?

According to Life: The Science of Biology (10th edition), UV radiation might cause the formation of pyrimidine dimers, which are the primary cause of skin cancer in humans. Are mutations more likely ...
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Explain to a layperson how cigarettes smoke might cause cancer

I have a very intelligent friend who is a light smoker, and also a Biology layperson. I wondered whether understanding exactly how cigarettes smoke can cause cancer, might encourage him to smoke less ...
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Meaning of letter “c” in description of mutation: “Homozygous c.195C>G; (p.Cys65Trp)”

In a table in a paper titled Cerebral folate deficiency: Analytical tests and differential diagnosis, there's the following description of a mutation in a patient: Homozygous c.195C>G; (p.Cys65Trp)...
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Emergence of novel protein interactions by mutation of amino acids

Are there any examples of proteins that, without coming from a recent duplication event, underwent a mutation(s) that caused it to have a novel interaction with a new ligand, substrate, other protein ...
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Are Males the main evolutionary tool for production of genetic variation necessary for evolution?

What I'm saying here is just a personal reflection, that might turn to be gravely erroneous, actually I'm asking that because I didn't see it presented elsewhere. Evolution is propelled by two ...
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Can threat to survival increase mutation rates in germline cells?

Can stress that is related to a threat of survival of a population of animals or plants in some environment, like due to hunger, thirst, fear from predators, etc..; results in an increase in average ...
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Is there a known mutation of an insertion type that prevents being infected by a virus?

Recently there was big news about the mutation CCR5 delta 32, that prevents HIV from infecting white blood cells, that was a deletion type of a mutation. Do we know of an insertion type of mutation ...
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How does bonding between non-complementary bases occur?

My teacher told me that when DNA polymerase makes an error (roughly every 10 million nucleotides?) that if, for example, it matches an A with a G that the error remains and is the main cause of point ...
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Does the mutation CCR5-delta 32 increase the genetic info?

My understanding is that the mutation CCR5-delta 32 caused the CCR5 co-receptor to be of a different shape, resulting HIV virus to not be able to attach itself to it. My question, this shape/mutation,...
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If bacterial resistance randomly occur, then why limit broad-spectrum antibiotic use?

If there is importance to study some discipline, then one of the main matters is its applications, so besides the primary goal of knowing the truth of the matter regarding what that discipline is ...
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Is evolution theory falsifiable by whether mutations result in a loss or gain of genetic information? [closed]

If I understand the theory correctly, evolution revolves around the process of adaptation of a being to its environment which results in the increment of survival and reproduction chances for that ...
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How do transgenic transformations cause off-target phenotypes?

I read that transgene insertions can cause off-target mutations that result in a phenotype being overly ascribed to the transgene, e.g. the increase of lifespan being ascribed to Sir2 overexpression (...
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How do mutations with very little fitness benefit get fixed?

I have one little issue with evolutionary theory that I have not been able to understand. Suppose genetic mutations happen from generation to generation. Nevertheless, from one generation to the next ...
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Are STOP codons impacted by base insertion or deletion mutation?

I am learning about base insertion and deletion mutations. An example in my textbook is given below. GUU CCA CAU AUC. So if there is an insertion (of guanine): GUU GCC ACA UAU C_ _ (there will be a ...
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Are mutations a source of genetic variation?

Here is a question from the book SAT II Success Biology E/M (where the SAT is the exam taken by the American high school students): Which of the following statements is true about mutations? (A) ...
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Is transition more common than transversion during the evolution of duplicated genes?

Transitions are base mutations of purine to purine (A <-> G) or pyrimidine to pyrimidine (C <-> T). Transversions are purine to pyrimidine or vice versa (A <-> C, A <-> T, G <-> C, G &...
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About Frameshift Mutation

I am coding a DNA translater, based on the homosapiens genome, & i knowing that the data provided from NCBI is surely not 100% precise (there may be some base changes / removes etc...) , & i ...
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Is there an existing database of mutation rates for mitochondrial loci?

I'm wondering if there exists a database of mutation rates (transitions and transversions) for both mitochondrial loci (such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)). Due to the use of COI as a DNA ...
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How having sickle cell trait would provide resistance to malarial parasites?

It's mentioned in my textbook that subjects with sickle cell trait develop resistance to malaria. I've read a few research papers predisposing involvement of macrophages and papers asserting ...
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Why is the relative expression in qPCR so low?

When analyzing different mutations through qPCR I found the $2^{-\Delta\Delta ct}$ value for each mutation. All the mutation have similar values compared to the wild type gene, however one of the ...
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How diverse are the sperm cells of an individual male due to random mutations?

