Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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Why electrical synapses are more common in invertebrates?

I suppose it's because they live in an environment where there's a constant vulnerability to predators and they need to respond quickly. But it's not really the case for many invertebrates and besides ...
Venkatesh Choudhary's user avatar
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What is meant by the stabilization of a receptor?

I am reading a journal paper, and have a question about the below statement: PSD-95 is involved in the recruitment, trafficking and stabilization of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) and α-...
ceno980's user avatar
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What is a polar plot of relative neural firing

I am taking my PhD qualifying exams on monday, and there is a seemingly simple practice problem that I can't seem to figure out, and I was hoping someone here would have some knowledge, or at least be ...
Brian's user avatar
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Could a geomagnetic storm disrupt the functioning of nerves?

It is known that geomagnetic storms can cause power grid outages. Can they also disrupt the functioning of nerves/the nervous system?
Malcom's user avatar
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Why doesn't treating neurons with a high sodium solution depolarize their membranes?

I am reading a journal paper, and in one of their experiments they treated organotypic hippocampal slice cultures with a high potassium solution to depolarize the neuronal membranes: We found that ...
ceno980's user avatar
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Does communication with new parts of body requires internal changes in brain?

I am not a biological scientist and have low biology knowledges in general, but I want to know some thing. Most of us probably can't even imagine what it feels the sixth finger to be touched. Because ...
Stdugnd4ikbd's user avatar
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Caffeine tolerance

I researched about caffeine tolerance and found out that regular consumption of coffe can build caffeine tolerance even if it's 1 cup per day, within few days or a week at most. Supposedly the body ...
AIŚVARYA SINGH's user avatar
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Can a neuron produce electric or magnetic effect?

According to my view,As a neuron is an electrical impulse generating cell and through this impulse it carries information from brain to whole body or vice-versa, As here a very small electricity is ...
Vidushi Aggarwal's user avatar
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Can Neurons be connected in Series and will that pattern create huge voltage in human body?

We have learned in Physics that when multiple voltage sources are connected in Series , the resultant voltage becomes the summation of all voltages . Now, my question is - Can Neurons be connected in ...
Koushik Pal's user avatar
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What is the mechanism behind scruffing?

Also called 'clipnosis' or pinch-induced behaviour inhibition. It prevents cats from moving around when you hold the nape of their neck. There's a lot of veterinary research on how effective this ...
FriedCurry's user avatar
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Is it true to say neurons like to be stimulated?

I believe I have heard people saying "Neurons like to be stimulated". Although I know stimulating the brain promotes more neurons and connections growth, but does stimulating a neuron ...
user1589188's user avatar
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Why does the medial hypothalamus cause affective aggression while it causes the release of serotonin?

Since aggression is inversely related to serotonin, why does activation of the medial hypothalamus, which sends axons to the serotonin-releasing PAG, cause affective aggression? Thanks in advance!
Maria's user avatar
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how can a patient with conduction aphasia answer questions but not repeat words?

When we have a Q&A with someone, the path in the brain goes as such: auditory cortex to Wernicke's area (to be comprehended) which then activates the Broca's area to initiate a motor reaction (so ...
Maria's user avatar
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why do we use the glasses so that a different image is seen in each eye in the binocular rivalry experiment?

If we use the glasses so that in the right eye we see a house and on the left eye a face, we can see with a fMRI that the FFA is activated when seeing the face and the PPA activated when seeing the ...
Maria's user avatar
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How does retinal ganglion cell receptive field affect the LGN neuron activity?

If we have a spot of light hitting the center of the ON center receptive field of a retinal ganglion cell, will the LGN neuron be activated? Will the V1 neuron be activated? I mean its receptive field ...
Maria's user avatar
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What does "the scaffolding of biology" mean here?

In Zoltan Torey's The Conscious Mind, the author discusses the emerge of self-awareness: Turning to the changes that the acquisition of language instantiated, Damasio reflects on these changes in ...
Ahmed Samir's user avatar
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how many bipolar cells connected to a ganglion cell?

Is it that only one bipolar cell is connected to one ganglion cell (which (ganglion cell) is connected to only one LGN neuron cell)? I mean if more than one bipolar cell is connected to a ganglion ...
Maria's user avatar
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what does concentric antagonistic areas in the retina mean?

