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Questions tagged [natural-selection]

A mechanism of evolution that leads to non-random spread of genes due to the effect that genes have on reproductive success.

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Why so ugly people live or have the instinct to survive and reproduce still? [duplicate]

Face it: it may be hard but ugly people -- men especially (since women choose) -- are bound to not naturally reproduce (sans rape maybe). Given such, why are people unfit to reproduce alive? If I ...
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Finding intensity of selection against dominant homozygotes

I was looking at some Olympiad questions and came across the following: If the frequency of a completely recessive allele is $0.2$ and it remains unchanged from generation to generation due to ...
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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Ways creatures evolove [closed]

I can't find the right answers to my questions online . are there other ways creatures evolove apart form nsatural selection? Thank you
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Confusion over equation in Trivers reciprocal altruism paper

I'm reading the 1971 Robert Trivers paper "The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism" and I'm having trouble with the equation specifying the conditions under which reciprocal altruism is beneficial: I ...
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Does consistency in minor allele frequency of a SNP across populations imply selection?

If a particular SNP has very similar MAF value across multiple largely non-overlapping populations, with the assumption of no gene flow between the populations over many generations, would that then ...
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You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to come into existence at the same time?

A statement I recently read: 'Evolution is debunked and gives no basis for morality. Natural Selection throws away info, it does not add. You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to ...
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Book on the history of Darwin's discoveries and development of his theory

This question is a book request. I am wondering if there are any books with these elements: Tells the history of Darwin's discoveries. Captures Darwin's changing views of the origins of species, ...
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1answer
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Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
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Bird vs Fish Encounter?

Visiting a beach at the ocean, I recently saw a Great Blue Heron dive and catch quite a spiky/large (and colorful! I think it was called a sculpin) crosswise in it's bill. It appeared, potential meal ...
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Is it possible to calculate the evolutionary response to nonlinear selection gradient as a change in variance of phenotypes?

I often see the breeders equation written like this: $R = h^2s = \frac{V_a}{V_z}s = V_a\beta$ or $\Delta \bar z = G\beta$ But is it possible to get something like this: $\Delta \sigma_z = G\...
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What to call a trait that has current utility but unclear evolutionary origin?

I'm looking for a commonly used term to describe a trait that has clear current utility but an evolutionary origin that is uncertain and that we do not necessarily wish to emphasize in our description ...
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Do beneficial viruses exist? If so, what examples are there?

Typically, people call viruses some kind of organic compounds that cannot reproduce autonomously and which lower the fitness of their hosts. Even the word "virus" means "venom" in Latin. But from the ...
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Killing more attractive mates — intersexual selection strategy? [closed]

Is this the affinity or core part of intersexual selection (males fighting for access to females)? If females are bound to flock to objectively more attractive man 'A' in the majority of cases, would ...
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1answer
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Background selection and hitchhiking effect

As I read the maintenance or removal of an allele from a population is dependent upon the alleles in its linkage group; so, when an advantageous mutation occurs in the population, variation in nearby ...
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2answers
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Finding for evolution, comparing past flower numbers with present

In a hypothetical species of butterfly, wing spots are controlled by a single locus where BB individuals have blue spots, YY individuals have yellow spots, and BY individuals have green spots. Ten ...
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1answer
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Does natural selection apply to entire populations as it does to individual organisms?

The context: the other day I was reading an article about a peculiar species of ant that when threatened by a predator would “explode” in order to help protect the rest of the colony, although it ...
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2answers
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How does better sperm result in more viable offspring?

Quoting wikipedia: Greater choice and variety of mates increases a female's chance to produce more viable offspring. This led me to the question: "How sperm parameters are connected with entity ...
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54 views

For X-linked recessive diseases, why are only a third of alleles under selection pressure?

My professor wrote the following on one of his lecture slides: For X-linked recessive disease, only a third of the mutant alleles are under selection pressure, so if the disease incidence is stable, ...
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2answers
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Many black people I've met have bigger lips than white people, why? [duplicate]

I noticed that many black-ish people I've met have bigger lips than the white-ish people I've met. However, not all black-ish people have big lips. Is there any explanations in terms of natural ...
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1answer
102 views

Impact of Natural Selection on Population Size

I have conducted a lab with my IB Biology 11 class, regarding changes in allele frequencies within generations overseeing the natural selection of an advantageous phenotype. We were looking to ...
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Selective pressure for reduced rates of growth and maturity in primates

Humans are somewhat notable for the slow rate at which they grow and reach physical maturity. Some related primates also take over a decade to reach sexual maturity. However, many mammals – ...
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1answer
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How could a species be engineered to go extinct?

Non-biology background here. I read this very interesting article: https://www.wired.com/story/crispr-eradicate-invasive-species/ However I am having a hard time wrapping my head around something: ...
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How did humans know the process of domesticating animals?

If people in ancient times had no scientific knowledge about natural selection and Darwinism, how were they knowledgeable about animal domestication and artificial selection? What tools and ...
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Why does a frog's oxygen intake through the skin and lungs vary throughout the year?

Why does a frogs oxygen intake through the skin and lungs vary throughout the year? And why does the intake through the skin vary slightly while through the lungs dramatically? (Blue line = oxygen ...
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108 views

What problem does kin selection solve?

