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Questions tagged [neurology]

The medical specialty involving the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.

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What causes the range of severity of neurological deficits in Down's syndrome?

It's known that the severity of symptoms caused by a trisomy 21 varies from individual to individual. Part of the explanation for this range of severity is the finding that 94% of Down's syndrome ...
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What is the cause that angina pectoris is felt in your left arm?

When someone has heart problems sometimes they feel pain in their left arm. But why is the left arm painful?
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How do we know the brain flips images projected on the retina back around?

Why do we turn images upside down again rather than dealing with them directly, still vertically rotated after passing through our lens? I don't see how that would cause any problems, and how we'd ...
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301 views

Which part of the brain needs to be shut down to lose conciousness?

Whether it is mechanical (trauma), chemical (anaesthesia) or electrical - which part of the brain is shut down to cause loss of consciousness?
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1answer
902 views

How does methamphetamine (meth) damage neurons?

Meth is considered to be neurotoxic by forming reactive oxygen species and oxidizing the neurons. But unlike dopamine, which, by the way, is neurotoxic due to ROS induced dopaminergic stress, meth ...
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1answer
3k views

What is a inhibitory tone when talking about neurons?

In this SE answer: Could an "overactive" brain increase the chances of Alzheimer's Disease? user @nico used the word inhibitory tone What does that ...
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1answer
739 views

Foveal ganglion cell density (Tay-Sachs Disease)

I’m currently reading on Tay-Sachs disease and have stumbled upon something regarding the typical “cherry red” macula symptom. On the one hand it is mentioned that the macula is almost devoid of ...
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1answer
850 views

Why do humans alone have the capability to have religious/spiritual experiences?

What is it in our brain that makes having such experiences possible? I assume other species don't have these. Sure there are instances in the natural world where you can see individuals of the species ...
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4answers
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Is there any way a human could whistle and be unable to speak?

Is there any situation anatomically, where a human could understand the speech of others perfectly, without any capabilities of speech themselves, but would retain the ability to whistle with a tune? ...
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1answer
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Are there any types of cancer that cause neurons to divide?

After birth neurons generally do not divide. But is there any specific type of rare cancer or tumour where neurons divide? And if there is such a cancer, then how is it possible for a neuron to regain ...
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2answers
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How long can the brain survive during ongoing cardiac arrest?

There was this interesting discussion on CPR and defib in response to the question "Why can't we defibrillate the heart within 1 minute after ventricular fibrillation by electroshock?". Now I was ...
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1answer
258 views

Why do neurons loose the potential to regenerate and reproduce in adult animals?

I have read in several books that neurons in the central nervous system loose the power to regenerate after some developmental stage but why do they? Can we artificially induce regeneration?
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1answer
668 views

Is brain transplantation possible?

Many organs can be transplanted nowadays, including the liver, lungs and kidneys. Can the brain be transplanted?
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1answer
2k views

Can rapid eye blinking induce epileptic seizures?

Photosensitive epilepsies are characterized by visually-induced seizures. Flashing-light stimuli are known to induce seizures in some (but not all) patients. My question is whether people with this ...
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1answer
143 views

Why Is Gray Matter Gray?

When I researched I found different reason for this, the popular ones are 1) white matter is mylinated .this reason was given in reference books and this website while others say 2)cell body ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is it that I can understand speech through one ear better than the other ear?

First, I do a lot of music so I'm used to pick up details in sound and I have had hearing tests showing that my ears are quite well balanced, for my age, without any dead spots. When I am in a social ...
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1answer
85 views

Are there any known rules that neurons always follow while transmitting/receiving signals?

I'm new to neurobiology so I don't know much about it. However, I have worked on artificial neural networks. Man-made AI networks all follow a handful of simple rules. I was wondering if biological ...
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4answers
450 views

Hebbian theory “fire together” clarification

Donald Hebb states it as follows: "Let us assume that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its stability.… ...
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1answer
364 views

Long term effects of “brain freeze” on the cerebral vasculature

According to one theory, ice cream headaches are caused by an increase in blood volume of the anterior cerebral artery: Another theory into the cause of ice-cream headaches is explained by ...
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2answers
620 views

Neuron connectivity- how are they connected physically

If Neurons are only connected through synapse and there is no physical connection, how are they just suspended in brain layers?
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2answers
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What is the biological principle of this “holotropic breathwork” technique?

Holotropic breathwork is a non-drug technique developed by Stanislav Grof used in psychotherapy. The therapy as a whole is usually called holotropic breathwork (at least by Grof himself) and will most ...
5
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1answer
455 views

What is synaptic bias?

In non linear model of a neuron there was a mention about bias (Bₖ) which was the summation of the synaptic weights. I want to understand what synaptic bias is and their application/use in neuronal ...
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2answers
801 views

What is the specific role of the cerebellum when it comes to 'coordinating movement'?

In elementary biology (high school level in the UK - A levels), we are told that the cerebellum is the part of the brain that 'coordinates movement'. Literally nobody takes the time to explain what ...
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1answer
2k views

Why can't dopamine cross the blood brain barrier but l-dopa can?

Levodopa can cross the BBB and is less lipid soluble then dopamine, so dopamine should be able to cross the BBB more easily then l-dopa, but for some reason dopamine cant cross the BBB. Both dl-...
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1answer
498 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
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2answers
259 views

Is it possible to be (briefly) aware you had been decapitated?

