Questions tagged [mutations]

A change in an organism's genomic sequence.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2 votes
1 answer
52 views

Calculating bacterial mutation rate

I'm reading Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts et. al and at one point, the authors mention: One finds that a single gene that encodes an average-sized protein (~$10^3$ coding nulceotide pairs) ...
user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
545 views

Amino Acid mutation profile for human coronavirus: Why is the mutation from T to I so frequent?

Still watching the emerging lineages of SARS-CoV2 I noticed that the amino acid mutation from threonine to isoleucine seems to be particularly frequent. Counting mutations in a lineage with a lot of ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

Do the quantum mechanical properties of the particles that make up DNA affect mutations in the genome?

Do quantum mechanical properties of particles, such as uncertainty, probability, tunneling, and so on, affect mutations in the genome?
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
53 views

Are introns conserved among cells?

To elaborate on the title: Among somatic, post-mitotic cells, would the same intron on a given chromosome have the same sequence among all cells descended from a progenitor cell?
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

Colonizing Mars: Is research being done to find the most radiation-tolerant plant species?

Due to Elon Musk's stated objectives to colonize and live on Mars in his lifetime, is there research occurring to determine what plants would be the most hardy to survive in the extreme environmental ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
107 views

Why is the genetic code so heavily conserved?

Except some organisms, most organisms follow the same Genetic Code tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, etc. comprise the translational machinery for converting nucleotide codons to proteins. My ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
103 views

Number of "mutations" in Omicron variant

Currently in the media they say that the Omicron variant has more than 30 "mutations", ie changes in spikes. I find this confusing, because the way I understand a single change in the virus ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
123 views

Do mutations in a fundamental structure of a virus [Omicron Variant] make it more transmissible?

I am not a microbiologist, nor a virologist so I had a question - in the new Omicron virus variant, a large number of mutations were reported for the protein spike. From my naïve understanding, the ...
user avatar
  • 149
8 votes
1 answer
3k views

Can the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated?

I am curious to know if the original SARS‑CoV‑2 virus, or any of its variants, can mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated. I am referring to those people who have received all the recommended ...
user avatar
  • 221
3 votes
0 answers
64 views

Why does mitochondrial DNA have a high mutation rate, even though the mitochondrial function is highly conserved?

My understanding is that genes that are functionally important are more highly conserved. The DNA coding for ribosomal RNA is one example of that. I was surprised to find out that mitochondrial DNA ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
56 views

What is an example of a benign or beneficial de novo copy number variation?

Duplication events in particular. In any species. Have enough genomes been sequenced and studied to identify any? It is rather easy to find studies which identify them with diseases but have they ever ...
user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
110 views

New ORFs occurring in SARS-CoV-2 due to mutations

Are there examples of new ORFs in SARS-CoV-2 created by mutations? The ORFs should not be present in the reference virus, but they should occur in a lineage occurring in the wild (at best, being part ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
29 views

What is the mathematical relationship between selection coefficient and dN/dS

dN/dS is often used as a measure of the intensity of selective pressure on a mutation or gene, but I'm curious about how it can be written as a function of the selection coefficient. I'm specifically ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Extensions of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 variants

What lineages of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 occurring in the wild show some extensions, i.e., mutations of the stop codons to codons encoding amino acids (mutations to another stop codon don't count ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
56 views

Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
123 views

Coronavirus lineages with amino acid insertions

Is there an overview over SARS-CoV-2 lineages that have some insertions in their genomes? Tools based on GISAID sequences do not show them. I am aware of a few lineages with insertions Mu with S:...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
91 views

Mutations in a Petri dish overnight

How long does it take for a bacterial culture in a Petri dish to experience all possible single base pair mutations? Can 12 hours be enough? I want to get an intuition for whether a given mutation is ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Monogenic disorders vs multifactorial inheritance disorders

There's a condition called SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability which is caused by mutations to the SYNGAP1 gene. I believe that this is called a monogenic disorder, while disorders that are caused ...
user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
63 views

Do mutations that cause the loss of a complex trait occur more often than mutations causing gain of a complex traits?

The Wiki entry on the evolution of biological complexity states that "[m]utations causing loss of a complex trait occur more often than mutations causing gain of a complex trait". There is ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
86 views

How are random mutations in cells of an organism controlled?

Even in the most stable conditions cells undergo mutations. So in humans(an example) with millions of cells, mutations must be a common affair. But how is that we are still basically the same ...
user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
1k views

Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
66 views

How to calculate the probability that a mutation occurred?

According to the internet, there is a 7% chance that two brown-eyed parents will have a green-eyed child. However, Dominance says that it is impossible for this to happen. Is the internet correct? If ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
17 views

Are the kind of mutations different in an antibiotic setting than they are in a non antibiotic setting?

Hy everyone! I'm looking for experiments that deal with the kind of mutations that arise in antibiotic environment, as opposed to non antibiotic environment. As far as I understand, AB (anti biotic) ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
60 views

Are SNPs or SSR copy number variation mutations more prominent?

I'm trying to get a sense of the dominant way that mutations occur. I have seen various numbers which seem at least at first glance to conflict, and I was curious if anyone had clarification on this. ...
user avatar
  • 113
5 votes
3 answers
184 views

Saturated Mutagenesis Screening

I am hoping to mutate the active site of the enzyme I am researching that has 5 residues in proximity with the substrate. I am wondering how many colonies I'll have to assess to theoretically sample ...
user avatar
  • 431
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

How difficult is it to adapt an existing vaccine to a virus variant?

