Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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What mechanism causes the presence of photosensitizers in mitochondria to change membrane ionic currents?

In the original question, the article in question was talking about specifically about this compound, Benzoporphyrin: Characterization of Perturbing Actions by Verteporfin, a Benzoporphyrin ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
7 votes
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What phosphorylates tau protein & and what causes tau to be phosphorylated?

I want to know what phosphorylates tau protein and its 6 isoforms. I know kinases cause phosphorylation events, and in tau it can be phosphorylated in a healthy neuron in the trans conformation, but ...
user3665690's user avatar
6 votes
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How optimal are the distances of voltage-gated ion channels on axons?

In both myelinated and not-myelinated axon segments ("axons" for short) there are theoretically maximal distances of voltage-gated ion channels beyond which propagation of the action potential would ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
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Can dopamine antagonists be used as dopamine upregulation?

Can dopamine antagonists such as Thorazine that are used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar be used to upregulate dopamine in the long term in healthy (non schizophrenic or bipolar) users to get a ...
kirill2485's user avatar
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What is the risk of permanent brain damage and/or long term cognitive effects from a single exposure to extreme altitude?

I have read some of the papers on the subject of the permanent brain damage induced by high to extreme altitude (5000m-8000m) climbing. The evidence seems contradictory. One paper (Fayed 2006) found ...
Anothercanary's user avatar
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Parts of Brain Active for Dreams | Right Hemisphere or Cortex

I found a research that states cortex is responsible for the contents of the dream. Contents could be people, place, objects etc. The cortex is responsible for the content of dreams, including the ...
gfdsal's user avatar
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What's a reasonable time constant for a mathematical model of a neuron?

Background I've been studying various mathematical models of neurons. So far I've covered the classic Hodgkin-Huxley model (to describe the potential difference of a single neuron) and the integrate ...
Derek Fulton's user avatar
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Detailed working of the voltage-gated sodium channel

Hodgkin and Huxley formulated the ion currents through the three voltage-gated ion channels Na, K, and L as $$\sum_{k}I_{k}=g_{\rm Na}\,m^{3}h\,(u-E_{\rm Na})+g_{\rm K}\,n^{4}\,(u-E_{\rm K% })+g_{L}\,...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
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Does brain activity generate heat gradients in the brain?

I'm reading this article on guiding axon growth using temperature gradient, and it mentions that the trajectory of growth of neuron connections can be influenced by temperature gradients as little as ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
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Why can't I smell things that aren't there?

I can close my eyes and imagine a red cube with a yellow star on it. Although I don't literally see it -- if there was a red cube with a yellow star on the inside of my eyelids, I'd know the ...
Sneftel's user avatar
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Does the molecules in nerve cell membrane change 100% during the life of the nerve cell?

In their lifespan nerve cells do not divide and so they stay the same. They do get damaged sometimes and require some maintenance and change their axons a bit. They also require a lot of energy so ...
Lauri's user avatar
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Could eidetic memory be related to glial cells?

I am a plasma physicist so I apologize in advance for my biology ignorance. I recall from a neuropsychology class I took in college (used Lezak, Howieson, and Loring, 4th Edition) that there are ...
honeste_vivere's user avatar
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What causes motor laterality/ side dominance?

I would like to understand what leads up to motor laterality, or side dominance of motor skills. I made this assumption that it depends on neuroplasticity and the side in which one first learns the ...
AgentMFaith's user avatar
4 votes
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67 views

Partial muscle fibre contraction

I'm being taught that: a muscle fibre spans the entire length of the muscle, from the originating tendon to the inserting tendon. The question is, can a muscle fibre contract only partially? Say, if ...
Anton's user avatar
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How does translation invariance in vision happen?

Convolutional neural networks are very popular these days in computer vision. One of the things they do quite well is recognize objects with translation invariance. The way they do this is by "tying ...
Ari's user avatar
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Why is the resonance frequency of a neuron defined by peak impedance?

I'm relatively new to the field of electrophysiology, so if anything is unclear or incorrect, please let me know. One thing that continues to confuse me throughout my reading is the property of ...
Science Is Golden's user avatar
4 votes
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Nerve endings on the skin

We can perceive sensation of pain if we are poked on any part of the skin. Does this mean there is a nerve ending at every point on the skin? Does this also mean that each of these nerves go all ...
Ramgopal Vallath's user avatar
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How are targets formed for axon growth cones (CNS)?

