Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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41 views

Can scientists “see” thought?

Touching an object activates a nerve - something that can be observed by scientists. Scientists can also trace the resulting "signal" through your nerves to your brain. They may know which ...
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What would happen if you “rewired” your eyes with your nose?

The nose sends sensory input through transduction of chemicals in the air via the olfactory nerves/tracts to the primary olfactory cortex. The eyes send sensory input through transduction of light via ...
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Why don't sodium Voltage Gated Channels open during Repolarization?

During Depolarization the Sodium VGC open when they receive the Threshold Stimulus. But when Repolarization occurs there comes a point when the cell interior has exactly the the same potential that it ...
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How do brain cells produce a charge? [closed]

I'm not entirely sure that electric brain signals are a form of current such as direct or alternating. But what do we mean by electric brain signals, and how are they produced and transmitted (if not ...
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2answers
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Can below-threshold potential changes of neurons convey information?

In neuroscience we learn that when the membrane potential of a neuron reaches a threshold (typically around -55mV) it "spikes": That is, it actively propagates a signal. I have two related ...
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Is the neural area TEO distinct from the inferotemporal cortex?

I am finding conflicting literature with regards to the division of the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of the brain. For some, I see that area TEO is equivalent to the posterior IT. Which would make ...
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Why are we not forced by our brains to exercise if exercise leads to preservation of life? [duplicate]

I have researched into this topic but not seemed to find anything on why our brains don't force us to exercise or make it a compulsive need even though it preserves our life for longer? I have a ...
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Why is it difficult to compare phosphorylation in proteins and peptides?

In a recent project, I wanted to find out in what way phosphorylation of certain peptides is influenced by a specific environmental cue. So in a published research article I came across a list which ...
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Using coefficient of variation (CV) for GCaMP6 'synchronised episode' spikes, good idea or not?

Using GCaMP6 we have recorded fluorescence activity of kisspeptin neurons that exhibit synchronised pulsatile firing activity. I measured the intervals between each episode, which are quite variable. ...
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1answer
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What determines the influx of calcium ions in the voltage-gated ion channels?

Calcium channels play a crucial role in neuronal signaling by helping the synaptic vesicles to fuse through the synaptic active zone and release their neurotransmitters. My question is, at a given ...
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Human simulation software for experimenting

Is there any simulation software that imitates the physical and/or functional properties of living cells/organs (Such as neurons, skin, and bone) and that can be used for experimenting? (Such as ...
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1answer
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Are neurons capable of buffering a signal to sync up with other data?

The brain is the most complex thing that mankind discovered thus far in the universe. Super computers aren't able yet to outperform the human brain (running only on ~25 watt or so) on the domain of ...
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Biological Neural Network Modification to Unlearn Understandings [closed]

Lets assume that a person grows up thinking that religion X is true religion. So he builds up a profile in ones head and when notion of religion X appears the neurons that is related are fired, giving ...
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Parts of Brain Active for Dreams | Right Hemisphere or Cortex

I found a research that states cortex is responsible for the contents of the dream. Contents could be people, place, objects etc. The cortex is responsible for the content of dreams, including the ...
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2answers
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Evolution, self organization and neuroscience

I have rudimentary knowledge of evolution, and biology in general, so bear with me if this question is a bit naive. Let's say we have a particular trait, like highly sensitive peripheral vision. ...
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1answer
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Do neurons that *don't* fire together unwire?

We all know the classic Hebbian theory, often phrased as "neurons that fire together wire together." I'm curious about how other connections get pruned when two neurons start to fire ...
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Could eidetic memory be related to glial cells?

I am a plasma physicist so I apologize in advance for my biology ignorance. I recall from a neuropsychology class I took in college (used Lezak, Howieson, and Loring, 4th Edition) that there are ...
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1answer
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Is new idea equivalent to forming new synaptic connection?

We get new ideas quite frequently hence I am curious that is getting new idea equvant to formation of new synaptic connections? I am aware of neural plasticity but somehow doubt that it happens quite ...
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Biological Neural Network Training for Babies [closed]

I am concerned by the fact that babies cant walk because the muscles in their limbs arent developed and tuned to give directional control, it takes years before babies gain mobility and dexterity. So ...
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How does the brain initiate the process of releasing the neurotransmitters?

Just reading up on the basics of neuroscience. Had a basic question on the signal generation. I understand the concepts of sodium, potassium pumps and how the action potential travels through the axon ...
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2answers
760 views

How does someone with red-green colorblindness see yellow on a monitor/television?

I recently watched the video This Is Not Yellow explaining how red, green, and blue pixels can be used to create images of all other colors. Since yellow is created with red and green pixels, how is a ...
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Why is saltatory conduction in myelinated axons faster than continuous conduction in unmyelinated axons?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...
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1answer
51 views

Can potassium ions depolarise neuron membranes?

I am reading a journal paper about the cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 and I have come across the following statement: To confirm the functionality of the reporters, neurons were time-lapse recorded ...
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How reward / penalty is comprehended?

Technically brain is composed of billions of neurons for abstract computation of the world around us. I am bit confused that how does emotions such as fear/anger gets simulated by amygdala, which is ...
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Does The Sympathetic Nervous System Increase or Decrease Urination?

According to my book: Sympathetic nervous system stimulation, leads to the release of Norepinephrine(Noradrenaline), priming the body for the "Fight or Flight" response. It is also stated ...
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What are kinesiological factors? [duplicate]

I am in search of a term that describes movement, or practice of motor skills, as a factor of laterality. Would "kinesiological" be appropriate? I'll leave my two previous questions down ...
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Is there such a thing as transcranial magnetic inhibition? inhibit regions of the brain?

is there such a thing as transcranial magnetic inhibition? There is an instrument capable of inhibiting regions of the brain as does transcranial magnetic stimulation, but in reverse? By inhibiting, I ...
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1answer
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Can a brain process auditory signals at 18 weeks of human development?