"concentric antagonistic areas seen in retinal and LGN receptive fields." (Source: Neuroscience: Exploring the brain) So the receptive field of a ganglion cell is either ON or OFF center. ...
Maria's user avatar
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Would asymmetrically positioned eyes impair vision?

Assuming one eye is 5 cm further down compared to the other, would that somehow change perception if the brain has long enough to deal with that incoming information? For example, if you were born ...
iwab's user avatar
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Are parasympathetic nerves different from motor and sensory nerves?

So the nerves leaving the spinal cord are either motor or sensory (only?). But what about the cranial nerves? For example, the cranial nerve vagus is a parasympathetic nerve. Are parasympathetic ...
Nur Ahmed's user avatar
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How are on and off bipolar cells of the retina arranged?

In the retina, there are both on and off bipolar cells. But how are they spread out in the retina? Are they so, that there is one of each after one another? Or are there areas where there are clusters ...
Nur Ahmed's user avatar
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Do hair cells in the ear also vibrate at frequencies outside our hearing spectrum?

(The question has its origin because I asked myself in how far frequencies outside our perception can harm our hearing.) First of all, the energy of a mechanical wave (in this case, the sound wave, ...
iwab's user avatar
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Does the molecules in nerve cell membrane change 100% during the life of the nerve cell?

In their lifespan nerve cells do not divide and so they stay the same. They do get damaged sometimes and require some maintenance and change their axons a bit. They also require a lot of energy so ...
Lauri's user avatar
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Inheritance of child behavior based on daily life experiences of the parent

Our brain is a large network of neurons connected with each other.Our daily experiences change how our neurons are connected.Some experiences create better connections between two neurons A and B and ...
Cerise's user avatar
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What does motor writing mean in neurology?

In Zoltan Torey's The Conscious Mind, the author discusses the emerge of language: Adding weight to the thesis of the stage-wise evolution of language, Bickerton (1995) noted that the linguistic ...
Ahmed Samir's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why do V_Na and V_K stay unchanged in Hodgkin-Huxley model?

In the Hodgkin-Huxley model, ionic current $i_\mathrm{Na}$ and $i_\mathrm{K}$ are given by $$ i_\mathrm{Na}=g_\mathrm{Na}(V_\mathrm{m}-V_\mathrm{Na})\\ i_\mathrm{K}=g_\mathrm{K}(V_\mathrm{m}-V_\mathrm{...
Jasmine's user avatar
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How to convert Kilo Units (KU) to mg? [duplicate]

Im searching for AChE (Acetylcholinesterase) and on sigma-aldrich it is showing 2 KU or 2000U/mg of protein and on MedChemExpress it is showing 50mg then how can we calcute how much will be the drug ...
Shreyash Yadav's user avatar
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Proportion of cell layers in the different areas of human cortex

I am looking for any scientific paper or book which could help me find the different proportion of layers across the different areas of the human cortex. I am working on a research project which ...
Matheus C.'s user avatar
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Relation between image on retina and the real one: looking at the two objects that are 45 degrees apart, what's the distance in the actual image?

These are what I understand about the vision. lights come through the pupil. an inverted image of the real objects is formed on the retina. which is determined by the angles. (so (a, d) and (b, c) ...
stay stay's user avatar
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Why is there a negative sign before voltage in the gate variable functions of the Hodgkin-Huxley model?

In Hodgkin and Huxley's articles (1952, J. Physiol.; 1990, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology), the gate variables are formulated as In particular, as $V$ increases, $\alpha_n$ decreases and $\beta_n$ ...
Jasmine's user avatar
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What does bregma -4.36mm mean?

I am reading a journal paper. In this paper, they inject adeno-associated viruses into the brains of rats. In the below figure, there is something that I want to clarify: In Figure A, I am not sure ...
ceno980's user avatar
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Why is the anterior pituitary not considered part of the diencephalon?

According to the wikipedia page on the diencephalon, the posterior pituitary gland is considered part of the diencephalon, but the anterior is not. Is there a reason that these two lobes of the same ...
user56834's user avatar
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What are all the possible abnormalities in our body that will result in ataxia?

So I know that ataxia is caused by loss of proprioception.I only know that dorsal column medial leminiscal pathway carries proprioceptive fibre to the cerebellum.So in theory damage to either this ...
Physkiz's user avatar
2 votes
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113 views

What are the factors affecting reaction time and/or reflex velocity?

