Questions tagged [natural-selection]

A mechanism of evolution that leads to non-random spread of genes due to the effect that genes have on reproductive success.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2
votes
1answer
673 views

Why do animals only eat some parts of their food?

For example monkeys/apes only eat part of a fruit and then throw the rest. Cats (big and small species) only eat some parts of their prey and then they abandon it. Humans on the contrary leave as few ...
2
votes
1answer
462 views

The concepts of relatedness - Hamilton's rule and kin selection

Here is a quotation from this wikipedia page The relatedness parameter (r) in Hamilton's rule was introduced in 1922 by Sewall Wright as a coefficient of relationship that gives the ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Phenoptosis, behavior evolved for good of species?

I was reading this and felt like the argument is being made that organisms die for the good of species. Isn't this nonsense? This especially bugged me: "'Age-induced, soft, or slow phenoptosis'" ...
2
votes
0answers
66 views

Why is "mutual search" of some disadvantage/loss of power? (in Darwin's The Descent of Man)

I read a book "The Descent of Man" from Charles Darwin. What is the reason for the following statement? "It would be no advantage and some loss of power if both sexes were mutually to ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

What determines whether a trait brought out through sexual selection is transmitted only to offspring of the same sex or of both sexes?

First of all, let me apologize for my amateurishness. I have no background in biology. Please bear with me. My question relates to sexual selection, or specifically its most prominent manifestations: ...
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Evolution at a glacial pace: how does it work? [duplicate]

Some trees are very long-lived, such as the Great Basin Bristlecone Pine and the Giant Sequoia (up to 4,800 years old). How does natural selection and evolution affect such long-lived organisms? ...
2
votes
1answer
129 views

Impact of Natural Selection on Population Size

I have conducted a lab with my IB Biology 11 class, regarding changes in allele frequencies within generations overseeing the natural selection of an advantageous phenotype. We were looking to ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Ecological specialization and relative abundance

I am reading Evolution in Changing Environments by R. Levin but have a hard time. Claim At page 25, Levin says as a conclusion The more efficient a caste at meeting the contingency for which it ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

What model of epistasis best fit the reality?

In theoretical population genetics, it is very common to have to assume a model of epistatic interaction. The two most common models are the additive model and the multiplicative model. Additive ...
2
votes
0answers
133 views

Replicator equation for mixed strategies?

The the replicator equation is usually defined for pure strategies. More specifically, the replicator eqn for $n$ strategies is given by: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{...
2
votes
0answers
335 views

Variance in reproductive success and effective population size

Background The effective population size $N_e$ is the size of the Wright-Fisher population that experience the same amount of drift than the population under consideration. The higher the variance ...
2
votes
0answers
179 views

What is the probability of fixation for a mutant under fluctuating selection?

Here is an answer which explains how one can model the frequency of an allele that is under fluctuating selection (the selection that varies through time). Not, thinking about fluctuating selection, ...
2
votes
0answers
130 views

Ancestral states of sex determination system

Most (maybe all?) species that reproduce sexually have either genders (anisogamy) or mating types (isogamy). There exist today many different type of sexual determination system. There is a whole ...
1
vote
2answers
587 views

Why even if all requirements for natural selection are met, it may not happen?

In the book written by John Endler Natural Selection in the Wild p. 4 it says that even if condition a, b and c are met, evolution by natural selection might occur, [...] , but not necessarily, [...
1
vote
2answers
199 views

problem with natural selection [duplicate]

I fail to see how natural selection can build any kind of new functionality. New functionality in a design requires sacrificing a complex series of meanwhile useless steps before the new ...
1
vote
2answers
328 views

Eusociality and Natural selection?

Eusociality, particularly focusing on the presence of certain altruistic sterile organisms within the social set-up creates questions as to why would the process of natural selection have favoured the ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Population Genetics Using WGS: How do I know when I have enough individuals?

I am having a difficult time finding information about a minimum threshold for number of individuals to use in wgs pop gen analyses. Are there software or formulas/theory available to determine what ...
1
vote
3answers
172 views

Is it possible to artificially select for flight in pigs?

After reading this rant by Fodor, as a layperson, I was idly wondering whether it would be possible to artifically select for flight in pigs. Of course by that time the porcine lineage will probably ...
1
vote
2answers
4k views

Why do heterozygous individuals have increased resistance to malaria?

I am aware that there is such a thing called heterozygous advantage, which is due to the presence of a certain single allele, and that an example of this could be with "sickle-cell anemia". I am ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

higher-order evolutionary adaptations

Most adaptations are what I'd call first-order. Cats evolve better eyesight; redwoods evolve to grow taller; male cardinals evolve attractive bright feathers. All of these changes were selected for ...
1
vote
4answers
150 views

Is variation a result of Evolution?

We know that the DNA copying mechanism that replicates DNA during cellular division is not 100% accurate and the resultant errors are the source of variation in the members of a population. At the ...
1
vote
1answer
5k views

What is the difference between natural selection and adaptation?

From what I've read it seems that the only actual difference is that creationists use adaptation and people who believe in evolution use natural selection. But otherwise, from my understanding, the ...
1
vote
2answers
198 views

Effect on fitness of mutations

What is the distribution/probability density function (PDF) of impacts on fitness of new mutations? I very welcome any partial answer that does not give the whole PDF but just some information about ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Why are smaller mammals more prone to cancer and tumors

especially rats and mice usually develop cancer and tumors very fast, reducing their life expectancy. From an evolutionary point of view, how come that these mammals are so prone to cancer and tumors ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

What are the implications/predictions of the selfish gene theory?

