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The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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Can turkeys run around when their head is cut off like chickens do?

Chickens may run around after their head is cut off if the head is severed near the base of the skull leaving the brain stem intact and missing the jugular vein. This usually only lasts for a few ...
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23 views

Can neurons take oxygen from air?

Why can't/don't neurons take up atmospheric oxygen, or dissolved oxygen (like amoeba does) to sustain their life processes?
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How does axon guidance system precisely targets specific axons?

Axons find their way to the terminus by responding to axon guidance molecules (AGMs) that attract and repel growth cones or make them stir. This I understand. Through a very specific combination of ...
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1answer
37 views

Do Colorblind People Have Stronger Sensitivity in Their Other Remaining Cones?

I came across this paper Color defect and color theory. The paper explained about how unilateral color blind (people who color blind only in 1 eye) actually see less bright in their color-blind eye (...
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To what extent does the distribution of nerual transmiters in the brain vary human to human?

Suppose $x$ is a position in the brain, and $n_i(x)$ is the density of neuro recepter $i$ around that point. Any given human will have some distribution of neruo recepters $n_i(x)$ through out there ...
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17 views

How does acetylcholine (aCh) cause erection?

I have read this article on physiology of erection : Activation of cholinergic receptors on the endothelial cell by acetylcholine or stretching of the endothelial cells as a result of increased ...
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1answer
37 views

Has any scientist elaborated on the “selfish neuron” hypothesis?

Daniel Dennett references a talk by Sebastian Seung, where the latter speaks about "selfish neurons". I've been trying to learn more about this hypothesis, but cannot seem to find anyone who has ...
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1answer
37 views

What happens in a nerve cell when a thought is generated?

I know basic nerve physiology of impulse conduction and transmission, but I don't know what actually happens in a nerve cell when a thought is generated. When a external stimulus (like tactile ...
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1answer
38 views

How does the brain fake itself into hearing our own sounds even when we are not speaking?

Typically When we are talking to our own selves at any time in the day,the Brain thinks that it's me who's speaking , how does it create illusion of speaking ?
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46 views

Why is peripheral vision not bleached by daylight?

In daylight, rods are known to be bleached: we have to wait some time after going into darkness before scotopic vision becomes effective. But, as I understand, peripheral vision is also mostly due to ...
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1answer
17 views

How are sound waves amplified while traveling within the cochlea?

How are sound waves amplified while traveling from the basal membrane to apical membrane within the cochlea? Are they amplified by the movement of the stapes?
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1answer
50 views

Red neurons - Acute neuronal injury

“Red neurons” are evident by about 12 to 24 hours after an irreversible hypoxic/ ischemic insult. The morphologic features consist of shrinkage of the cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, disappearance ...
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How does the different neuronal maturation profile correlates to the evolution of new frontal cortical areas in primates?

I'm working on mapping the maturation of the 3 frontal cortical areas in monkey. So I demarcate these cortical areas anatomically on the brain sections, and then I image them, followed by the ...
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1answer
27 views

Why is atropine a CNS stimulant, although it blocks the muscarinic receptors in the brain?

I know that atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, so why does atropine have excitatory actions on the brain while it is blocking muscarinic receptors?
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1answer
68 views

What physiological processes give rise to a linear cell survival curve?

If we plot the number of surviving cells in a structure over time (assuming no replacement), the shape of that curve should imply something about the underlying process responsible for cell death. For ...
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12 views

Extracellular ionic potassium concentration effect on the rate of spontaneous depolarization?

How would a decrease in extracellular ionic potassium concentration affect the rate of spontaneous depolarization?
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2answers
52 views

Why does resting potential not become continually more negative?

(Firstly, I know this is similar to other questions, but I have read those answers and they do not really cover this topic). My understanding of resting potential: action potential is not being ...
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Electrical mobility of biological relevant ions in solution

I've been trying to find references of electrical mobility of ions relevant in neuroscience (K+, Cl- Ca2+, HEPES). This is important to calculate liquid junction potentials of electrophysiology ...
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Once neurotransmitters bind to its receptors, how does the post synaptic neuron “know” when to start a new action potential?

My textbook seems to gloss over this subject. Once the post-synaptic receptors are activated, do they cause particular ion channels to open, letting positive charge into the cell and inching the ...
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1answer
87 views

What happens in a brain of a person suffering with apathy?

According to this article Apathy is a profound loss of motivation not attributed to decreased level of consciousness, cognitive impairment, or emotional distress. Apathy refers to a set of ...
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2answers
51 views

What is Modulation Power Spectrum?

I'm reading this paper https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562283/ , but I cannot make sense of what MPS nor how should I read the pictures that make use of this method. The authors say ...
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1answer
34 views

Abrupt movements of birds and reptiles vs. smooth movements of mammals

How can it be explained (in evolutionary and/or neuronal terms), that the spontaneous movements of birds and reptiles are seemingly "abrupt" and not so "smooth": Their spontaneous movements seem to ...
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Can cognitive functioning of the human brain change the physical state of the brain? [closed]

Can cognitive functioning of the human brain change the physical state of the brain? E.g. does self-awareness, self-reflection change the number of neurons or synapses among neurons? I.e. I am trying ...
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1answer
16 views

Flow diversion for cerebral aneurysms or stabilizing the hemodynamics?

I'm doing research of flow diverter for cerebral aneurysms applications and I'm wondering the reason behind stent placement underneath of cerebral aneurysms is to divert the flow or stabilize the ...
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3answers
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Do oysters feel pain?

