Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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43 views

Once neurotransmitters bind to its receptors, how does the post synaptic neuron “know” when to start a new action potential?

My textbook seems to gloss over this subject. Once the post-synaptic receptors are activated, do they cause particular ion channels to open, letting positive charge into the cell and inching the ...
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2answers
56 views

Does opening of ion channels alter the membrane potential directly?

Does the opening of a voltage-gated ion channel (i.e. the change of configuration of the protein) by an appropriate local change of the membrane potential directly and significantly alter the membrane ...
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1answer
45 views

Abrupt movements of birds and reptiles vs. smooth movements of mammals

How can it be explained (in evolutionary and/or neuronal terms), that the spontaneous movements of birds and reptiles are seemingly "abrupt" and not so "smooth": Their spontaneous movements seem to ...
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Can cognitive functioning of the human brain change the physical state of the brain? [closed]

Can cognitive functioning of the human brain change the physical state of the brain? E.g. does self-awareness, self-reflection change the number of neurons or synapses among neurons? I.e. I am trying ...
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1answer
44 views

Flow diversion for cerebral aneurysms or stabilizing the hemodynamics?

I'm doing research of flow diverter for cerebral aneurysms applications and I'm wondering the reason behind stent placement underneath of cerebral aneurysms is to divert the flow or stabilize the ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the “stimulus” that initially triggers an action potential?

There are many steps detailing the depolarization and repolarization of axon nodes to describe how an action potential is transmitted from a neuron. But, after looking at many different sources, I ...
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59 views

What is the signal that indicates which neurons Schwann cells should myelinate versus which should remain unmyelinated?

Schwann cells are neuroglial cells that produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system. However, not all axons are myelinated - some will remain unmyelinated. There must be some signal that ...
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VC06 neuron of c.elegans

My understanding was that all neurons and their synapses of worm c.elegans are already listed. As source of this map I'm using following databases (both should contain same information): ...
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1answer
89 views

Why are the hormones dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and serotonin so ubiquitous across the animal kingdom?

As far as I know there is no reason for the makeup of a given hormone to be universal as it merely serves as a carrier from one part of the brain to another. So why are the above hormones seen across ...
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1answer
699 views

How a nerve impulse reaches the correct destination?

Say your brain wants to retract your right hand. If there is some information coding playing a major role here, then what is the mechanism to find the correct path to reach the correct muscle? Or is ...
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1answer
10k views

Dark veil when getting up too fast

I was asking myself this weird question. When you get up or stand up too fast, sometimes, you see something like a dark veil, and you aren't able to see anything distinctly for 2 or 3 seconds, then ...
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1answer
31 views

loops in neuron synapses

If we see at the connectome of c.elegans, it is easy to find "loops", in the simplest case, a neuron that synapses to another and this one backward to the first. By example, neuron RIAR has 13 ...
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1answer
77 views

Why there is no neurovascular drug-eluting stent?

I'm researching on neurovascular stents and I'm wondering why there is not much about drug-eluting neurovascular flow diverters in the literature? I read in an article that it's because of complex ...
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1answer
13k views

Are sensory receptors neurons?

Background There are many receptor types in the body, with various functions and various mechanisms of transduction. Receptor cells are considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system, as they ...
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1answer
171 views

How exactly does sensory substitution work?

Sensory substitution, when one of sensory modality changes into another sensory modality to help someone restore the ability to perceive defective sensory using a working sensory modality. For example,...
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1answer
4k views

How does the brain avoid feedback loops?

The article Ants Swarm Like Brains Think really helped me to understand the way that neurons which are pretty dumb on their own (like ants) can work together to create a pretty genius system (a brain ...
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1answer
112 views

Volley theory and sound amplitude/power

Assume a pure tone (single frequency) is listen, lets say 2 kHz. If I understand correctly the temporal theory (aka timing theory), in a cochlea neuron the action potentials create a signal that will ...
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2answers
3k views

Why doesn't local anesthesia affect muscles?

While having a dental surgery, I've got this question that why I can still talk, open/close my mouth, move my lips and so on while I can't feel anything at all in my mouth? If the local anesthesia ...
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2answers
635 views

Neuron connectivity- how are they connected physically

If Neurons are only connected through synapse and there is no physical connection, how are they just suspended in brain layers?
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3answers
7k views

Can one see flickering of a light bulb at 50 Hz?

Yesterday I had a BBQ with some friends. The sun had already set and the only light source left (besides some ambient light from the world around) was a low energy light bulb. After a while I started ...
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2answers
338 views

Is brain plasticity such that we can train ourself to see with our ears?

I am finishing writing some code which will parse a photo (eventually video) and use all the RGB information to synthesize an audio representation. I am wondering whether a typical person has ...
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1answer
161 views

What is the signal conversion from hair cells to cochlear nerve cells?

If I understood correctly, inner hair cells generates a graded potential (receptor potential), this potential maps the stereocilia deflection. On the other hand, the cochlear nerve cells transmit ...
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3answers
2k views

Why can humans feel electricity?

What evolutionary process has provided humans with the ability of feeling electric current? Besides lightning and electric eel, what natural hazards include electricity that poses a threat to humans?
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1answer
426 views

İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
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2answers
274 views

What in the brain has gone awry during sleep paralysis?

I experience episodes of what I assume is sleep paralysis (lasting ~ 10-30 seconds) a few times a year, where I'm conscious of being somewhat awake but unable to move. I can hear, but not see, and am ...
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1answer
76 views

Is every neurotransmitter receptor an ion channel?

