Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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In-plane rotation of vectors of neural population responses

In this paper on fear conditioning, the following is given: The n-dimensional population vector (activity of n neurons) evoked by the conditioned stimulus (CS+, auditory tone) before conditioning The ...
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Comparing angles between population vectors of neural activity

I am reading this paper on fear conditioning, where the following is given: The n-dimensional population vector (activity of n neurons) evoked by the conditioned stimulus (CS+, auditory tone) before ...
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How are thoughts biologicaly generated?

I want to know how thoughts are biologicaly generated. I know that electrical impulses can trigger formed memories in the brain but what I want to know is how the electrical impulse is generated in ...
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Why exactly does UMN lesion cause hypertonia?

The corticospinal tracts are excitatory in nature (Glutaminergic). So damage of the CST would mean less excitatory input to the LMN. By this logic, there should not be hypertonia. What is the ...
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What are “inactive” cells during Ca2+ imaging of neurons?

I am reading this paper, and have found the following Figure (Extended Data Figure 5) where they show maps of active cells in the amygdala as imaged with a miniscope and GCaMP6m: Legend: Using the ...
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Can we decode memories?

Premise: I don't have a strong background in neuroscience or human biology, so I would ask you to answer like you would at a 5 years old child. I have done a couple of research on the web, as well as ...
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Are synaptic boutons always located on axons?

I am learning about the protein Synaptophysin and I have read that it is an integral membrane protein localised to synaptic vesicles. I have also read that it is a specific and sensitive marker for ...
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What is meant by the term synaptic targeting?

I am studying whether a protein interacts with the mitochondria in the synapses of neurons and I have come across the term "synaptic targeting". I am reading this paper and I have come ...
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Is there a word that describes symmetrical correlations between a damaged brain region and behavioral disability?

Specifically, I'm looking to address phenomena such as (1) how damage to only one side of the substantia nigra leads to Parkinson's symptoms on only one side of the body, or (2) retinotopy, how ...
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Can Inositol triphosphate (IP3)-mediated Calcium release on its own cause membrane depolarization?

This is about smooth muscles. I know that the Voltage-operated Ca²+ channels on the smooth muscle membrane can be opened by membrane depolarization to threshold. I also know that this depolarization ...
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Why is gyrification advantageous?

Standard 'Explanation': I've seen countless neuroscience articles and experts explain that 'cortical gyrification is advantageous because it increases surface area which obviously increases your ...
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Would tinnitus be explained by perpetually-bent/opened hairs in the cochlea?

When I look around for what causes tinnitus and the like, the usual response is "Well, loud sounds and hearing damage" but I feel like that's a little plain and I am curious about the ...
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Do house mites feel pain? [duplicate]

I was wondering three questions about house mites. -When we kill them by washing our hands, washing our clothes, aerating our bed and our room, do they suffer ? -And if they ever feel pain, what is ...
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How does pressure travel through the cochlea exactly?

I cannot find this answer anywhere. What I do know is that the stapes pounds on the round window of the cochlea and this causes the fluid to move inside the cochlea itself, which has the three ...
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Why do water molecules diffuse along axons direction?

I am studying tractography technique which aims to reconstruct bundles of axons in brain by following the diffusion direction of water. It is very interesting because it is non-invasive. It exploits ...
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Are humans more adapted to “light mode” or “dark mode”?

I was discussing with a colleague about using dark-mode vs. light mode and remembered an article arguing that humans vision is more adapted to light-mode rather than dark-mode: I know that the trend “...
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In theory, would it be possible to genetically engineer an adult to experience more pleasure or (physical) pain?

(Not sure if this is too close to be acceptable, but this is similar to a question I asked in the neuroscience/psychology stack exchange, but with a focus on the genetic aspect. Might be best to check ...
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Has anyone tried using functional near-infrared spectropathy to quantitively measure sodium concentrations in the brain?

Functional near-infrared spectropathy "fNIRS", is a biophysics/medical technique that uses the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 680nm to 810nm in wavelength) to ...
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Looking for source: Biologic reactions of people saying “no” [closed]

Searching for this topic is incredibly tedious because the word "no" is the main point of interest and I always end up on sites saying how "saying no is good for your health" but I ...
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Distribution of hearing loss

Low-frequency sounds are more penetrating, damaging. Hearing damage caused by blasts typically occurs at frequencies around 2 - 8 kHz, while age-related hearing loss starts at the high frequencies. ...
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Can scientists “see” thought?

Touching an object activates a nerve - something that can be observed by scientists. Scientists can also trace the resulting "signal" through your nerves to your brain. They may know which ...
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Why don't sodium Voltage Gated Channels open during Repolarization?

During Depolarization the Sodium VGC open when they receive the Threshold Stimulus. But when Repolarization occurs there comes a point when the cell interior has exactly the the same potential that it ...
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Is the neural area TEO distinct from the inferotemporal cortex?

I am finding conflicting literature with regards to the division of the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of the brain. For some, I see that area TEO is equivalent to the posterior IT. Which would make ...
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Using coefficient of variation (CV) for GCaMP6 'synchronised episode' spikes, good idea or not?

Using GCaMP6 we have recorded fluorescence activity of kisspeptin neurons that exhibit synchronised pulsatile firing activity. I measured the intervals between each episode, which are quite variable. ...
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Are neurons capable of buffering a signal to sync up with other data?

The brain is the most complex thing that mankind discovered thus far in the universe. Super computers aren't able yet to outperform the human brain (running only on ~25 watt or so) on the domain of ...
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Biological Neural Network Modification to Unlearn Understandings [closed]

Lets assume that a person grows up thinking that religion X is true religion. So he builds up a profile in ones head and when notion of religion X appears the neurons that is related are fired, giving ...
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Do neurons that *don't* fire together unwire?

