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Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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2
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1answer
317 views

Question about the threshold potential

I am a student of Physiology, and I have ended up a bit confused after what I've read today regarding events during a threshold potential. So, while cells are in their resting membrane potential, the ...
4
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1answer
55 views

At What Rate Do Ions Leak Out of a Plasma Membrane Segment That Has No Ion Channels?

In reading about the purpose of myelin during action potential propagation, I came across a point of confusion. From what I understand, one of the primary "benefits" of myelin is that it aids in ...
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3answers
1k views

How can an animal live without a brain?

The human body is unable to do anything if it loses its head - as the brain is separated from the body, the body immediately dies. But why does the same condition not exist for animals? Animals are ...
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0answers
20 views

How many neurons do we have in our forearm?

I am developing a neural interface, getting signals from the forearm and mapping them to hand gestures. The question we have at the moment is what is the upper bound of information bandwidth that we ...
3
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0answers
36 views

How would the brain represent represent elapsed time?

When we are waiting for an elevator, we know that the elevator will not open right away. There is a delay of 2 or 3 seconds. How does the brain (likely cerebellum) represent the running time of 2 or 3 ...
1
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1answer
33 views

Can motor neurons in the brain stem start movements?

Supposedly (consciouss) movement is started in the cerebral cortex. But some time ago I've read a research which stated it might be possible some movements (not specified which ones, probably mean ...
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2answers
80 views

Could a strong magnet field repel the body before damaging it?

Could a magnetic field be strong enough to damage the body or erase the brain? Blood is slightly diamagnetic, so if the field was strong enough, could it repel a body evenly? Could a diamagnetic ...
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1answer
4k views

Is there any danger in putting a magnet in your ear (next to your brain)

I recently bought some wireless earbuds that fit right in my ear, so they're very small. But the method it uses for charging is magnetic, so it has magnets built into the earbud. I was wondering if ...
2
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1answer
50 views

How does (action potential) hyper-polarisation work?

I understand that after depolarisation, repolarisation and then hyperpolarisaiton occurs and that an area in hyperpolarisation is in its "refractory period". Why does this prevent Na+ ions diffusing "...
3
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1answer
162 views

Do repetitive movements on EEGs show up as discernible patterns?

Here is a typical EEG reading: (source: frontalcortex.com) If I am connected to an EEG, and am sitting perfectly still, and then begin doing some repetitive motion, say, 10,000 times, will we see ...
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0answers
48 views

Do non-human primates have mental disorders like humans?

I was at the zoo today and watched a gorilla pick at a scab on its finger, compulsively, until it started bleeding. Is this OCD or is it just a nervous thing that non-human primates do at the zoo? Do ...
10
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1answer
4k views

Why does it hurt more when you touch a nerve directly?

I am not a biologist nor know much about biology (so please explain in layman's terms) however I have always been curious as to why this is. What causes the difference in pain between touching an ...
59
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4answers
8k views

Why do smaller mammals move intermittently?

I was watching a nice little video on youtube but couldn't help but notice how snappy smaller animals such as rats and chipmunks move. By snappy I mean how the animal moves in almost discrete states ...
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1answer
38 views

Entropy during neuronal signaling

to begin with: I have some background in cognitive neuroscience, but have not intensely studied the biochemical background of neuronal signalling, so please correct me if my basic understanding is ...
2
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1answer
34 views

Origin of different brainwaves

I'm creating a project in which I can measure brainwaves (more or less like EEG). Since I'm not a medical student im having a problem finding the origin or most prominent regions for measurements of ...
1
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1answer
35 views

Neuroscience and learning of a single neuron [closed]

Can you teach an alphabet to a neuron? If yes, how? How does a neuron 'learn' new information, do all individuals learns similarly ?
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1answer
53 views

Depolarisation of post synaptic neuron

When the post synaptic neuron begins to depolarise as positive sodium ions move into it and it reaches threshold- does the inside of the neuron actually switch to being more positive than the outside? ...
0
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1answer
170 views

Neuroscience book recommendations

I'm looking for a textbook in neuroscience for a rigorous introduction to the topic as an autodidact. I have no prior exposure to the field. In particular, I'm interested in the chemical mechanisms ...
1
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1answer
120 views

Multiple numbers in the Ishihara test?