This is a rudimentary question--perhaps the answer is well known to biologists, but is every neurotransmitter receptor also an ion channel? For example, NMDAR is a glutamate receptor and cation ...
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1answer
253 views

What exactly does Curare do to the peripheral nervous system?

so, I was told: If you give them the right dosage it'll wear off within an hour or two. It was used for veterinary stuff until they tried it on a human and realized it only paralyzed you and didn'...
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2answers
237 views

Melatonin production, sleep, and “cyan light”; how might this finding be possible?

The BBC News article Cyan colour hidden ingredient in sleep describes research that suggests melatonin levels as measured in saliva could be affected by the presence or absence of cyan color in a ...
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6answers
38k views

Why do the two hemispheres of the brain control the opposite sides of the body?

Why does the left hemisphere control the right and the right hemisphere control the left? I googled it but didn't find a good answer regarding this. Could someone explain? Does this adaptation help ...
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0answers
404 views

Why do new atypical antipsychotics like Zyprexa cause TD at lower rates?

When the d2 receptors are blocked for long periods of time they tend to up regulate. This is what causes tardive dyskinesia. Why do the newer atypical anti psychotics cause such at a lower rate? ...
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1answer
258 views

Why Goldman Equation cannot be used to calculate dynamic changes of membrane potential

I'm reading about Goldman Equation and I've seen in some resources that it calculates the resting potential (not membrane potential in general) and that this equation cannot be used when membrane ...
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1answer
45 views

Neuroscience - A neuron with two types of synapses (electrical and chemical) at the same time

I learn that the nerves from the Peripheral Nervous System can carry signals from and to other organs of the body. I'm wondering if A Single Nerve carries 1) Only chemical signals 2) Only physical ...
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2answers
619 views

Can anyone explain the idea of anodic nerve stimulation?

Nerves get stimulated under the cathode, according to the conventional current direction. But in some research, it is said that anodic stimulation or anodic current stimulation can activate neurons. ...
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1answer
8k views

Is it correct that the body only responds to the most painful stimulus?

I'm rather ashamed to say that this question is partly based on an episode of House. I have previously heard that, if there are multiple simultaneous painful stimuli, the mind will only feel the ...
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2answers
189 views

Ambiguity about the relation between membrane potential and concentration gradient in neuron cells

I am stuck in an ambiguity about the equilibrium potentials of neuron cells. The following text is picked up from khanacademy website: In one part it is said that: We'll start out with K at a higher ...
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1answer
102 views

What is an “Alternative Sensation”?

As far as I know, alternative sensation it's a sensation to distract people from the original stimuli, for example when you have to get an injection, the nurse will pinch you in the other arms so your ...
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2answers
581 views

What's the worst that can happen from too much sleep deprivation? Can you die?

It is well known that sleep deprivation causes considerable discomfort in humans (and has even used as a form of torture), but nevertheless there have been people who went through protracted sleep ...
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1answer
42 views

Is it possible to directly uploaded controlled imagery into a person's conscience?

I was wondering, is it possible to use electrical charges and/or EM waves to induce imagery directly into a person's mind? I got this idea because since almost everybody dreams, and dreams are ...
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0answers
40 views

is it possible to use electroshock to temporary stop gross motor functions directly on the neural pathway?

Is it possible to modify that procedure and use it to send a small electroshock on the specific neural pathway and temporarily stop that gross motor function? When the microphone detects unwanted ...
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2answers
1k views

Why do some reflex actions involve interneurons, but some don't?

According to what I know, the reflex arc of knee jerk reflex doesn't involve interneuron, but other reflex action (e.g. removing your hand when touching hot things) do involve interneurons. Why is ...
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1answer
41 views

Results of self-administration study about pain in honeybees?

There research on nih.gov about ability of bees feel pain. But I can't understand their conclusion. Could you provide necessary excerpts here from those study so it would be clear what conclusion they'...
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1answer
33 views

Can we send signals to nerve?

I want to know two things. Can we send a signal to a nerve using external source like electricity? Can we differentiate signals sent from receptors like pain receptors, pressure receptors etc.
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1answer
2k views

Inverse Agonist vs Neutral Antagonist

Could somebody explain in simplest terms the difference between inverse agonist and neutral antagonist? Which one is more well natural and less likely to cause pathways to rebound? Does neutral mean ...
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1answer
12k views

Dreaming after passing out [closed]

I'll have few questions about passing out and dreaming. English is not my native language, and my biology knowledge is very limited. So bear with me. What exactly is blackout? (in a really simple way)...
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0answers
110 views

Book recommendation for studying biology for neuroscience [closed]

I will be starting a double degree in neuroscience and mathematics very soon, and I realised that an understanding of human biology can really help me out, and so I'm looking for an introductory level ...
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1answer
321 views

How do you check how many cones you have in your eye?

Following my previous question: What color does the other cone in Tetrachromacy correspond to? People with normal color vision posses 3 cones in their eye. But there are some rare cases when people ...
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1answer
55 views

Why didn't people taking up the Ice Bucket Challenge die?

I recently came across Vagal Inhibition. That article says, (5) Sudden immersion of body in cold water. can cause vagal inhibition and ultimately death. Recalling the Ice Bucket Challenge. Going ...
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1answer
100 views

Effect and functional role of voltage-gated channels on dendrites [closed]

I'd like to understand better the effect and functional role of voltage-gated channels on dendrites. What I believe to have understood: It is important that a more distal post-synaptical potential (...
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0answers
57 views

Sound volume drop when falling asleep in an airplane

Note: This question has nothing to do with pressure change. When I'm flying in an aircraft at cruising altitude, the monotonous sound often lulls me to sleep. I've noticed that just as I am on the ...
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1answer
86 views

Help on reconciling seemingly contradictory evidence about fetal experience

Fetal awareness and especially fetal pain are controversial, political issues. However, I do not wish to get into politics and want to merely stick to the scientific evidence. I have found statements ...