We all know the classic Hebbian theory, often phrased as "neurons that fire together wire together." I'm curious about how other connections get pruned when two neurons start to fire ...
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Could eidetic memory be related to glial cells?

I am a plasma physicist so I apologize in advance for my biology ignorance. I recall from a neuropsychology class I took in college (used Lezak, Howieson, and Loring, 4th Edition) that there are ...
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Biological Neural Network Training for Babies [closed]

I am concerned by the fact that babies cant walk because the muscles in their limbs arent developed and tuned to give directional control, it takes years before babies gain mobility and dexterity. So ...
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How does the brain initiate the process of releasing the neurotransmitters?

Just reading up on the basics of neuroscience. Had a basic question on the signal generation. I understand the concepts of sodium, potassium pumps and how the action potential travels through the axon ...
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Parts of Brain Active for Dreams | Right Hemisphere or Cortex

I found a research that states cortex is responsible for the contents of the dream. Contents could be people, place, objects etc. The cortex is responsible for the content of dreams, including the ...
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1answer
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Can potassium ions depolarise neuron membranes?

I am reading a journal paper about the cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 and I have come across the following statement: To confirm the functionality of the reporters, neurons were time-lapse recorded ...
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1answer
57 views

Is new idea equivalent to forming new synaptic connection?

We get new ideas quite frequently hence I am curious that is getting new idea equvant to formation of new synaptic connections? I am aware of neural plasticity but somehow doubt that it happens quite ...
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How reward / penalty is comprehended?

Technically brain is composed of billions of neurons for abstract computation of the world around us. I am bit confused that how does emotions such as fear/anger gets simulated by amygdala, which is ...
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Does The Sympathetic Nervous System Increase or Decrease Urination?

According to my book: Sympathetic nervous system stimulation, leads to the release of Norepinephrine(Noradrenaline), priming the body for the "Fight or Flight" response. It is also stated ...
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What are kinesiological factors? [duplicate]

I am in search of a term that describes movement, or practice of motor skills, as a factor of laterality. Would "kinesiological" be appropriate? I'll leave my two previous questions down ...
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1answer
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Does GABA enhance or inhibit negative effects of glutamate? [closed]

A study on NCBI studied the correlation between a depressive mood and chronic pain. I researched this because today I noticed unusual emotional volatility as a result of 2 days of acute back pain ...
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1answer
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Why proprioceptive fibres (of CN V) have their cell bodies in mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus?

It's seen that GSA (General Somatic Afferent) fibres (of CN V) have their cell bodies in trigeminal ganglion. But the proprioceptive fibres' peripheral processes terminate at mesencephalic trigeminal ...
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What is the difference between a dermatome and a sensory neurone?

I read that a dermatome is an area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve but that this is sensory information? Why do spinal nerves supply the skin? I thought it was the other way round- sensory ...
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1answer
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Do adult mammalian cochlear inner hair cells regenerate?

The consensus seems to be no, but I see conflicting evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361427/ Supernumerary human hair cells—signs of regeneration or impaired development? A ...
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Is there such a thing as transcranial magnetic inhibition? inhibit regions of the brain?

is there such a thing as transcranial magnetic inhibition? There is an instrument capable of inhibiting regions of the brain as does transcranial magnetic stimulation, but in reverse? By inhibiting, I ...
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Term for context based behavior?

Is there term in neuroscience that describes change in neuronal circuits depending on context: low sugar/fear/... => hormones => different pathways of behavior ...? I know that is something from ...
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Does electrotonic spread/conduction occur in saltatory conduction?

Even as textbooks, and almost all web pages I've seen so far, explain electrotonic spread/conduction as the passive current flow along an axon, they do so with continuous conduction only. Apart from ...
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Is a “Nerve” a cell or a tissue? [closed]

Nervous tissue includes Neurons and Glial cells. Neurons have soma and other projections (neurites) namely Axon and Dendrites. Axon or dendrites of a nerve cell covered with endoneurium is called ...
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What percentage of the brain is memory | Storage of thoughts, episodes

I was reading the article, in which it is mentioned that human brain constitutes 2.5 petabytes of memory. This made me wonder how much of the brain is associated with memory itself. If we categorize ...
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What is the most specific behavior we're able to control or induce with optogenetics?

Optogenetics is very widely used in neuroscience to study how behavior is controlled by populations of neurons. For example, in a highly cited 2011 Nature paper, Lin et al. show that they can induce ...
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Why does increasing the space constant increase conduction velocity in myelinated neurons if nodes of Ranvier are constantly spaced?

If depolarisation at one node of Ranvier triggers, by passive conduction, an action potential at the next node of Ranvier, why does increasing the space constant increase conduction velocity? Surely ...
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How can tooth enamel feel pain when drilled by a dentist?

Enamel has no nerves, so theoretically a tooth should not feel any pain when a dentist bores into it. Yet still we use anesthetics... Maybe it’s dentin's fault? It apparently has some tubes filled ...
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Has anyone yet figured out how sensory signals for eyes and ears are encoded by our organ into electrical signals? [closed]

The most obvious way to give sight to blind and hearing to deaf is to give them a replacement organ for these. In order to do that we would need to understand how our eyes and ears encode sensory ...
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What type of factor is practice of motor skills?

I recently asked a question about the cause of motor laterality: What causes motor laterality/ side dominance? I understand that there can be genetic factors, epigenetic factors, or environmental ...

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