Axons have growth cones which find a route to their target using multiple methods (guidepost cells, attraction to target, etc...). My question is, what is the process that actually forms the target? ...
Biointrested's user avatar
4 votes
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If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?

D1 and D2 both refer to specific types of dopamine receptors. I'm sure it has something to do with the fact that the D1 receptors are in regions different from D2 receptors. I know that adenylate ...
InquilineKea's user avatar
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Why electrical synapses are more common in invertebrates?

I suppose it's because they live in an environment where there's a constant vulnerability to predators and they need to respond quickly. But it's not really the case for many invertebrates and besides ...
Venkatesh Choudhary's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
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Does any brain-computer interface model draw on neural temporal codes?

I am studying brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and neural encoding/decoding for a class. Most decoding algorithms that I have encountered for BCIs tackling movement problems seem to assume a neural ...
EvC752's user avatar
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Are ganglion cells in the foveal avascular zone served by choroidal blood supply or diffusion from retinal layer capillary beds?

I am trying to determine which blood supply (choroidal or retinal) serves the retinal ganglion cells that respond to foveal cone stimulation. I know that the fovea is supplied by the choroid, but it ...
Joe's user avatar
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How does expansion of the skin via mitosis influence the density of its specialised nerve endings

I found a reddit question Do nerves & nerve endings expand with skin or does skin expansion causes loss of nerve density where a user references the study Assessment of Epidermal Nerve Fibers: A ...
KoT44's user avatar
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What is the signal that indicates which neurons Schwann cells should myelinate versus which should remain unmyelinated?

Schwann cells are neuroglial cells that produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system. However, not all axons are myelinated - some will remain unmyelinated. There must be some signal that ...
user45858's user avatar
3 votes
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Neurones and putting on clothes (Pacinian Corpuscle)

If I put on clothes, a gentle pressure is applied to the Pacinian corpuscles in the skin, causing Na+ ion channels to open and an action potential to be initiated - hence I feel the clothes on my skin....
vik1245's user avatar
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What prevents neurones from touching at chemical synapses?

The synaptic clefts are really small, but the neurones which they are between do not touch even against forces like gravity. What really prevents them from coming into direct contact at the synapse, ...
Arush Ramteke's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
53 views

Question About the Physiology of Seizures

Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14 (Hopkins Hospital). Spontaneous remission occurs in 65–70% of patients during adolescence (Medicine Central). My question is what ...
PKPed's user avatar
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Spatial distribution of axons connecting distant groups of neurons

It would help me to shape my picture of the brain, if I knew the following: Consider two specified groups of neurons A and B in the brain that are well-located but quite distant from each other (e.g. ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
411 views

Development of the commissural fibers

Having a look at the corpus callosum one sees that the axons passing the corpus callosum (the commissural fibers) connect mirror-symmetric counter regions of the cortex (roughly). Is there a model ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
71 views

Is there a measurable variance in neuronal transmission speed and fidelity?

My understanding of how neurons transmit signals is pretty basic - dendrites receive signals (both excitatory and inhibitory), transmitting them to the cell body where, if a sufficient depolarization ...
Sean Lake's user avatar
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Phase Shift in Grid Cells

I would like to fully understand the phase shift in the grid cell in MEC. From my understanding, since there is a hexagonal (i.e. equilateral triangle) lattice, and hence there are 3 $\phi$'s, I have ...
Jen's user avatar
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0 answers
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Movement of few ion during changes in membrane potential

My question is very simple: why is it sufficient for a very few ions (such as 1 in 100000 K+) to move across the membrane to generate a remarkable variation in the membrane potential (like a change of ...
Ginevra B's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
39 views

Do neural axons extend around connections like this?

I was wondering if axons sometimes connect like this: Note that I'm not referring to situations where the path of that network is curved and the 3rd / 4th neuron is just as close to the 1st neuron as ...
J.Todd's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
101 views

Textbook on molecular basis of memory

Looking at the rules in the meta, it seems book-recs are a little on the iffy side for on-topic so I hope this is okay. I am looking for a (graduate-level) textbook that has a thorough treatment of ...
syntonicC's user avatar
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0 answers
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The Operation of tuning in the S1 layer of ventral model

According to my previous question in ventral Stream pathway and architecture, I want now to get a brief example about how the S1 layer is constructed. In other words, how all the simple units are ...
Christina's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
114 views

Does pain scale with mammal mass?