When I was in high school (30 years ago), I took a biology class, and the instructor showed us an Ishihara color test for color-blindness. (This is the "hidden numbers" test.) What I thought I saw ...
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0answers
33 views

What cell types comprise the median eminence and the tuber cinereum?

I have tried pretty hard to get a detailed description of what exactly the median eminence and the tuber cinereum are but to no avail. I am very familiar with their anatomical relationships (spatially)...
5
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2answers
871 views

What is the specific role of the cerebellum when it comes to 'coordinating movement'?

In elementary biology (high school level in the UK - A levels), we are told that the cerebellum is the part of the brain that 'coordinates movement'. Literally nobody takes the time to explain what ...
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0answers
21 views

Does eosinophil-derived neurotoxin attack the helminth nervous system?

I had always assumed that EDN's purpose was to attack the nervous systems of helminths and similar multicellular parasitic organisms, given the function of eosinophils. The enzyme was named due to its ...
4
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2answers
308 views

How can binaural beats change mental state?

Can anyone tell me how binaural beats of 10 Hz can cause a person to calm down and one of 40 Hz to cause someone to heighten their attention. All I know is that they work on the principal of Brainwave ...
0
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1answer
97 views

What neurons' projections comprise the olfactory nerve (Cranial Nerve 1)?

Recently, I have been learning about olfaction. To my surprise, I am having a heck of a time finding explicit information regarding which neurons' axons are comprising the olfactory nerve. I am aware ...
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0answers
20 views

How can different ion channels of the same type have different cell responses?

The NMDA receptor is an ion channel and contributes to synaptic plasticity and memory. It is said that calcium ion flux through the receptor is critical for this mechanism. However, there are other ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Have there been new discoveries concerning the perception of taste for the last 10 years? [closed]

What are the last discoveries concerning the perception of taste for the last 10 years? We discovered the 5th flavour: umami. Also the 6th and 7th: oleogustus and starchy. Anything else? Maybe in ...
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2answers
154 views

Are spinal nerves myelinated and unmyelinated at the same time?

I was trying to answer this question when I remembered that the somatic axon is myelinated, while both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic axons are also myelinated. Are they only myelinated ...
2
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1answer
43 views

How does fluid pass through the glial limitans into the subarachnoid space?

I have often heard that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) are in free exchange. Because the CSF eventually drains (predominantly) into the dural venous sinuses, ISF's ability ...
2
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1answer
139 views

Can cerebrospinal fluid pass through the pia mater or ependymal cells of the ventricles?

During a lecture, a professor commented that the cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid of the brain parenchyma have similar composition because they can exchange with one another. This struck me ...
3
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1answer
85 views

Neuronal membrane resting potential for large cells

I'm reading Medical Physiology by Boron and Boulpaep (a really terrific book). In the chapter Electrophysiology of the Cell Membrane, section Membrane Potential Is Generated by Ion Gradients, Not ...
5
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0answers
42 views

What's a reasonable time constant for a mathematical model of a neuron?

Background I've been studying various mathematical models of neurons. So far I've covered the classic Hodgkin-Huxley model (to describe the potential difference of a single neuron) and the integrate ...
2
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1answer
32 views

Analysis of dynamic connectome data?

I have heard about existence of full brain connectome data of some worms or fishes. I have heard about GEVI - genetically engineered voltage indicators - that allow to see voltage data at subcellular ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Neurons and nerves [duplicate]

What is a nerve compared to a neuron? Is it a collection of axons alone or does it include cell body too? I'm pretty confused of what actually the "nerve" is composed of. I had imagined that the nerve ...
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0answers
59 views

What is the status of the “Free Energy Principle” as a theory of living organisms?

