Questions tagged [neuron]

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Connectivity Relation between axon terminal synapses and dendrites

With regards to the synapses between axon terminals and dendrites, what is the relation between a given neuron's axon terminals and its neighbouring neurons' dendrites? Does each axon synapse on only ...
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51 views

How are thoughts biologicaly generated?

I want to know how thoughts are biologicaly generated. I know that electrical impulses can trigger formed memories in the brain but what I want to know is how the electrical impulse is generated in ...
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What are “inactive” cells during Ca2+ imaging of neurons?

I am reading this paper, and have found the following Figure (Extended Data Figure 5) where they show maps of active cells in the amygdala as imaged with a miniscope and GCaMP6m: Legend: Using the ...
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34 views

Are synaptic boutons always located on axons?

I am learning about the protein Synaptophysin and I have read that it is an integral membrane protein localised to synaptic vesicles. I have also read that it is a specific and sensitive marker for ...
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What is meant by the term synaptic targeting?

I am studying whether a protein interacts with the mitochondria in the synapses of neurons and I have come across the term "synaptic targeting". I am reading this paper and I have come ...
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Are sensory mechanoreceptors and mechanical nociceptors the same type of neurons or are they different?

I always supposed the neurons / receptors which transmitted touch and pain were the same, since they react to stimulus which are the same but with different intensity, and they just sent a stronger ...
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Calcium density increment of a neuron

I learned that, as the spike in a neuron occurs, the calcium-ion concentration increases due to opening of the voltage-gated calcium channels. Due to location of these channels, I wonder whether the ...
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24 views

Why is neuronal firing rate proportional to axonal diameter?

I know that a larger axonal diameter results in faster speed of action potentials due to reduced resistance. However this doesn't explain why the firing rate of neurons is proportional to neuronal ...
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23 views

Using coefficient of variation (CV) for GCaMP6 'synchronised episode' spikes, good idea or not?

Using GCaMP6 we have recorded fluorescence activity of kisspeptin neurons that exhibit synchronised pulsatile firing activity. I measured the intervals between each episode, which are quite variable. ...
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35 views

Are axons of neurosecretory cells in neurohypophysis myelinated?

According to the pictures that I found in textbooks and Google here these neurons are not myelinated. I just wanted to be sure. They are not myelinated, are they?
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39 views

How are neurons selective towards specific stimuli?

I've read several papers that mention that there are specific neurons that are activated for specific things (e.g. neuron A activate only when horizontal lines appear, neuron B activate when certain ...
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Can potassium ions depolarise neuron membranes?

I am reading a journal paper about the cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 and I have come across the following statement: To confirm the functionality of the reporters, neurons were time-lapse recorded ...
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45 views

Do neurons with dopamine inside only send signals to another neuron with dopamine?

A nerve cell with dopamine receptors gets an action potential and releases dopamine to other neurons. Does this nerve cell only release to cells with dopamine inside? Because what if a neuron has a ...
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28 views

Do voltage-gated channels in a neuron use ATP

I have a question about action potentials in a neuron. Do voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels use ATP? I mean when they are closed or when they want to open the gate, do they use ATP?
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Growth in neurons

We know that neurons do not divide, but then how does it accommodate with the body as we grow taller? Do the existing ones just elongate or do they really divide?
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How does increasing the temperature increase the compound action potential in some nerve cell?

In majority of nerve cells, action potential decreases with an increase in temperature.But a couple of papers I have looked at say some nerve behave in the opposite manner (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih....
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252 views

Why do ion leak channels exist?

I've recently learned about ion leak channels in the context of membrane potential and action potentials. Neurons have ion pumps that require energy in order to maintain the resting membrane potential ...
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55 views

Na+ / K+ ATPase: How does it restore resting membrane potential? [duplicate]

Could not find any sources talking about this (in a clear manner). If the Na+ / K+ ATPase pumps 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ it pumps in, thus making the cell more negative, why is the Na+ / K+ ATPase ...
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15 views

Why does exposure to a smell for some time reduce the electrical response of receptor neurons in the olfactory system?

In what way does exposure to a certain smell for some time causes them to loose sensitivity and have a lesser electrical response
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21 views

Biophysically, how to change from a tonically firing neuron to an occasionally firing one?

In terms of membrane properties, size and neuronal biophysics (assuming no change in incoming excitation), how can a tonically firing neuron become (say during development) an occasionally bursting ...
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Would it be possible to determine the strength of each neural connection in a connectome data set?

I understand that a connectome is a map of connections between neurons. Would it be possible with current day technology to create a more detailed map that gives not only the connections themselves ...
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29 views

How can the material brain tell the material brain which memory it wants the material brain to recall?

I was looking around the internet for any scientific research that shows the material brain can operate the material brain and I couldn't find any. It seems like consciousness and self awareness ...
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What is a neuronal loop?

Stanford Medicine's OCD page says that Many investigators have contributed to the hypothesis that OCD involves dysfunction in a neuronal loop running from the orbital frontal cortex to the ...
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How would blocking Na/K ATPase affect the ability of a neuron to exhibit a series of action potentials?

Neural firing usually occurs in the form of spike series. Several action potentials are happening in a quick succession. Whereas Na/K pumps (and other pumps) restore ion gradients to allow processes ...
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Typical firing patterns of neurons in the default mode network in resting state

Inspired by the Wikipedia article on the default mode network where I read: Hans Berger, the inventor of the electroencephalogram, was the first to propose the idea that the brain is constantly ...
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Where do the Ca ions that causes neurotransmitter release from synaptic bouton, come from?

I hope the information you share will help clarify the following doubts and gaps in my knowledge: Where do the Calcium ions in the influx (which then triggers the neurotransmitter vesicles) come from?...
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96 views

Functional unit

What is meant by functional unit of a system? like when we say that the neuron is the basic unit of neural system do we mean that all those things that are performed by neural system can be performed ...
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Why didn't the human Cerebrum evolve to have granule cells like the Cerebellum does?

The Cerebellum is much smaller compared to the Cerebrum yet it contains more than half of the total neurons contained in the brain. That's mainly due to the granule cells in the Cerebellum which ...
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Effect of myelination on inteligence in cephalopods

Cephalopods are known for their unique intelligence compared to other invertebrates. The number of neurons of cephalopods is of the order $5*10^8$, similar to dogs. Humans have about $10^{11}$ ...
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384 views

Myelination and time constant

In textbooks, it says that myelination doesn't really affect the time constant as tau=RC where R is the membrane resistance and C is the membrane capacitance. Myelin increases membrane resistance ...
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371 views

What causes sodium channels to open?

What triggers the opening of sodium channels in a neuronal membrane? Is it acetylcholine that activates sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane? Are sodium channels like receptors that have to ...
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332 views

Understanding presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition

One way to classify neural inhibition is based on the inhibition being "presynaptic" or "postsynaptic". As far as I understand, the two different types of inhibition refer to the following: ...
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97 views

Relationship between membrane current and voltage in neurons

Depolarization of neurons leads currents of different magnitudes flow in or out of the cell, and the Sodium and Potassium currents can be separately plotted (Purves): Caption: Relationship between ...
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How long does it take the neurotransmitters to diffuse accross the synaptic cleft?

Neurotransmitters get from the pre-synaptic neuron to the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron by diffusion across the gap between these two (the synaptic cleft). My question is, how much time does ...
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When do the first neurons appear in humans?

According to this Neural Plate The neural plate appears in day 18 in humans (very specific). and according to this Neural Plate (wiki) The progenitor cells that make up the precursors to neural ...