Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Neuron stimulation experiments

Has anyone extracted a class of neurons (or a connected set of neurons) and stimulated them electrically to get an understanding of their behavior? If so, could someone point me to papers along these ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Are there nerves in the umbilical cord?

I have always imagined that cutting the umbilical cord after birth might be painful. But I have always been confused about who would feel the pain and why. It occurred to me that the mother or the ...
11
votes
1answer
139 views

How fast do we fall asleep?

When looking at the process of sleeping, most research I find point to a group of mutually inhibitory cells which form a sort of biological "flip flop." There's cells that promote awakenness and ...
6
votes
1answer
563 views

Does a generator potential pass along a nerve the same way an action potential does?

I have read that a generator potential is a localized depolarization of a membrane. Does that mean that it does not pass along a neuron the same way an action potential does ? If not, then how do ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

How can an animal live without a head / brain?

The human body is unable to do anything if it loses its head - as the brain is separated from the body, the body immediately dies. But why does the same not happen to other species or animals? (As ...
8
votes
2answers
7k views

Do ants feel pain?

I have watched video on youtube where guy pours molten aluminium into fire ant colony to make casing. In the comments below there's huge discussion on is that a right thing to do. I am on the side ...
0
votes
0answers
57 views

Can brain activity be restored after being stopped, assuming no cellular damage?

I was reading about cryonic preservation recently. In a separate place on the Internet, I've read that once brain activity stops and brain death occurs, the person is dead with no hope of recovery. ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Factors behind frequency of action potential

I understand that the amplitude of an action potential is not influenced by the strength of the stimulus. I also understand that the perception of the strength of the stimulus depends on the frequency ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

A question about how the brain determines the source of a sound

If a person's eardrum vibrates, let's say, 440 times per second for 1 second, how does the brain know its because 1 sound source vibrated 440 times, as opposed to 440 sources vibrating once, one after ...
0
votes
2answers
88 views

Functional unit

What is meant by functional unit of a system? like when we say that the neuron is the basic unit of neural system do we mean that all those things that are performed by neural system can be performed ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Does the cranial dura consist of the periosteum? and if not, then is there a mistake in my textbook?

My textbook (Neuroanatomy an illustrated colour text) states that: The spinal dura and much of the cranial dura are separate from the periosteum, which forms the inner lining of the surrounding ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Why didn't the human Cerebrum evolve to have granule cells like the Cerebellum does?

The Cerebellum is much smaller compared to the Cerebrum yet it contains more than half of the total neurons contained in the brain. That's mainly due to the granule cells in the Cerebellum which ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

What happens when the conductance of a sodium channel increases?

My intuition is that, since the concentration of sodium within a cell is higher than the extracellular concentration, when conductance increases, this corresponds to the channel being open and means ...
5
votes
3answers
6k views

what is meta-sympathetic nervous system?

I always knew about the sympathetic and para-sympathetic nervous systems, and today I was told about the meta-sympathetic nervous system, but I didn't understand well the man who told me about it and ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Can IPSPs produce an action potential?

This picture was taken from Purves' Neuroscience, chapter 5: Image (C) shows a inhibitory postsynaptic potential whose reversal potential "goes" to the action potential. If two or more IPSPs occur, ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Why/how does exposure to noise cause cochlear hair-cell loss?

I am trying to understand why listening to loud music - e.g. concerts or earphones at high volume damages hearing. According to the National Institute on Deafness the cause is physical. Most ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

What are the chemicals in the gap at a synapse? [duplicate]

I am learning about (introductory level) biological psychology and the synapse structure came into mind. I do understand that neurotransmitters are transmitted between two neurons via the synapse ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Is there redundancy in the auditory system like there is in the visual system?

In the early visual system, there is a great deal of overlap between retinal ganglion cells, which results in redundancy of the signals that neurons carry to higher visual processing areas in the ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What is the purpose of descending auditory signals from the brain?

What might the purpose be of the brain having descending auditory signals from the brain? My textbook is very vague about this and I am just curious.
0
votes
0answers
30 views

What are the advantages of bidirectional signalling in electrical synapses?

Electrical synapses are known for being very fast at communicating with other neurons. (1) What I often see in articles about electrical synapses is that they are bidirectional.(1) This is seen as a ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the perisomatic region of a neuron?

In the scholarpedia page on interneurons I encountered the following passage: The perisomatic domain is responsible for the summation of postsynaptic potentials arriving from all dendritic branches ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Is sexual desire stronger in men than women?

Usually in popular culture it's considered men sexual desire is stronger than women. This seems to be congruent with the availability of sexual related items for men and women, such as magazines, ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Why is there no solid evidence (histological, fMRI) that the vestibular hair cells of the inner ear contribute to 53% of the respiratory drive?

There are these papers which strongly imply that the inner ear hair cells, and not the medulla, is primarily the driving factor in the CO2 drive reflex https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130842 ...
3
votes
1answer
83 views

What is the basis of the endocochlear potential?

I am learning about the endocochlear potential. According to different sources, the ionic composition of perilymph is about as follows (in mM): 150 Na+, 4-5 K+, 1.2 Ca2+, 1 Mg2+, 120 Cl−, and 20 HCO3−;...
4
votes
4answers
8k views

Are neural connections one-way?

I'm trying to think about how two neurons communicate, typically shown in pictures as an electric pulse traveling along a long, thin connective tissue. Is this depiction somewhat accurate, and if so, ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

What makes synapses stay “fixed”?