The free energy principle states that biological organisms maintain their order by minimizing a function called variational free energy (VFE). While it is the case that the minimum to VFE also ...
4
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2answers
723 views

Could an action potential produce few or more neurotransmitters based on the stimulus received?

I reckon that if you would be able to widen the AP width, it would produce more neurotransmitters in that larger time interval. Is that correct? Or does the neuron have a standard amount of ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Is the strength of presynaptic stimulus on the postsynaptic neuron affected more by the dendrites, or the cell body?

Is the strength of presynaptic stimulus on the postsynaptic neuron affected more by the properties of the dendrites & axon terminals, or the cell body & axon? Two years ago I asked a question ...
2
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0answers
39 views

How many “primary colors” can we smell? [duplicate]

There are many more that three visible wavelength in the visible EM spectrum, and yet we can model any color using only three primary RGB wavelength. Perception of an arbitrary color is equivalent of ...
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0answers
32 views

excitatory-inhibitory synapse ratio

For each inhibitory synapse, how many excitatory synapses are in the brain? It is the same ratio along the animal kingdom or nervous system areas?
49
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1answer
6k views

Do large animals experience a meaningful delay when moving their most distant appendages?

According to the Physics Factbook, nerve impulses travel at speeds anywhere from 1 meter per second up to around 100 meters per second. Blue whales reach up to around 30 meters long. For a full-size ...
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0answers
65 views

Understanding the derivation of the Nernst equation

I am trying to understand how the Nernst equation can be derived and am mostly referring to the explanation given in the book Theoretical Neuroscience by Dayan and Abbott. Given we have a ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Does intermittent fasting promote neurogenesis through the same mechanism as aerobic exercises?

I heard that intermittent fasting promote neurogenesis through the secretion of BDNF, I heard aerobic exercises does the same through BDNF. Now, I am wondering if there are other mechanisms through ...
1
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

This is what I have understood so far: Neuroendocrine system involved neuroendocrine cells (also known as neurosecretory cells) that receive nerve impulses by a sensory neuron to release ...
2
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1answer
46 views

How does a decrease in free Ca2+ result in nerve/muscle overexcitability?

I have in my notes that a decrease in free Ca2+ increases membrane permeability to Na+ so that it is brought closer to threshold, but no further details. So how does this work?
0
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0answers
19 views

Stem cells therapy for stroke via thecal sac?

According to this video posted below, stem cells for stroke patients can be induced to thecal sack, below the spinal cord. Those stem cells would make their way up to the brain. https://youtu.be/...
3
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2answers
136 views

Does the brain have a clock and can it be sped up?

Before i start, I'm an engineer and have very limited knowledge on biology and neuroscience. My question is, does the brain have a clock like a computer where it has a set processing speed? Clocks in ...
0
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0answers
62 views

Is there still a convincing argument/evidence that adult neurogenesis does not exist/play an essential role in NON-Human Primates?

Adult neurogenesis in human-being is a debated topic, and will probably take several years to get resolved. I am under impression that it is relatively easier to settle the debate on non-human ...
3
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1answer
418 views

Why does sympathetic activity constrict pulmonary vessels?

I don't know understand why sympathetic stimulation constricts pulmonary vessels? I thought that the sympathetic nervous system activated the body for physical activity. Physical activity would need ...
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0answers
22 views

Do reflex movements involve information processing?

According to Reflex A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs ...
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1answer
77 views

What do the acronyms in C.elegans neuron names stand for? [closed]

In this site, I see a variety of acronymic names for C.elegans neurons but what do these names mean (for example AVAL, AVAR)?
7
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1answer
164 views

What would happen if some neurons are unmyelinated?

I know that cold receptors have myelinated axons and heat receptors don't. From a physiological perspective, what could be the consequences if cold receptors were unmyelinated? Would that pose some ...