Due to the sheer number of sperm cells in an individual and the rate of mutations, are they likely to be incredibly diverse and encompass most of what we see across our species? For instance would it ...
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For long term survival of a species in a harsh environment which is more important-mutation or evolution?

The environment is the ultimate cause of population stabilization. Considering the environment to turn harsh for the survival of a species.How to adapt better to this change-by evolution or by ...
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Will humans ever evolve to cope with the rising temperature of our planet? [closed]

I am a complete layman of this field(Biology).I went through an article about global temperature rise and i wanted to ask this question. Federal science agencies announced Wednesday that 2016 was ...
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How much generation of hamster's family it takes to get first bad mutations [closed]

So if I have two humsters and they start to reproduce themselfs then how much generations of hamster's family it takes to get first bad mutations? The info here does not help to find answer https://...
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Neutral genetic mutations in eukaryotic cells [closed]

Why are most mutations in eukaryotic cells neutral? i.e. have no effect on the phenotype.
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Why are not both alleles knocked out at the same time in knock out mouse?

I was reading this little 'article' about homologous recombination and knockout mouse. According to this article you first remove embryonic stem cells from a gray-fur blastocyst, then insert the ...
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What is the difference between silent and synonymous mutations?

Several sources all caution that silent mutations and synonymous substitutions are not the same thing and should not be confused. But they seem to draw different actual distinctions between the terms: ...
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Insertion of an additional base at start codon make the protein still functional?

So the question is if: a deletion of a codon for the amino acid lysine (AAG) is more or less likely to cause nonfunctionality of the protein than: Insertion of an additional base (C) within the ...
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Why does DNA mutate?

I just read that pregnancy in space would be super dangerous because - among other reasons - of a higher risk of mutations due to radiation. This made me wonder: why does the DNA in organisms mutate? ...
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How many possible human genotypes are there that produce distinct phenotypes?

This and this Quora question ask how many unique human genotypes are possible. The answers take the combinatorial approach of raising the 4 possible base pairs to a power which is some appreciable ...
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DNA replication during Mitosis

I am a bit confused. During Meiosis, DNA is replicated to form a cell with half the DNA and likely to have variations. But since the replication process of meiosis and mitosis are the same, why do DNA ...
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Are mutations the cause of alleles?

For example, some leopards have a mutation which causes black fur. So Black fur and normal fur colour (orange-white) are both alternate forms of the same gene, right? So does that mean that mutations ...
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Mutations in organisms

I was researching mutations and came across an interesting question: Do mutations occur in the DNA or mRNA of an organism? Is this more opinion that science? Thanks in advance!
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How is single nucleotide polymorphism denoted?

Currently I'm studying an article on TERT promoter mutations in human melanoma and find myself unfamiliar with included denotations,I would appreciate it if someone could explain to me what C228T in ...
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Why are tumor suppressor genes recessive?

In my Intro. to Biochemistry course, we have been studying cancer. The professor has pointed out that tumor suppressor genes are "recessive" while proto-oncogenes are "dominant". Since only one ...
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What is the opposite of a mutation (the regular state)?

What is the term, if there is one, to describe the natural state of a gene? The one single word to describe it, just like mutation is the one single word do describe a deviation from that state.
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Can mutation rate be selected for?

Can the mutability of DNA be selected for in a population? I don’t mean selection for the phenotype that is the result of a mutation. Rather, can the rate of mutations in a population be increased by ...
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How come our thyroid glands don't suffer awful mutations (or do they)?

I was listening to a lecture by my Biology professor and he said that the thyroid gland contains radioactive Iodine which can break down and create reactive Oxygen species (because ionizing radiation ...
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Are the changes required to produce genetically manipulated organisms (GMOS) considered to be mutations

By definition, are mutations required to be natural, or are synthetic lab-induced genetic changes considered mutations too? Furthermore, are genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs) considered forced ...
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What is functional dissection?

Reading [1] I found the sentence: Consistently, functional dissection of mouse and human wild-type and mutant RAS isogenic leukemia cells demonstrated induction of methotrexate resistance but also ...
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Importance of germline and somatic genomic mutations to the purpose of treatment in cancer

Is there a hierarchy in the sets of genomic mutations (somatic and germline) to the purpose of treatment in cancer? Can they be considered at the same level in the context of targeted therapy or are ...
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Are mutations random?

The following claim Mutations are random or just the use of the expression Random mutations are very common among lay people. The claim is very common among lay people. The claim is often ...
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How can just random mutations explain mimicry? [closed]

I have been reading this article on drug resistance which explained that how random mutations in a bacterial colony can lead to development of drug resistance among some organisms in that colony. A ...
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Why does chromosome inversion happen?

I read that chromosome inversion is a type of genetic mutation. Why does inversion happen? What is the purpose? I also read that if genes do not match up during cross over between inverted ...