Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

Can Cells Be Trained?

A long time ago, I heard (from what source? I do not remember clearly) that there were studies of the effects of the mind on cellular activities. Vaguely, I remember that it concerned an increase in ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Does human reasoning work exactly as in daytime conscious state while during dreams? [closed]

Since childhood I may have slept around 8000 times. I have seen many dreams but all of them (which I remember) have extremely poor reasoning. For eg. I put my book in my cupboard and locked it and ...
0
votes
3answers
76 views

If the Brain can store as much information as a billion hard disks why cant i memorize a single word document of random letters?

I read a lot of articles on this and all seem to agree that the brain storage in neural connections is tremendous but that doesnt explain why we forget things so easily and have such a modest memory ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Why are the sympathetic and parasympathetic axons different, in terms of presynaptic and postsynaptic length?

Does the parasympathetic system have a long presynaptic efferent axon because it takes a great distance to reach target organs from the brain stem or sacral region of the spine? Does the sympathetic ...
-2
votes
0answers
17 views

health and well being

I have heard that the earth's magnetic field will effect you when you sleep. My wife and I lie in an east/west orientation with our heads to the west. Does the direction you lay in bed and sleep ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Alzheimer's datasets highlighting role of individual genes

A question to the folks who studies Alzheimer's disease here. My colleagues and I have developed a new program that predicts the master regulators based on transcriptomic changes (yes, another one). ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Vitamin A Deficiency

I have a quick question regarding Vitamin A deficiency. The photoreceptor molecules in both rods and cones have the same general structure which is retinal which is bound to a protein called opsin ...
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

are all cells in our body connected with the nervous system?

do all cells in our body have receptors on them or even connected with gap junction so that synapses of neurons can occur with them? i saw another question which says "will a cell die if it got ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

First neurotransmitter?

Cnidaria are considered to be the first phyla to develop a nervous system. Nervous systems having 1, 2 and three neurons are considered to have appeared first in Cnidaria, with 2-neuron nervous ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Adding potassium outside of neuron: Hyper- or De- polarization?

At rest, the equilibrium potential for potassium given by the Nernst equation is ~ -80mV. Since the cell is mainly permeable to potassium, this is the reason for the cell membrane's rest potential to ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Doubt related to nerve impulse transmission

Naturally, the extracellular fluid has more sodium ions and the axoplasm has more potassium ions. Since there are more potassium leakage channels than sodium leakage channels on axoplasm, it is more ...
3
votes
1answer
24 views

Visual receptive fields

What I know about centre-surround type receptive fields is that depending on whether the region is on or off, the response to being stimulated is either excitatory or inhibitory respectively. So if a ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Synapses of inhibitory neurons

I sometimes read of "inhibitory synapses". But I understand that when the neuron is inhibitory, all of its synapses will be inhibitory (so it is a property of the neuron, not only the synapse) - is ...
3
votes
1answer
39 views

What is the significance of the amplitude of brain waves?

What does the amplitude of brain waves represent and to what neuronal activities is this amplitude related to? For example, in a hypothetical situation, the frequency of brain waves is kept the same, ...
0
votes
0answers
120 views

What brain regions consume the most energy?

It's well known that the human brain consumes roughly 20% of the body's energy, and that grey matter is much more energy-intensive than white matter. Beyond this basic information, it seems difficult ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Meaning of “external demands” in a paper describing the gut-brain axis

From "Brain Gut Microbiome Interactions and Functional Bowel Disorders": In response to external and bodily demands, the brain modulates individual cells (ECC – enterochromaffin cells; SMC – ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Does the brain absorb heme and non-heme iron differently?

I know that for the brain to absorb iron, the iron must first pass through the blood brain barrier. Is this absorption different for heme and nonheme iron?
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How does lactic acid cause muscle twitching?

It is well-known that lactic acid buildup (often caused by workouts) causes muscle twitching. Does anyone know HOW lactic acid achieves that effect?
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Which hormones, metabolites, or other molecules build up as the day progresses, other than melatonin and adenosine?

Melatonin and adenosine reach peak levels around midnight/bedtime. I was wondering what other molecules also buildup as the day progresses. Particularly molecules that affect the CNS and/or immune ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Biophysically, how to change from a tonically firing neuron to an occasionally firing one?

In terms of membrane properties, size and neuronal biophysics (assuming no change in incoming excitation), how can a tonically firing neuron become (say during development) an occasionally bursting ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

Are “sympathetic nerves” the same as “cardiopulmonary splanchnic” nerves?

I've gathered from a number of sources (e.g., Patel (2015), Wikipedia, and here) that the sympathetic nerves leaving the sympathetic trunk to innervate the heart and lungs are called "cardiopulmonary ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Would it be possible to determine the strength of each neural connection in a connectome data set?

I understand that a connectome is a map of connections between neurons. Would it be possible with current day technology to create a more detailed map that gives not only the connections themselves ...
5
votes
1answer
133 views

Are there people blind to touch?

There are people who completely blind or deaf. Are there people who are completely blind to touch in a particular area or in the entirety of their body? If not, are there people in whom the ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

What does it mean to say that the sympathetic nervous system is organized for diffuse activity?

"Sympathetic activities generally serve to mobilize the energy stores of the body, to increase the blood flow through certain regions (e.g., the heart) at the expense of other areas (e.g., the ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Why isn't hearing the same as tasting? How do we feel and differentiate external stimuli?