What makes synapses not move or pre- and postsynaptic cells neither touch nor move away from each other? I mean the synaptic cleft is a gap between the pre- and postsynaptic cells that is about 20 nm ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

I was speaking with a substitute teacher of mine, and we were discussing whether neurotransmitters are part of the endocrine system or not. My class just spent an entire semester on the topic of the ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

What causes sodium channels to open?

What triggers the opening of sodium channels in a neuronal membrane? Is it acetylcholine that activates sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane? Are sodium channels like receptors that have to ...
19
votes
2answers
4k views

What makes learning more difficult as we age?

Why is it harder to adapt yourself to different cultures, places, and languages as you age? What makes breaking up with emotional patterns or ideas after years of habit more difficult? Is there a ...
-1
votes
1answer
20 views

Do astrocytes connect and chemically communicate with other astrocytes?

I am building a novel model of neural tissue for the purposes of Machine Learning and am currently trying to unpick the functions of the astroglia. The literature suggests that astrocytes ensheath ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

How important is getting enough glucose for maximal brain performance / cognition?

I know from many studies that have been done, that resting versus active use of the brain has relatively similar overall energy expenditure levels. On the other hand, however, we know that the brain ...
4
votes
1answer
912 views

What is the location of the Hypoglossal nerve?

I kind of know where the hypoglossal nerve is located when I look at the diagram, but I'd like to know how far is the nerve from the skin and where is the closest area to the skin before and right ...
2
votes
3answers
528 views

What is Modulation Power Spectrum?

I'm reading this paper https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562283/ , but I cannot make sense of what MPS nor how should I read the pictures that make use of this method. The authors say ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Is there a minimum amount a muscle can move? And thus, gaps in our movement?

Lately I've been thinking about something, based on my knowledge my chain of reasoning works like this... When you want to move a muscle your brain sends an electrical nervous impulse along the chain ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

can auditory/ocular reflexes exist?

In the same way the knee-jerk reflex is a thing (I think the nerve signal doesn't go through the brain?), can stimuli received by the eyes or ears trigger "instantaneous" (faster than the brain can ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Can we “learn” reflexes?

Can we force our bodies to react to situations faster than our brain can think about them? Some reflexes I can think of off the top of my head: knee jerk reflex retracting hand when touching a hot ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

How do we know if a neuron is inhibitory or excitatory?

The textbook examples for an excitatory neurotransmitter is Glutamate, and for an inhibitory neurotransmitter it is GABA. In my naive understanding, a neuron was inhibitory or excitatory depending on ...
3
votes
1answer
164 views

Understanding presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition

One way to classify neural inhibition is based on the inhibition being "presynaptic" or "postsynaptic". As far as I understand, the two different types of inhibition refer to the following: ...
14
votes
6answers
6k views

Can the human brain be reduced to a binary system?

Does the brain really function like a computer as in, ultimately every response is related to a binary sequence based on whether particular neurons fire or not?
0
votes
3answers
109 views

Could we have endless pleasure?

Are there any studies that point out that we could have a device in the future or drug that could give us endless amount of pleasure by stimulating or blocking processes in the brain or nerve system? ...
0
votes
1answer
407 views

Why do simulations of dichromatic color vision portray medium wavelengths as yellow rather than green?

Please take the time to read & answer this at your own convenient pace. Is this even the right way to put this? Do you think this post better belongs in the Physics or Philosophy forums? This ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

How many sensory neurons are in the human body?

While I understand that there is a wide disparity of precision when it comes to specifying what constitutes "sensory neurons/receptors", I'm trying to find an authoritative source to provide ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Does the prefrontal cortex fold over the diencephalon (limbic lobe) during embryogenesis?

The frontal lobe as the top of the vertebrate brain, does it fold over the diencephalon during embryogenesis and development of the brain?
3
votes
1answer
5k views

What happens in your brain when you receive information which causes you to bristle?

I'm talking about moments when you watch a film and you bristle, or when you listen to music, etc. What kind of neurotransmitter flow changes?
5
votes
2answers
167 views

Understanding the “Waterfall Illusion”

Motion after-effect illusions, such as the waterfall illusion, refer to illusions where fixating a screen which shows stimuli moving in a particular direction elicits the perception of motion in the ...
3
votes
2answers
221 views

What material fills the synaptic cleft? Is it water?

The synaptic cleft is the gap between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons, and neurotransmitters are transferred between the neurons within this region. What substance exits in this space, is ...
3
votes
1answer
147 views

What are these two nerves running parallel to the spine called?

I was looking for a human body nervous system, and often times i found a picture like the one below, where there are two nerves running parallel to the spinal column. I searched for it, but nothing ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Relationship between membrane current and voltage in neurons

Depolarization of neurons leads currents of different magnitudes flow in or out of the cell, and the Sodium and Potassium currents can be separately plotted (Purves): Caption: Relationship between ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Changes of permeability and driving force during voltage clamp

An action potential can be understood in terms of voltage changes, and these are fundamentally a function of relative permeability changes, mostly for Sodium and Potassium ions. If for instance the ...
7
votes
2answers
198 views

Why do fishes have both a gustatory and an olfactory system?

I would like to know if there is a reason why fishes (and many aquatic species) have both an olfactory and a gustatory system. As far as I know, in all fish species the chemoreceptors, organs and ...

1 2
3
4 5
25