According to When a fetus hear , When a baby can hear in the womb and several other similar articles, a baby starts to hear sounds at week 18. And according to How hearing works. Hearing involves ...
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1answer
51 views

What does sympathetic and parasympathetic 'tone' mean?

My professor's lecture notes say that " The basal rate of firing is called “sympathetic tone” and 'parasympathetic tone" , but a table I found on the internet says that the parasympthetic system has ...
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1answer
61 views

Inhibitory effect of GABA through GABA(A) receptors

Over at Wikipedia, the following is written in the article about GABA(A) receptors: "Upon activation, the GABA(A) receptor selectively conducts Cl− through its pore. Cl- will flow out of the ...
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Does GABA enhance or inhibit negative effects of glutamate?

A study on NCBI studied the correlation between a depressive mood and chronic pain. I researched this because today I noticed unusual emotional volatility as a result of 2 days of acute back pain ...
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Why proprioceptive fibres (of CN V) have their cell bodies in mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus?

It's seen that GSA (General Somatic Afferent) fibres (of CN V) have their cell bodies in trigeminal ganglion. But the proprioceptive fibres' peripheral processes terminate at mesencephalic trigeminal ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between a dermatome and a sensory neurone?

I read that a dermatome is an area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve but that this is sensory information? Why do spinal nerves supply the skin? I thought it was the other way round- sensory ...
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1answer
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Do adult mammalian cochlear inner hair cells regenerate?

The consensus seems to be no, but I see conflicting evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361427/ Supernumerary human hair cells—signs of regeneration or impaired development? A ...
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Term for context based behavior?

Is there term in neuroscience that describes change in neuronal circuits depending on context: low sugar/fear/... => hormones => different pathways of behavior ...? I know that is something from ...
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1answer
25 views

Does electrotonic spread/conduction occur in saltatory conduction?

Even as textbooks, and almost all web pages I've seen so far, explain electrotonic spread/conduction as the passive current flow along an axon, they do so with continuous conduction only. Apart from ...
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1answer
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What percentage of the brain is memory | Storage of thoughts, episodes

I was reading the article, in which it is mentioned that human brain constitutes 2.5 petabytes of memory. This made me wonder how much of the brain is associated with memory itself. If we categorize ...
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Is a “Nerve” a cell or a tissue? [closed]

Nervous tissue includes Neurons and Glial cells. Neurons have soma and other projections (neurites) namely Axon and Dendrites. Axon or dendrites of a nerve cell covered with endoneurium is called ...
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What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

This is what I have understood so far: Neuroendocrine system involved neuroendocrine cells (also known as neurosecretory cells) that receive nerve impulses by a sensory neuron to release ...
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1answer
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Why is the ratio between action potential and threshold value called the 'safety factor'?

"All­or­Nothing Principle. Once an action potential has been elicited at any point on the membrane of a normal fiber, the depolarization process travels over the entire membrane if conditions are ...
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What is the most specific behavior we're able to control or induce with optogenetics?

Optogenetics is very widely used in neuroscience to study how behavior is controlled by populations of neurons. For example, in a highly cited 2011 Nature paper, Lin et al. show that they can induce ...
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How can tooth enamel feel pain when drilled by a dentist?

Enamel has no nerves, so theoretically a tooth should not feel any pain when a dentist bores into it. Yet still we use anesthetics... Maybe it’s dentin's fault? It apparently has some tubes filled ...
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Why does increasing the space constant increase conduction velocity in myelinated neurons if nodes of Ranvier are constantly spaced?

If depolarisation at one node of Ranvier triggers, by passive conduction, an action potential at the next node of Ranvier, why does increasing the space constant increase conduction velocity? Surely ...
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2answers
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Has anyone yet figured out how sensory signals for eyes and ears are encoded by our organ into electrical signals? [closed]

The most obvious way to give sight to blind and hearing to deaf is to give them a replacement organ for these. In order to do that we would need to understand how our eyes and ears encode sensory ...
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1answer
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Term for a prey animal's recognition that something potentially threatening is looking at it?

On my daily walks I frequently see individual or small groups of cattle egrets. At first I would try to photograph them but they would fly away. This vexed me because they ignored everyone else ...
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What type of factor is practice of motor skills?

I recently asked a question about the cause of motor laterality: What causes motor laterality/ side dominance? I understand that there can be genetic factors, epigenetic factors, or environmental ...
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1answer
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Does the corpus callosum have a significant relationship with motor memories/ muscle memories?

With the corpus callosum located in the cerebrum, and motor memories having a closer relationship to the cerebellum (which I'm not quite sure about), is there a significant relationship between the ...
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What causes motor laterality/ side dominance?

I would like to understand what leads up to motor laterality, or side dominance of motor skills. I made this assumption that it depends on neuroplasticity and the side in which one first learns the ...
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1answer
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What are “intrinsic hypothalamic fibers”? (From an article on neuronal mechanisms of sexual desire)

I came across the phrase intrinsic hypothalamic fibers which I cannot understand. What is meant by intrinsic - that these fibers (long myelinated axons?) start in the hypothalamus? Or that they start ...
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414 views

Nocioception (pain perception) in subcutaneous tissue

There seem to be no nocioceptors (pain and temperature sensitive nerve endings) in subcutaneous fat. there are nocioceptors and other receptors in veins running through fat, but these can be avoided. ...

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