I'm trying to understand what problem led to a development of kin selection. The explanations I've found consist roughly of the following: The existence of some altruistic and cooperative ...
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1answer
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Cell-level selection and inheritance of acquired mutations

I was reading about different levels of selection in Ridley's Evolution textbook (chapter on units of evolution) and saw that some organisms e.g. carrots are not Weismannist i.e. don't have separate ...
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4answers
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Can the theory of natural selection distinguish between two correlated phenotypic traits?

Consider the following two situations: A species X has trait $T_1$ that is gradually selected for by some characteristic $E_1$ in some ecological niche but it turns out that the genes for $T_1$ also "...
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Is it possible to artificially select for flight in pigs?

After reading this rant by Fodor, as a layperson, I was idly wondering whether it would be possible to artifically select for flight in pigs. Of course by that time the porcine lineage will probably ...
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Can mutation rate be selected for?

Can the mutability of DNA be selected for in a population? I don’t mean selection for the phenotype that is the result of a mutation. Rather, can the rate of mutations in a population be increased by ...
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Is natural selection a force?

I often hear that natural selection, or simply, selection is a "force". e.g.: the forces of directional selection on correlated life history characters, and an adaptive topography Source: ...
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What is continuous selection?

I've been reading paper on ancient horse genome (Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse) and in abstract authors mention term continuous selection:...
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1answer
282 views

Does the term “fitness advantage” or “fitness disadvantage” make sense?

Same for the terms "selective advantage" and "selective disadvantage" which I intend to use synonymously. There are usages of each on Google Scholar, but do evolutionary biologists understand what is ...
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1answer
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What is it called when there is natural truncation selection?

Truncation selection is when a breeder selects for animals that exhibit a value for a trait that is above a certain threshold. What is it called when nature selects for a value of a trait that is ...
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How do we call a “burst of evolution”?

I have in mind that evolution is not a constant / continuous process and that there are bursts of evolution. Are there terms to refer to the concepts of fast vs slow evolution rates?
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How frequent are selective sweeps?

Introduction Selective sweep is the most famous genetic signature of selection. We know of a number of classical examples of selective sweeps, some of them in humans. See the classical example of the ...
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1answer
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About lack of selective pressure

In [1] it is stated that: the frequency of comutations in FGFR3 and KRAS or PIK3CA and KRAS was lower than predicted by chance, suggesting ... a lack of selective pressure for both mutations to ...
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1answer
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Reducing the Proportion of Phenotype in Hardy Weinberg Population through Selection

I was given the following question: You travel to an unknown island and find a population of strangely colored slugs! Upon close investigation, you notice that 16% of the slugs have a shriveled tails,...
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Why did the face of human species changed so much during the course of its evolution?

I recently watched this video which showed the evolution of facial features of the modern man https://youtu.be/-69K7E0UlBI I'm wondering what evolutionary advantage did we get by having our face ...
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How does natural selection explain how organisms that are poisonous evolved? [duplicate]

Natural selection makes perfect sense when describing the evolution of say camouflage. For example 2 bugs of the same species live on a tree. One is mutated to look slightly more like a tree, so the ...
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Is the suicide of a moribund individual to be considered group selection?

When a moribund individual commits suicide (e.g., Refardt, Bergmiller & Kummerli, 2013; http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/280/1759/20123035.full.pdf), is this to be considered ...
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1answer
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The falsifiability of natural selection [closed]

I was wondering if we could think about experiments to falsify natural selection . According to this wiki : we could invalidate natural selection “...if it could be shown that selection or ...
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how can a recessive allele become represented in a significant number of individuals in a population

Darwin believed that individuals that are poorly adapted to their environment are less likely to survive and reproduce. This means that their genes are less likely to be passed to the next generation. ...
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Is it possible to Breed an Animal to have more Females than Males?

Minute Earth talked about environmental factors that cause animals and humans to have more male or female children: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IaYhG11ckA Presuming that is accurate, I was ...
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Tumor-suppression, cell differentiation, and apoptosis: How do macroevolutionists justify dismissing such strong evidence for intelligent design? [closed]

Consider the 20 kilobase TP53 gene named for its massive initially-believed 53 kilodalton protein product (later found to be 43 kilodaltons - see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TP53). Something that ...
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120 views

Has human evolution currently stopped? [duplicate]

Due to the advent of social networking and dating sites, it is now possible for almost anyone to find a potential mate. Therefore, there is not as much of a pressure based on physical characteristics ...
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2answers
354 views

How is “selection” best defined?

There is natural selection but there is also sexual selection which some regard as a category of natural selection. There is also artificial selection (by humans). The question is, what is a most ...
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1answer
135 views

What evolutionary reason is there for hemolytic disease?

Nowawadays we have methods which allow us to overcome hemolytic disease of newborn or to prevent it to onset. The Rh or Kell conflict, but how is it possible that it is present? Why it haven't ...
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Can the value of heritability be greater than 1?

Heritability defined as genetic variance divided by total variance seems to be bounded between 0 and 1. However, I see a way of calculating heritability on this page (http://www.radford.edu/~rsheehy/...
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What principles are used to define the environment in which an organism lives?

I would like to better determine whether an organism is dwelling in its natural environment. One might be tempted to describe in terms of geographic range, however, similar conditions to that range ...