Are there any testable predictions or implications of the selfish gene theory? Or it is just interesting interpretation of the observations/experimental data? If this theory is not falsifiable and ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Increase rate of change in coding regions?

If a sequence is under selection will it acquire more changes over time because of faster fixation than if changes were neutral? Is this true or am I missing something?
1
vote
2answers
274 views

What problem does kin selection solve?

I'm trying to understand what problem led to a development of kin selection. The explanations I've found consist roughly of the following: The existence of some altruistic and cooperative ...
1
vote
2answers
6k views

How can natural selection occur at species level whilst not occuring at the individual level?

The chapter by Douglas Futuyma in 'Evolution' (Losos et al 2013, Princeton) states that natural selection can occur at the species level. Futuyma states that if natural selection occurs at the species ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Dominance/recessivity of new mutations

What is the distribution/probability density function (PDF) of recessivity/dominance of new mutations? I very welcome any partial answer that does not give the whole PDF but just some information ...
1
vote
1answer
716 views

Is Natural Selection like a Copy Editor?

I am stuck on a Homework Question. It says: Evaluate the following statement: “Natural selection works like a copy editor; it works only with what is already present in a population.” (Note: ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

How can we decide at which level does natural selection apply? [closed]

Here is a passage from The Selfish Gene If selection goes on between groups within species, and between species, why should it not also go on between larger groupings? Species are grouped into ...
1
vote
1answer
257 views

Explaining natural selection in moth [closed]

Industrial melanism is an example of natural selection. Can it be considered as a evolution due to anthropogenic action?
1
vote
1answer
364 views

What is the progressive evolutionary advantage that leads to flying? [closed]

As far as I understand, all life started as non-flying and flying came about by natural selection. What is the evolutionary advantageous "path" to flying? Or is there something else to explain this?
1
vote
1answer
298 views

How prominent is the gene-centric view of evolution among professional researchers?

Richard Dawkins famously advocated a gene-centric (as opposed to organism-centric) viewpoint on natural selection, most notably in The Extended Phenotype. However, I have also heard "on the grapevine" ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Distribution of fitness in wild populations

If I get out in the wild observe wild populations and measure the distribution of fitness $f(w)$ in a given population. What will I find out? Will I observe a Gaussian distribution, a Poisson ...
1
vote
1answer
144 views

Are mosquitoes attracted to blue lights in particular?

I've been confronting the fact since childhood that mosquitoes are attracted to lights, especially blue lights. Now I know that all insects including mosquitoes are attracted to bright light but I ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

Exact terminology of natural selection

You don't need to explain to me what the theory of evolution is, or how it works. This question is purely about what exact meaning the word "natural selection" is ascribed to. There seem to be ...
1
vote
2answers
607 views

Why does a frog's oxygen intake through the skin and lungs vary throughout the year?

Why does a frogs oxygen intake through the skin and lungs vary throughout the year? And why does the intake through the skin vary slightly while through the lungs dramatically? (Blue line = oxygen ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Is it possible to Breed an Animal to have more Females than Males?

Minute Earth talked about environmental factors that cause animals and humans to have more male or female children: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IaYhG11ckA Presuming that is accurate, I was ...
1
vote
1answer
268 views

What evolutionary reason is there for hemolytic disease?

Nowawadays we have methods which allow us to overcome hemolytic disease of newborn or to prevent it to onset. The Rh or Kell conflict, but how is it possible that it is present? Why it haven't ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

What is the difference between disruptive, divergent and diversifying selection?

In our lab meeting we were chatting about divergent selection. I was confused at some point because I wasn't sure what was the meaning of this work in comparison to diversifying/disruptive and other ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

Fst Differences Between Mature Trees and Seeds

For a single co-dominant locus in two populations of blue oak, I am given genotype frequency data (genotypes are AA, AB, BB) for adult trees (at least 150 years old) in both populations (pop 1 and pop ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

What are Some Classical Examples of Local Adaptation?

Question Can you please give a list of classical (textbook) examples of local adaptations? How to answer Examples don't necessarily need to include what evidence supports this specific example of ...
1
vote
1answer
13k views

What's the difference between stabilizing selection and balancing selection?

I came across these terms in Darwin's "Origin of Species" and I wasn't sure what the difference is.
1
vote
1answer
176 views

Gene duplication and subfunctionalization

I’ve been intrigued by gene duplication and want to learn more about it. I’ve read the following from here: several studies suggest that the proportion of duplicated genes retained in vertebrate ...
1
vote
1answer
671 views

What is a sex-biased gene?

How do you define a male-biased gene and a female-biased gene as they are found in the abstract of this article.
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Could mating/recombination be responsible for evolution of entirely novel features?

The diploid chromosomal architecture is rather interesting. For example, because of diploidy we Humans have to mate. Of course in that sense, because diploid organisms often have mate, this has led to ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Who were the first authors to talk about local adaptation?

I was curious to read about what Darwin had to say about the existance of locally adapted subpopulations. I discovered to my surprise that the expressions and terms "local adaptation", "spatial ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

Sharks, alligators and Gould's "random walk" theory

I was thinking about Stephen Jay Gould's view on evolution as pure "random walk" / Drunkard's Walk, increasing or decreasing complexity in basically random fashion, just limited by death if an ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Are there any evolutionary reasons for the different tree shapes? If so, What are they?

So we know there are a thousand types of trees with different shapes. We have Columnar shaped trees: Pyramidal or Conical shaped trees: Weeping shaped trees: And we also have Round, Vased, Open-...