So there was this video of a cat killing a snake: Cat reaction time and another of a bobcat killing a rattlesnake Bobcat kills rattlesnake And then this from wikipedia on sand cats: In the Ténéré, a ...
Aurelius's user avatar
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1 answer
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How can animals defecate or urinate in fear if the nervous system seems to opposes it?

How do animals defecate and/or urinate in fear even though their 'flight or fight' response seems to oppose it? I have seen many cats and dogs urinate and defecate when they experience extreme fear. ...
Aurelius's user avatar
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Why does Sanjay Gupta's brain look so unusual? (brain model shown on CNN) The subdivisions don't look like the lobes I learned in school

above: Screenshot from CNN's May 18, 2023 Feinstein’s office confirms broader health complications, contradicting senator’s denial below: from anatomyinfo.com's Parts of the Brain Neurosurgeon Dr. ...
uhoh's user avatar
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Stroke research question - has there been research in mirroring muscle electrical signals from a good limb to the bad one?

Transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation is an established tool to help stroke victims recover use of a paralyzed limb by engaging neuroplasticity. Has anyone here heard of research where you wear ...
mj_'s user avatar
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How does brain activity change when focusing on something within peripheral vision, as opposed to the fovea?

Normally when looking around, we mentally focus on what we see within our fovea, as that is where we have the greatest visual acuity. However, it is still possible to focus (both physically with the ...
M S's user avatar
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1 answer
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What are the key mechanisms of control and transport of ATP from mitochondria to synapse in active firing neurons?

I am working with a group in the field of neuronal activity (in computational neuroscience), in specific the firing rates at different ensemble/population hierarchies. It is well established that ...
al-Hwarizmi's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Have elephants (or any species other than humans) been known to cover their dead?

I was just reading this blog on HarperCollins website about 5 animals that grieve. Of elephants, the following claim is made: They bury their dead and pay tribute to the bodies and to the bones. [my ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
226 views

Is colocalisation of a protein with a presynaptic marker sufficient evidence to say that the protein is a component of axon terminals?

I am reading journal papers about the subcellular localisation of the insulin receptor (IR) in neurons. I have read a paper stating that IR is highly enriched at synapses, localising to both the ...
ceno980's user avatar
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2 votes
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Action Potential and Impulse Direction

My textbook describes generation of action potential due to an "induced increased membrane permeability to $Na$+ ions" and presents the ad hoc fact that electric current would flow from the ...
Feldsmithonian's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
506 views

Is there a quantitative report for cortical homunculus?

Almost all websites that I see for cortical homunculus only show the final picture with some qualitative descriptions such as "hands have more dexterity and occupy more motor cortex." But is ...
Saeed Neamati's user avatar
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0 answers
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Which co-transmitters are released first?

I understand that a single neuron can release different neurotransmitters depending on the frequency of its stimulation (see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10818/). As the frequency of ...
Jim Doe's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
3k views

Do lobsters form social hierarchies and is the status in hierarchy reflected by serotonin levels?

In his book 12 rules for life Jordan Peterson claims that: Consider serotonin, the chemical that governs posture and escape in the lobster. Low- ranking lobsters produce comparatively low levels of ...
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
187 views

What is the evidence for cognition being mainly confined to the brain?

We believe that the processes of cognition are mainly confined to the brain. What is the evidence for that? I understand that the brain shows increased oxygen saturation in fMRI scans while thinking ...
Ritesh Singh's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
266 views

Why chemical synapses are more common?

Reading into the types of synapses I found out that there are two types of them; electrical and chemical. chemical synapses use neurotransmitters to transmit impulses, are slower than electrical ...
Aditya Kumar Panda's user avatar
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0 answers
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Are afterimages centrally regulated?

As I understand, negative afterimages might be induced by retinal cone bleaching or neuronal adaptation. I have heard that some experiments have suggested that afterimages can be centrally regulated. ...
an instance's user avatar
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Emotions in Animals Based on Neuroscience

I know very little about the subject, so please forgive any misunderstandings in the question. First of all, by emotion, I mean feelings of pleasure and suffering and not merely just sensory ...
zach's user avatar
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What happens if we lose voluntary control of our breathing?

Breathing can be controlled voluntarily, even though it is automatic. What happens if a person loses voluntary control of their breathing? How much would it effect day-to-day life? What are its ...
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