When I was at school, I learned that: Skin, tongue, ears, and other sensory organs have sensors/convertors that turn external environment stimuli into "electric" signals. Neurons send information as ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

What does sympathetic and parasympathetic 'tone' mean?

My professor's lecture notes say that " The basal rate of firing is called “sympathetic tone” and 'parasympathetic tone" , but a table I found on the internet says that the parasympthetic system has ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Question about the Derivation of the cable equation for neurites

I read in Wikipedia how the cable equation was derived (here) and had a specific problem regarding one of its equation: At the start of the derivation it states that we first need to pretend that the ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Why doesn't the spinal cord get thicker the further up we go?

The cervical and lumbar enlargements exist on the spinal cord as a result of the increased nerve input/output required for the arms and legs respectively. However, I don't understand how the ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Why the length constant of passive current flow isn't depend on the membrane capacitance?

I read that the equation for the length constant for passive conductance along a neuron depend on the resistance of the plasma membrane, the intracellular axoplasm and the extracellular medium. My ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Is there any case in which excitability increases with lowering the RMP?

My professor says , at a more negative RMP, less sodium ion channels are inactivated, so if you take 2 of the exact same neuron with the same threshold potentials, and try to excite them starting from ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Im struggling to see how these are presynaptic terminals/knobs and not post synaptic

How are these presynaptic terminals ? The action potential is generated at the axon hillock and moves down the axon (in this case to the right) , then at the end of the axon should be axon terminals ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Why is the ratio between action potential and threshold value called the 'safety factor'?

"All­or­Nothing Principle. Once an action potential has been elicited at any point on the membrane of a normal fiber, the depolarization process travels over the entire membrane if conditions are ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

By what physiological mechanism do we not feel microbes (bacteria, etc.) living on our skin?

Background I know our bodies have a handful of ways to threshold our awareness of sensory stimuli: Neural density Sensory acuity I assume really tiny stimuli could fit between receptors e.g., ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Is there in vivo evidence of Amyloid beta toxicity?

Amyloid beta is thought to be toxic, however from a brief search, this is based on (1) in vitro (2) measurements of some proxies of toxicity (e.g. Ultrasensitive Measurement of Ca2+ Influx into Lipid ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Schematic of neural lineage tree and position of Choroid Plexus cells

I am trying to understand which are the different type of progenitors in the human brain and I am currently following this schematic. My question is, are Choroid Plexus cells progenitors to Radial ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Breakdown of functional human genome by organ/What fraction of the functional human genome is devoted specifically to brain functioning?

Of course, there won't be a precise known answer to the question, as it is not even known precisely what percentage of the genome is functional in the first place - but I am still looking for research....
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Understanding the ECG waveform with respect to Lead Positions

I am really confused about the Representation of potential in an ECG graph. First i will ask what is on the vertical axis? (I guess it is electrical potential in millivolts) But again it changes for ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the function of dreaming? Does a particular hormone secretion interfere with dreaming? Why do some people dream more?

I'm really interested to know when we are sleeping how a series of stories come to our mind that we called this process dreaming. If you know a useful article on this topic, please tell me thanks.
5
votes
1answer
115 views

Why do biologists judge intellect based on brain size?

I have seen many times, that scientists will say Species A is smarter than Species B due to a higher brain-to-body ratio. I've even seen similar arguments made by comparing the sizes of specific ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Has anyone attempted to add extra senses to a creature through a BCI/Neural interface?

Basic BCI's (Brain computer interfaces) have been available for quite a while now and allow users to preform rudimentary tasks such as moving prosthetic limbs with force-feedback or moving a mouse on ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What does microglia process length tell us?

I'm reading a study investigating traumatic brain injury and alcohol consumption and the researchers measured microglia process length as an indicator of brain damage. I was wondering what that would ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Inhibitory functional connectivity

Functional connectivity may be defined as »the temporal correlation between spatially remote neurophysiological events, expressed as deviation from statistical independence across these events in ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Is relative timing of signal transmission between neurons along axons and through synapses relevant in the brain?

A neuron may be part of a nerve connection between two endpoints, transferring a signal that is not very sensitive to variations in signal propagation speed. But a neuron inside a cluster of ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Long-term potentiations that last for a lifetime

One reads more often than not that long-term potentiation has been reported to last for as long as several weeks LTP is persistent, lasting from several minutes to many months and most sources seem ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Ion-gated ion channels

Today I've heard for the first time of calcium-gated ion channels but find it hard to get an idea how they work, where they are located, and which role they play. I assume calcium-gated ion channels ...
1
vote
1answer
135 views

Differences between neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

According to the Wikipedia article on neuromodulation a neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down into a ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Typical firing patterns of neurons in the default mode network in resting state

Inspired by the Wikipedia article on the default mode network where I read: Hans Berger, the inventor of the electroencephalogram, was the first to propose the idea that the brain is constantly ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Functional roles of firing patterns

Eugene Izhikevich reports – e.g. here – a plethora of neural firing patterns: My question is two-fold: Is there an overview which types of neurons are capable of (and typically exhibit) ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Parts of the brain pivotal for maintaining consciousness

From an answer to another question (on conscious experiences by coma patients) I have learned that no conscious experiences, complex thoughts, or complex emotions can occur when one is in coma (...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

How does the dopamine spike from drugs compare quantitatively to pleasurable non-drug activities?

I did find this popular press article that quotes a researcher offering the following quantification: "in lab experiments done on animals, sex causes dopamine levels to jump from 100 to 200 units, and ...

1
2 3 4 5
25