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Questions tagged [neuroanatomy]

Study of the anatomy and organization of the nervous system.

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how can a ganglion be defined as cluster of neuron bodies when it has interneurons?

Let alone the presynaptic button existing there as well, how is a whole interneuron existing there not contradict the definition ?
Mohammed Ibrahim Daghbouche's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
71 views

What is a polar plot of relative neural firing

I am taking my PhD qualifying exams on monday, and there is a seemingly simple practice problem that I can't seem to figure out, and I was hoping someone here would have some knowledge, or at least be ...
Brian's user avatar
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Does communication with new parts of body requires internal changes in brain?

I am not a biological scientist and have low biology knowledges in general, but I want to know some thing. Most of us probably can't even imagine what it feels the sixth finger to be touched. Because ...
Stdugnd4ikbd's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can Neurons be connected in Series and will that pattern create huge voltage in human body?

We have learned in Physics that when multiple voltage sources are connected in Series , the resultant voltage becomes the summation of all voltages . Now, my question is - Can Neurons be connected in ...
Koushik Pal's user avatar
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17 views

Proportion of cell layers in the different areas of human cortex

I am looking for any scientific paper or book which could help me find the different proportion of layers across the different areas of the human cortex. I am working on a research project which ...
Matheus C.'s user avatar
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How can nerves slide without tearing

While reading about an exercise called nerve glides I learned that nerves are quite inelastic. With all the nerve branches and relatively straight path how do nerves slide back and forth without ...
Jl137's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does bregma -4.36mm mean?

I am reading a journal paper. In this paper, they inject adeno-associated viruses into the brains of rats. In the below figure, there is something that I want to clarify: In Figure A, I am not sure ...
ceno980's user avatar
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Why is the anterior pituitary not considered part of the diencephalon?

According to the wikipedia page on the diencephalon, the posterior pituitary gland is considered part of the diencephalon, but the anterior is not. Is there a reason that these two lobes of the same ...
user56834's user avatar
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Why does Sanjay Gupta's brain look so unusual? (brain model shown on CNN) The subdivisions don't look like the lobes I learned in school

above: Screenshot from CNN's May 18, 2023 Feinstein’s office confirms broader health complications, contradicting senator’s denial below: from anatomyinfo.com's Parts of the Brain Neurosurgeon Dr. ...
uhoh's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
520 views

Is there a quantitative report for cortical homunculus?

Almost all websites that I see for cortical homunculus only show the final picture with some qualitative descriptions such as "hands have more dexterity and occupy more motor cortex." But is ...
Saeed Neamati's user avatar
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2 answers
194 views

What is the evidence for cognition being mainly confined to the brain?

We believe that the processes of cognition are mainly confined to the brain. What is the evidence for that? I understand that the brain shows increased oxygen saturation in fMRI scans while thinking ...
Ritesh Singh's user avatar
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Abnormally fast nerve conduction

Is there any neurological condition or disease where nerve conduction becomes abnormally fast? We know that myelinated neurons conduct impulses much more rapidly than non-myelinated ones as the myelin ...
Arkajyoti Banerjee's user avatar
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239 views

Biological reason for "deadlift face"?

Always when I deadlift at the maximum load, my face looks more or less like this: or this: The same applies for when I do other heavy-weight exercises. But what biological mechanism causes that? ...
user46147's user avatar
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0 answers
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How to choose which animals to study when designing evolutionary neuroscience research project

I am currently writing a reseach project for a scientific initiation and my idea would be a literature review identifying all empirical physiological and anatomical evidence for the presence and ...
Matheus C.'s user avatar
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32 views

Medical Physiology

I've come across the topic of the influence of inhaled ammonia (caustic ammonia) on breathing rate and some cardiovascular changes. All of this stuff is thought to be mediated through the fifth ...
Alexandr_Kabanets's user avatar
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1 answer
202 views

How is a thickening of grey matter possible?

There are plenty of studies that document grey matter thickening in certain brain areas as a result of meditation or exercise. However, it's often said that the extent of neurogenesis outside of the ...
Damocle Damoclev's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
530 views

How many signals can one neuron send and/or receive simultaneously?

