Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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What repairs faster when injured: white matter or grey matter?

This was the exact wording of a test question given by my biology teacher and she said that white matter would repair faster, because there is a myelin sheath to protect the cells. Do you agree with ...
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Do brain consume more energy when stressed or Anxious

When a person is anxious or stressed or suffering from chronic depression, it is observed that the person is usually tired. Is there there a connection between fatigue and racing thoughts/obsessions. ...
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What is the response vector in the fMRI GLM model?

In fMRI, univariate analysis typically makes use of the general linear model (GLM), where the relation between experimental condition and BOLD activity is estimated with a linear regression model for ...
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Trying to understand reduction of color dimension in colorblind case

I understand that dichromats have one of their cone missing/not functioning. And as for Monochromats, 2 or all of their 3 cones are missing/not functioning. And I read from Wikipedia - Color Blindness ...
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Why are the posterior and anterior inferior temporal cortex called area TEO and area TE respectively?

I don't understand why you would call them that. How did these names originate/where did these names come from?
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What does +60mm mean in MRI scans?

What do the -30 to +60mm markings mean in this MRI scan image?
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What color does the other cone in Tetrachromacy correspond to?

Human with normal vision possesses 3 cones, which correspond to blue (S), green (M) and red (L). What about tetrachromacy, where people have 4 cones in their retinae? What is the fourth cone exactly, ...
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48 views

How do we see and/or detect neurons? [closed]

I'm curious as to how we "see" neurons, for lack of a better term. Is it the detection of the neuro-transmitters? Can we literally see the electricity firing and moving throughout the pathways? Is it ...
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Neuron repair inhibition in the CNS

Evolution provides different myelin sheathing cells (Oligodendrocyte and Schwann cells) in mammalian CNS and PNS. Damaged neurons in the CNS have little chance of recovery whereas damaged neurons in ...
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Which kind of electrical brain activity is associated with consciousness and why?

According to this article The ethical brain At the end of the week 5 into the 6 (42-43 days) the first electrical brain activity occurs in a pre-born developing human. And according to the same ...
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162 views

How many ommatidia does a honeybee have?

European honeybees (Apis mellifera) have compound eyes made of tiny facets called ommatidia. The number of ommatidia is usually known in most model insects, but I cannot find reference for the ...
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What do the column labels in this table mean?

This table shows the effect of sound (song and tones) on female birds. However, I'm not sure what the labels (F1 22, P and η2) mean. I've seen the labels on other tables too. (from https://www.ncbi....
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Pitch perception - why is the missing fundamental not directly detected in the cochlea?

I'm learning about pitch perception, and learned about the case of the missing fundamental. In the main image in that wikipedia page, it seems like the bottom graph, with the fundamental frequency ...
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Why is the nucleus accumbens in that place?

This description of where the nucleus accumbens is (Ac) says that it should be near the lateral ventricle, when it is quite clearly very far away? How is this? the region surrounding the tip of the ...
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What is this type of diagram called and how to interpret?

I'm just starting a project on neuroscience for sixth form. I have had no teaching in this area so had to teach myself entirely. This is a "low-power image of a transverse section through the ...
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Are there any known rules that neurons always follow while transmitting/receiving signals?

I'm new to neurobiology so I don't know much about it. However, I have worked on artificial neural networks. Man-made AI networks all follow a handful of simple rules. I was wondering if biological ...
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276 views

Is it possible to Interpret Nerve Signals As to Where They Are Going In The Human Body And What Their Task Is? [closed]

I have recently watched some anime, (yes, anime, probably a huge cause to lots of questions asked on the internet), and it got me thinking. We can intercept nerve signals throughout the body, but ...
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Firing rate of retinal ganglion cells

I have few questions about the firing rate of retinal ganglion cells. 1) How to explain the baseline firing rate if either the entire receptive field is stimulated or there is no light stimulus at ...
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How harmful is aluminium?

I have been taught in school that aluminium is harmful for brain. Thus sour meals should not be cooked in aluminium pots and it is unhealthy to add lemon juice to tea while there is teabag in the cup, ...
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Why do some reflex actions involve interneurons, but some don't?

According to what I know, the reflex arc of knee jerk reflex doesn't involve interneuron, but other reflex action (e.g. removing your hand when touching hot things) do involve interneurons. Why is ...
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875 views

Why do living things go belly up as they die? [closed]

I have seen birds, lizards, frogs, fish, etc in various places on their back dead. May be insecticides cause them to flip over but I do not believe every upside down creature died by poison as stated ...
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What are the differences (if any) in brain activity when hallucinating versus perceiving a real object?

I was wondering if there is difference in brain activity when someone is hallucinating an object, say a giraffe compared to when someone is genuinely observing a real giraffe?
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What roles do circular connection structures play in the brain?

Most neural network simulations are strictly linear, one reason being they don't want to deal with circular connections (and infinite feedback loops if you dont have the right mechanisms). You can ...
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What is the distribution of the major ions across a neuronal membrane for a human neuron? [closed]

I have searched for the ion distributions across the membrane of human neurons on the internet but almost all the information refers to the giant axon of the squid. Could anyone give me the ion ...
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How are presynaptic burst firing signals transmitted post-synaptically?