Do oysters feel pain when you bite into the inside, or when you crack open the shell? I tried google searching it to no avail. When you bite inside the oyster or when you break the shell to open the ...
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What is the signal that indicates which neurons Schwann cells should myelinate versus which should remain unmyelinated?

Schwann cells are neuroglial cells that produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system. However, not all axons are myelinated - some will remain unmyelinated. There must be some signal that ...
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2answers
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How to determine if the amount of manganese chloride will change neural resting potential

If I am treating an organism in MnCl2 dissolved in water, how do I determine if the amount of Cl (in MnCl2) will change the neural resting potential Oor if it will influence motoneurons?
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VC06 neuron of c.elegans

My understanding was that all neurons and their synapses of worm c.elegans are already listed. As source of this map I'm using following databases (both should contain same information): ...
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1answer
62 views

Why are the hormones dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and serotonin so ubiquitous across the animal kingdom?

As far as I know there is no reason for the makeup of a given hormone to be universal as it merely serves as a carrier from one part of the brain to another. So why are the above hormones seen across ...
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1answer
26 views

loops in neuron synapses

If we see at the connectome of c.elegans, it is easy to find "loops", in the simplest case, a neuron that synapses to another and this one backward to the first. By example, neuron RIAR has 13 ...
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1answer
54 views

Why there is no neurovascular drug-eluting stent?

I'm researching on neurovascular stents and I'm wondering why there is not much about drug-eluting neurovascular flow diverters in the literature? I read in an article that it's because of complex ...
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2answers
41 views

What is the mechanism behind the F-Wave?

Can someone explain the actual mechanism behind the F-wave? Is it really different from a H-reflex response or does it just have another name for historical reasons? The H-reflex (Hoffmann's reflex) ...
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1answer
92 views

How exactly does sensory substitution work?

Sensory substitution, when one of sensory modality changes into another sensory modality to help someone restore the ability to perceive defective sensory using a working sensory modality. For example,...
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1answer
62 views

Volley theory and sound amplitude/power

Assume a pure tone (single frequency) is listen, lets say 2 kHz. If I understand correctly the temporal theory (aka timing theory), in a cochlea neuron the action potentials create a signal that will ...
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Neuron connectivity- how are they connected physically

If Neurons are only connected through synapse and there is no physical connection, how are they just suspended in brain layers?
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Can one see flickering of a light bulb at 50 Hz?

Yesterday I had a BBQ with some friends. The sun had already set and the only light source left (besides some ambient light from the world around) was a low energy light bulb. After a while I started ...
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1answer
32 views

What is the signal conversion from hair cells to cochlear nerve cells?

If I understood correctly, inner hair cells generates a graded potential (receptor potential), this potential maps the stereocilia deflection. On the other hand, the cochlear nerve cells transmit ...
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1answer
64 views

Are there humans which the brain sends signals to the limbs faster than the average?

I have done some researches on the time taken by the brain to send signals, but I didn't find whether that time is the same amongst all humans or there are some differences, and I have based my ...
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1answer
45 views

İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
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1answer
41 views

Is every neurotransmitter receptor an ion channel?

This is a rudimentary question--perhaps the answer is well known to biologists, but is every neurotransmitter receptor also an ion channel? For example, NMDAR is a glutamate receptor and cation ...
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Why do new atypical antipsychotics like Zyprexa cause TD at lower rates?

When the d2 receptors are blocked for long periods of time they tend to up regulate. This is what causes tardive dyskinesia. Why do the newer atypical anti psychotics cause such at a lower rate? ...
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Neuroscience - A neuron with two types of synapses (electrical and chemical) at the same time

I learn that the nerves from the Peripheral Nervous System can carry signals from and to other organs of the body. I'm wondering if A Single Nerve carries 1) Only chemical signals 2) Only physical ...
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2answers
96 views

Ambiguity about the relation between membrane potential and concentration gradient in neuron cells

I am stuck in an ambiguity about the equilibrium potentials of neuron cells. The following text is picked up from khanacademy website: In one part it is said that: We'll start out with K at a higher ...
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1answer
48 views

What is an “Alternative Sensation”?

As far as I know, alternative sensation it's a sensation to distract people from the original stimuli, for example when you have to get an injection, the nurse will pinch you in the other arms so your ...
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42 views

What causes dreams to happen?

I've heard that dreams can be influenced by what happens in our daily lives. There are many theories about why we dream, but no one knows for sure. Some researchers say dreams have no purpose or ...
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1answer
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What exactly does Curare do to the peripheral nervous system?

so, I was told: If you give them the right dosage it'll wear off within an hour or two. It was used for veterinary stuff until they tried it on a human and realized it only paralyzed you and didn'...
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1answer
40 views

Is it possible to directly uploaded controlled imagery into a person's conscience?

I was wondering, is it possible to use electrical charges and/or EM waves to induce imagery directly into a person's mind? I got this idea because since almost everybody dreams, and dreams are ...
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is it possible to use electroshock to temporary stop gross motor functions directly on the neural pathway?

Is it possible to modify that procedure and use it to send a small electroshock on the specific neural pathway and temporarily stop that gross motor function? When the microphone detects unwanted ...
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1answer
35 views

Results of self-administration study about pain in honeybees?

There research on nih.gov about ability of bees feel pain. But I can't understand their conclusion. Could you provide necessary excerpts here from those study so it would be clear what conclusion they'...
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Can we send signals to nerve?

I want to know two things. Can we send a signal to a nerve using external source like electricity? Can we differentiate signals sent from receptors like pain receptors, pressure receptors etc.