I've been researching this question online and finding opposing answers. Some articles say that one neuron can only send one signal at a time while others says that one neuron can send more than one ...
user67614's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
71 views

When recalling the same piece of memory in different times, are the brain activities different?

When we are thinking about the same piece of memory in multiple different times, would the corresponding brain activities always be the same? Or how similar/different can the corresponding brain ...
user67603's user avatar
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What is the difference in the function of tractus rubrospinalis and tractus corticospinalis?

What is the difference in the function of tractus corticospinalis and tractus rubrospinalis? I know, that they begin in different parts of the brain, but from what have I read on the internet*, I can'...
doc. Chocholoušek's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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If blood vessels mostly aren't supplied by parasympathetic nerves, how effects through M3-ACh receptors are mediated?

Blood vessels throughout the body mostly aren't supplied by any parasympathetic fibres. But the effects of ACh through M3-ACh receptors would infact release NO (which acts on VSM and causes ...
ANA negative's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
347 views

Why is the chordate nerve cord described as hollow when it appears to be solid?

My textbook says arthropods have a double, ventral, solid nerve cord. And chordates have a single, dorsal, hollow nerve cord. What is hollow exactly in a cord that looks like this?
Derek Stone's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
111 views

How does expansion of the skin via mitosis influence the density of its specialised nerve endings

I found a reddit question Do nerves & nerve endings expand with skin or does skin expansion causes loss of nerve density where a user references the study Assessment of Epidermal Nerve Fibers: A ...
KoT44's user avatar
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Brain centers vs areas (and how they relate to nuclei)

I'm looking for a reputable source that can provide succinct definitions differentiating the following terms in the central nervous system (CNS; particularly in the brain): Area Center Nucleus ...
theforestecologist's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
102 views

Why is gyrification advantageous?

Standard 'Explanation': I've seen countless neuroscience articles and experts explain that 'cortical gyrification is advantageous because it increases surface area which obviously increases your ...
profPlum's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Are the foramina of Magendie and Luschka genuine defects of the ependymal epithelium?

Question: Are the foramen Magendie (or the median aperture) and the two foramina Luschka (or the lateral apertures) genuine defects of the ependymal epithelium? So the ventricular lumen truly ...
Catan97's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
213 views

Why do water molecules diffuse along axons direction?

I am studying tractography technique which aims to reconstruct bundles of axons in brain by following the diffusion direction of water. It is very interesting because it is non-invasive. It exploits ...
Manuela's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Why proprioceptive fibres (of CN V) have their cell bodies in mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus?

It's seen that GSA (General Somatic Afferent) fibres (of CN V) have their cell bodies in trigeminal ganglion. But the proprioceptive fibres' peripheral processes terminate at mesencephalic trigeminal ...
ANA negative's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
110 views

Clarification for the anatomical terminology of the cerebellum

I've been trying to find descriptions for some of the fissures found on the inferior surface of the cerebellum, and so far the only source I've been able to find that provides an adequate description ...
Dahen's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
134 views

What exactly is "lateral septum"?

I came across the phrase lateral septum and I can't seem to find the precise definition online. Is it "the areas roughly to the right and the left of the septum pellucidum"? Or is it the ...
CopperKettle's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
177 views

Is Brain Eye connections reversed in all animals or just Humans?

I know that Brain Eye connections are reversed in Humans, Left Hemisphere controls the Right eye/Right side of the body Right Hemisphere Controls the Left eye/Left side of the body Is it true in ...
Rahul.In's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Electrical transmission vs Chemical transmission

"The advantage of electrical transmission, apart from speed, is it can favour synchrony in firing. For example, in the brain stem a nucleus called the inferior olive can generate oscillations due to ...
Lia Ahmed's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
700 views

Why is the ratio between action potential and threshold value called the 'safety factor'?

"All­or­Nothing Principle. Once an action potential has been elicited at any point on the membrane of a normal fiber, the depolarization process travels over the entire membrane if conditions are ...
Lia Ahmed's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Are there "old" neuron types in the neocortex?

"Old" may mean a neuron type that appeared early in the tree of life, and it may mean – going together – that it comes early in the lineage tree of neuronal cells, rooted in the fertilized ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
82 views

Inhibitory functional connectivity

Functional connectivity may be defined as »the temporal correlation between spatially remote neurophysiological events, expressed as deviation from statistical independence across these events in ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Are there nuclei with "real" interneurons?