Neurons can exhibit burst firing and this presynaptic process basically results in a flurry of action potentials being fired in a short time window. I'm, however, wondering how these signals are ...
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282 views

What photoreceptors are necessary to permit infrared vision?

Humans have red green and blue photoreceptors allowing them to sense colours in the spectrum of about 400-700nm. Certain proteins allow for the extending of wavelength range in the RGB receptors, this ...
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Can one become suddenly ambidextrous? [closed]

Is it possible to become ambidextrous? i'm 67 and recently and suddenly became ambidextrous about a month ago. I can write w both hands at the same time.
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375 views

Question about the threshold potential

I am a student of Physiology, and I have ended up a bit confused after what I've read today regarding events during a threshold potential. So, while cells are in their resting membrane potential, the ...
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Is olfactory input processed by the thalamus?

Is olfactory input processed by the thalamus? I know olfaction is the only sense that can bypass the thalamus, but are there cases where the input can project to the thalamus?
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Is the masking effect of sound related to action potentials or to mechanical aspects of hearing?

I am an applied mathematics / signal processing engineer who wants to learn more and I have a question that has been bugging me for some time. It is known in audio coding circles that human hearing is ...
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207 views

How to find the age of a memory stored in the brain?

Is there any way to find how old one's memory is? One can find the age of stones, plants, animals, etc. So why not find the age of a memory stored inside one's brain?
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Do hermaphrodites have more nerve fibers in their puendal nerve?

Recently I have been thinking, both the glans penis and the clitoris are the most sensitive parts of the body. They contain a lot of nerve endings. Do hermaphrodites share the nerve fibres between the ...
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499 views

Can acetylcholine leak away from the synapse and cause spasms?

I am currently studying Pharmacology and a question came to mind. We know that Acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter in the neuromuscular junction, both Sympathetic as Parasympathetic, but as I ...
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566 views

Why do nerve gas victims have chronic neurological issues?

The article on Wikipedia says the following: The effects of nerve agents are long lasting and increase with continued exposure. Survivors of nerve agent poisoning almost invariably suffer chronic ...
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Seeing new colours with new photoreceptors

If we developed new "eyes" that could see "non-visible spectrum colours" and connected them to our brains, would our brain be capable of identifying and interpreting those new colours? Is our brain ...
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What is the difference between how motor function is controlled in cerebrum vs frontal lobe?

At least according to wikipedia, the frontal lobe houses the primary motor cortex, but in a different article about the cerebellum, it says the cerebellum controls motor function. So, do both parts ...
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What's the lowest possible reaction time for the human brain?

I could not find an answer for this question out there so I thought it would be proper to ask it here. Since our reaction time can be increased or decreased by ingesting certain drugs, I could not ...
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Is synesthesia caused by crossing the circuitry of different sensory inputs?

I have a question about human perception. After reading the book "Sensory Perceptual Issues in Autism and Asperger Syndrome" and knowing about synesthesia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synesthesia) ...
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Is there a point in our life when ALL the atoms from our childhood's body get replaced?

The evolutionary biologist and Oxford professor Richard Dawkins makes on his TED talk the rather interesting suggestion that we human beings, are in nature more similar to a wave than an object. In ...
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What happens to the brain during meditation?

I've read several experiments on the internet according to which it is possible to reach a psychedelic state without taking any psychedelic drugs like DMT, LSD and other tryptamine derivatives. It ...
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Is summation linear in a passive membrane?

I am not too sure what it means for summation to be linear? I am running a simulation and as I decrease time for the second EPSP the amplitude decreases. Does summation being linear mean that there is ...
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55 views

Could Cannabidiol steady a hand? [closed]

Can Cannabidiol be used to steady shaky or nervous hand for precision work like surgery? I have used it for shooting pool/billiards and I'm not sure if it is a placebo or it is helping? but I am ...
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What is the “stimulus” that initially triggers an action potential?

There are many steps detailing the depolarization and repolarization of axon nodes to describe how an action potential is transmitted from a neuron. But, after looking at many different sources, I ...
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Does the brain always enter alpha/beta waves upon brief awakenings during the night?

If you realize you are awake briefly before falling back asleep, have you necessarily exited REM sleep or another stage? That is, is the experience of waking briefly (tossing and turning, etc.) always ...
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What is “integrated spindle activity” in plain English?

From a research article: To determine if a combination of spindle parameters allowed for a better group discrimination, integrated spindle activity (ISA) was calculated by integrating over time ...
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Modern Classification of Introspective Psychopharmacological Drug Profiles?

In the effort to better relate neuronal mechanisms to states of mind, it makes sense to have - in addition to pharmacological classifications of drugs and imaging/physiology classifications of their ...
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How does the body regenerate nerves?

If neurons come from neuroblasts which come from neuro stem cells that are embryonic, how is it possible for an adult to regenerate nerve tissue? Are neuro stem cells created during later stages of ...
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716 views

Why ambidextrous persons are so rare?

According to this article, only about 1% of all humans are ambidextrous: About 90 percent of people are right-handed, says Corballis. The remaining 10 percent are either left-handed or some ...
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Do axonal conduction delays have a function?

I'm reading about mathematical models of biological neural networks, which can be grouped into two categories: The model accounts for the fact that a signal takes time to travel from the excitatory ...

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