Some biological features scale with the animal mass (see previous Q&A). Assuming the same concentration of nociceptors on the skin surface, I'm wondering how painful a 1 cm wound will be ...
Gianpaolo R's user avatar
  • 3,884
3 votes
1 answer
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What is an extinction test?

In Stolerman & Olufsen (2001) I read the sentence: After drug-appropriate responding with the training mixtures reached 85%, generalisation to ethanol was examined in extinction tests. Here is ...
user22316's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
18 views

how many bipolar cells connected to a ganglion cell?

Is it that only one bipolar cell is connected to one ganglion cell (which (ganglion cell) is connected to only one LGN neuron cell)? I mean if more than one bipolar cell is connected to a ganglion ...
Maria's user avatar
  • 57
2 votes
0 answers
126 views

What are the factors affecting reaction time and/or reflex velocity?

So there was this video of a cat killing a snake: Cat reaction time and another of a bobcat killing a rattlesnake Bobcat kills rattlesnake And then this from wikipedia on sand cats: In the Ténéré, a ...
Aurelius's user avatar
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conduction in unmyelinated axons

(Not a specialist here) Several questions touch the voltage propagation along an unmyelinated axon, but I'd like to focus on the following. How fast does the voltage of a sub-threshold perturbation ...
scrx2's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
38 views

How to choose which animals to study when designing evolutionary neuroscience research project

I am currently writing a reseach project for a scientific initiation and my idea would be a literature review identifying all empirical physiological and anatomical evidence for the presence and ...
Matheus C.'s user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
104 views

What exactly are the gates in Hodgkin Huxley model?

Hodgkin & Huxley found that a model with 4 gates in series produces a good fit to the S-shaped curve of the potassium current during the action potential. Upon reading about the structure of ...
timtam's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
22 views

What is the purpose of interkinetic nuclear migration during neurogenesis?

I am reading about neurogenesis and I am learning about the different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells and basal progenitors). I have read that ...
ceno980's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
47 views

Is there a reference brain sample for the RNA-Seq data in the Developmental Transcriptome tool from the Allen Brain Atlas?

I am using the Developmental Transcriptome tool from the Allen Brain Atlas to determine at what stages of development a specific gene is expressed in the human brain. I have read the official ...
ceno980's user avatar
  • 1,671
2 votes
0 answers
81 views

By what means do "nerve agent" compounds like VX spread through the human body so quickly?

It has been demonstrated that so-called nerve agents are able to incapacitate and kill a human in only minutes after exposure. One such substance, VX, only requires a few milligrams to contact the ...
the_endian's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
57 views

What are "inactive" cells during Ca2+ imaging of neurons?

I am reading this paper, and have found the following Figure (Extended Data Figure 5) where they show maps of active cells in the amygdala as imaged with a miniscope and GCaMP6m: Legend: Using the ...
Pugl's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Can Inositol triphosphate (IP3)-mediated Calcium release on its own cause membrane depolarization?

This is about smooth muscles. I know that the Voltage-operated Ca²+ channels on the smooth muscle membrane can be opened by membrane depolarization to threshold. I also know that this depolarization ...
Chemo-Mike's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
272 views

Does The Sympathetic Nervous System Increase or Decrease Urination?

According to my book: Sympathetic nervous system stimulation, leads to the release of Norepinephrine(Noradrenaline), priming the body for the "Fight or Flight" response. It is also stated ...
Positron12's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
38 views

Does acuity of a re-mapped region of cortex depend on the need of the animal to resolve between two closely related stimuli?

From my informal research so far, I've learned that cortical magnification is evident in at least the visual cortex and the somatosensory cortex. My question is the following: If there were a ...
Joebevo's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
62 views

Hemispherectomy and brain changes

As far as i know hemispherectomy is a rare procedure when individual will going to have half brain removed in very young age. Because brain has quite remarkeble neuroplasticity patient usually will ...
L.Diago's user avatar
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