There is (at least in France) an ongoing discussion about the Astra-Zeneca vaccine which is perceived as "outdated" because of the prevalence of new variants (the vaccine was designed based ...
user avatar
  • 455
-2 votes
2 answers
136 views

DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
user avatar
  • 17
3 votes
1 answer
96 views

Mutation rate breakdown by original and mutated nucleotide for Coronaviridae

In a discussion of the mutations S:Q677H and S:Q677P in SARS-CoV-2 it was mentioned that the mutations leading to this result are "against the tendency" of preferred mutations on the ...
user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
468 views

Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
user avatar
  • 171
0 votes
2 answers
131 views

Does a critical mass of infected individuals exist after which mutations will overtake vaccination attempts?

As we know, all organisms have a probability to undergo mutations when they replicate. For every infected individual with the Covid-19 their bodies are environments in which the SARS-CoV-2 may mutate ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
74 views

Is there an example of a new species through mutation breeding? [duplicate]

Is there a demonstrable species that went through mutation breeding and through successive generations it drifted so far away from its initial parent species that it can't breed with them anymore? (I ...
user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
544 views

Is it plausible that strict lockdowns made it more likely for the new variant of COVID to have emerged?

My idea is that strict lockdowns put greater evolutionary pressure on the coronavirus by restricting oppurtunities to be transmitted, meaning that a faster-spreading variant had much less competition. ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
89 views

What is the probability of virus undergoing a specific dangerous mutation? [closed]

Non-biologist here so apologies if the question is violating too many of the community standards for asking a question in the forum. What got me thinking was imagining how much more terrifying the ...
user avatar
  • 109
-2 votes
1 answer
37 views

What is the difference between mutation per base pair and mutation per genome? [closed]

Isn't genome size considered to be the number of base pairs present in DNA? So what is the difference between the mutation per base pair and mutation per genome? Are they similar or different?
user avatar
  • 1
-1 votes
2 answers
82 views

Coronavirus mutation: bad luck or a consequence of vaccination?

I would like to know whether a mutation within a virus (such as the new coronavirus mutation that appeared in England source) is a consequence of the vaccination program - maybe because it is ...
user avatar
  • 109
-1 votes
2 answers
156 views

How can mutation of viruses lead to loss of fit to antibodies without loss of fit to antigen of cells they infect?

Viruses are known to mutate, thereby escaping immune cells and evading vaccination. Given that there is one and the same specificity of the key to both the receptor on the infected cell causing the ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

What is the minimum-volume : neutral-volume : maximum-volume of the molecules that make up the SARS-Cov-2 virus-fusion machine?

The "neutral-volume" is the over-lapping volume between minimum-volume & maximum-volume of the molecules that make up the SARS-Cov-2-fusion machine. Those identifying potential ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
32 views

Can the mutation rate vary for individuals of the same species, growing in similar environments?

Suppose we consider several populations who originally inherited their genome from the same ancestor, and that we put for a few thousands generations in similar environments. Could the mutation rate ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Is there something amounting to "check sums" in genetic code?

Humans use checksums for many different applications in informational processes. Genetic code is used as a "program" to synthesize proteins, so it could (I'm a layman when it comes to ...
user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
35 views

Could a mutation on neutral part of genome become deleterious?

I know that silent mutations are neutral because they dont affect function of the protein/gene, and a missense mutation would. But lets say both occur on a neutral portion, could one or the other ...
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
252 views

A mutation question from the Indian National Biology Olympiad

DNA was isolated from wild type (Gal+) and mutant (Gal-) E. coli cells and separated by density gradient centrifugation technique. DNA from Gal- strain acquired a lower position. This indicates that ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Would an enrichment of pyrimidine runs of two of more nucleotides be an early indicator of DNA to be damaged?

I am analysing two categories of protein coding genes comparing their relative characteristics. What I am observing is that one of these, in comparison to the other, is enriched in pyrimidine runs (...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Estimate mutation rate in UVC treated cells

I am wondering how to get a coarse estimate of the number of mutation I obtain doing UVC treatment on eukaryotic cells (microalgae) starting from information such as the survival rate, genome size, ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
72 views

At what point during an organism’s lifespan do mutations occur?

I’m a software developer and I’m implementing something called a Genetic Algorithm. I would like some input on when during an organism’s lifespan mutations occur. Genes mutate throughout the lifetime ...
user avatar
  • 103
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

When cancer is detectable, how many sub-clones are there at that stage?

I have read somewhere that cancer is detectable when the number of cells reaches $10^7 - 10^9$, which probably varies according to the specific tumor. At this early stage, what is the expected number ...
user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
1 answer
53 views

Are probabilities of mutations symmetric?

For the premise of this quiestion let's assume that there is an allele A and an allele B. The allele A has a probability P to mutate into the allele B in the given timeframe. Is it also true that the ...
user avatar
  • 1,453
0 votes
1 answer
178 views

Is natural selection actually random?

In the Theory of Evolution, two main factors take place: One is random, which are the different mutations that organisms' DNA suffer. This process adds genetic variability to a given population. The ...
user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

De novo mutation selectivity

I was recently reading about genetic diseases and came to understand that many of them are caused by de novo mutations in the prezygotic or early embryonic stages of the life cycle of the organism. ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
61 views

gene inversion and DNA directionality

The directionality of the DNA goes from the 3-prime end to the 5-prime end. Thus, the inversion of a gene would connect a 5-prime to a 5-prime. How could that be? Maybe inverting a gene also ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
80 views

Are there known chains of beneficial mutations?

Are there known examples of chains of beneficial mutations? What I mean by that is a mutation that leads to a series of mutations occurring after each other over a relatively short period of time ...
user avatar

1
2 3 4 5 6