In Kandel's "Principles of Neural Sciences" in the chapter about the anatomical organization of the brain one reads (p. 323, 4th ed.): »Although a variety of [relay] neurons are involved at each ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
37 views

How sharp are the borders between Brodmann areas?

How does the border between two Brodmann areas look like in Nissl stains? How large is the transition zone where one cannot tell to which of the two areas a neuron belongs to? How many neurons are ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
124 views

Which parts of the cerebral cortex don't belong to the neocortex?

In the Wikipedia article on the cerebral cortex one reads: »Most of the cerebral cortex consists of the six-layered neocortex.« Accordingly, in the Wikipedia list of regions in the human brain, ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
132 views

What does the thalamus consist of?

There is a long list of thalamic nuclei which are somehow embedded in the thalamus, a "large mass of gray matter located in the dorsal part of the diencephalon", according to Wikipedia. I wonder what ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
327 views

Why is it so important to avoid infection of lacerations to the scalp?

There is supposedly something unique with regards to infections of the scalp, although I cannot remember, perhaps it was to do with the CSF and its build up? I have scoured the internet for hours but ...
N K's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
940 views

Functional unit

What is meant by functional unit of a system? Like when we say that the neuron is the basic unit of neural system, do we mean that all those things that are performed by neural system can be performed ...
user55780's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
328 views

Does the cranial dura consist of the periosteum? and if not, then is there a mistake in my textbook?

My textbook (Neuroanatomy an illustrated colour text) states that: The spinal dura and much of the cranial dura are separate from the periosteum, which forms the inner lining of the surrounding ...
N K's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
44 views

Are there pre-synaptic alpha 2 receptors in the post-ganglionic synapses of the heart?

Are there pre-synaptic alpha 2 receptors in the post-ganglionic synapses of the heart? I haven't found any sources that clearly state whether they do or not. I'm also not sure if they exist in most ...
Dahen's user avatar
  • 323
-1 votes
1 answer
30 views

Do astrocytes connect and chemically communicate with other astrocytes?

I am building a novel model of neural tissue for the purposes of Machine Learning and am currently trying to unpick the functions of the astroglia. The literature suggests that astrocytes ensheath ...
David H Parry's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
90 views

What makes synapses stay "fixed"?

What makes synapses not move or pre- and postsynaptic cells neither touch nor move away from each other? I mean the synaptic cleft is a gap between the pre- and postsynaptic cells that is about 20 nm ...
Karlb's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
50 views

What trajectory do action potentials take, from initial visual stimulus all the way to motor function?

Say we see a mosquito, and our brain tells us 'hey that's a mosquito, you should kill it.' Then we move our hands and slap/clap it. The initial visual stimulus is translated to an action potential ...
chompion's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

What is the outer boundary of oligodendrocyte myelination?

The sensory and motor neurons comprising the spinal cord and brain stem have the interesting property that different structural components belonging to the same neuron can occupy both the PNS and CNS. ...
S.C.'s user avatar
  • 375
1 vote
1 answer
429 views

Why are the grey matter structures of the inferior medial frontal lobe not directly (not via white matter) connected?

I have recently been trying to understand the three dimensional nature of the brain for a neuroanatomy class. Part of this strategy has included learning about structures such as the falx cerebri, ...
S.C.'s user avatar
  • 375
1 vote
1 answer
70 views

What cell types comprise the median eminence and the tuber cinereum?

I have tried pretty hard to get a detailed description of what exactly the median eminence and the tuber cinereum are but to no avail. I am very familiar with their anatomical relationships (spatially)...
S.C.'s user avatar
  • 375
0 votes
1 answer
169 views

What neurons' projections comprise the olfactory nerve (Cranial Nerve 1)?

Recently, I have been learning about olfaction. To my surprise, I am having a heck of a time finding explicit information regarding which neurons' axons are comprising the olfactory nerve. I am aware ...
S.C.'s user avatar
  • 375
-1 votes
1 answer
606 views

What are the brain structures directly on top of the brain stem?

I have been trying to learn the anatomy of the brain, and some information on their functions, through an iPad app called 3D Brain. Whilst going through the different parts, I have noticed that one ...
Chris Rogers's user avatar

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