If a person's head was cleanly and rapidly decapitated by a sharp blade slicing through the neck, such as would happen on the guillotine, could that person remain conscious? If so for how long? Long ...
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1answer
2k views

What neuro-motor diseases cause the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to malfunction?

Please note: This question is neither homework nor seeking medical advice. I'm simply asking for a factual, objective, biological explanation of the various neuro-motor diseases/illnesses that can act ...
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2answers
848 views

Why does our face get red during anger?

My attempt: This site says that it is due to flight or fight mechanism, which results in more amount of blood being passed to face causing red face. But isn't it wasteful for our body to send more ...
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3answers
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Mechanism of Decorticate & Decerebrate Posturing? Also why is only Decorticate Rigidity a misnomer?

I read these two from various books, and got confused. The confusion is - Reticulospinal tracts control gamma motor neurons. Gamma motor neurons control tone of muscle. In decerebrate rigidity, the ...
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2answers
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Calcium levels and nerve hyperexcitation

Why does lower blood calcium levels (or lower calcium levels in ECF) cause nervous hyperexcitaton? Why does it cause over stimulation of nerves and muscles and spasmic contractions of muscles? This is ...
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0answers
353 views

Nocioception (pain perception) in subcutaneous tissue

There seem to be no nocioceptors (pain and temperature sensitive nerve endings) in subcutaneous fat. there are nocioceptors and other receptors in veins running through fat, but these can be avoided. ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to process electrical signals from the brain and interpret the results as exact thoughts?

If the brain uses extremely low voltage signals to communicate (from what I understand around 100 mV), what sort of breakthroughs would be necessary to intercept these signals and interpret them as ...
4
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1answer
5k views

Action potential and sodium channels

In this video on electro tonic potential, the tutor says that when the potassium channels open the potential drops from +40mV to -80mV, where the sodium channels have already closed at +40mV. Now in ...
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1answer
437 views

Amount of neurons in the heart

Finding numbers for the amount of neurons in the brain is quite easy. Finding them for other human organs is harder. How many neurons are there in the human heart?
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1answer
60 views

Why can nervous inflammation radiate symmetrically in the limbs?

I have had carpal tunnel syndrome in my hands this week, when the nerve in the pith of your palm, through thumb and index, is pinched, and swells, inside the wrist ligament tunnel. In a few days, ...
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1answer
85 views

Is there a type of amnesia that separately affects long-term memory?

Is there a medical condition that affects the long term memory, but leaves the short-term and working memories totally or fairly intact?
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2answers
177 views

Reflexes & Pathologies including the Vagus Nerve

I only know the vasovagal reflex. I would really appreciate if someone could inform me about the other ones. About the pathologies, I already know the effects of direct nerve damage. I am talking ...
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1answer
156 views

Why don't neurons die during a stent procedure in the brain?

Stents are used to provide scaffolding to the blood vessels. When they are used in arteries or arterioles in brain, won't neurons die because of lack of oxygen during procedure?
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1answer
72 views

What other cognitive behaviors in bees, outside of navigation, are affect by neonicotinoids

It is conclusive that neonicotinoids alter navigation in bees when locating food sources. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0091364 But if so, shouldn't cognition also ...
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482 views

Effects of exercise on the brain

I am well aware of the phenomenon of neurogenesis induced by exercise, as well as the dopamine release that results from exercise. I am really interested in neuropsychology and the effects of exercise ...
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0answers
229 views

Would methamphetamine heal wounds, infections, and diseases?

Alright, so this sounds crazy but based on these research findings it is safe to assume that meth would allow wounds and diseases to heal faster by interleukin 6 . On the otherhand, using meth during ...
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2answers
659 views

How do humans perceive time?

We can see length, and other physical quantities. We can perceive through our other senses like (temperature through thermoreceptors, weight through pressure receptors etc.). But how do we "sense" ...
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2answers
724 views

EM Brainwaves VS Brain Wave (EEG) [closed]

The brain purportedly produces very weak EM waves. EEG is a method of measuring electrical brain activity, it has classifications for the types of brain wave it can detect: Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma ...
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1answer
2k views

What is two photon calcium imaging?

I have encountered the term "two photon calcium imaging" in a few papers. I have tried to look in the internet but can't understand what this technique actually is. I will be very happy for ...
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1answer
104 views

What parts of the visual system could be responsible for a fixed, monocular scotoma?

Light enters the cornea, crosses the lens, hits the retina. Electric sinal travels from retina through the optic nerve, reaches the chiasma, crosses and makes its way to the visual cortex. My ...
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1answer
74 views

Confusion about the construction of the rat's mental map

I'm reading the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I try to understand the following ...
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1answer
96 views

Names for effects of sleep deprivation on the brain & body

When staying awake for a long period (3 or 4 days), some weird phenomena can occur. In my experience, it was always triggered by thinking too deeply and has in other occasions too. Do these things ...
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1answer
414 views

What is a starter cell?

I am reading the paper Cooperative Subnetworks of Molecularly Similar Interneurons in Mouse Neocortex and a term "starter cell" apears there (page 6): This yielded tissue sections where SOM or ...
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1answer
40 views

Flow diversion for cerebral aneurysms or stabilizing the hemodynamics?

I'm doing research of flow diverter for cerebral aneurysms applications and I'm wondering the reason behind stent placement underneath of cerebral aneurysms is to divert the flow or stabilize the ...
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1answer
109 views

What is an auditory upward sweep?

I was reading an article in nature communications, when I came across this sentence: "The ‘match’ rule was indicated by either a blue circle or a auditory upward sweep".So I tried googling what was an ...