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Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

164 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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58 views

Link between hypoglycemic events in Type 1 diabetics and clinical anxiety?

I recognize that the scientific community is aware that the chemical stress pathway is mediated by glucocorticoids. The pathway response initializes as a result of some sort of stress (potentially ...
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154 views

Sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons - recognizing the type of neuron at microscopy images

Is there a simple way to distinguish between sensory neurons and interneurons and motor neurons at the microscopic images? I read a little bit about Open Connectome Project. Is there a possibility of ...
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113 views

Membrane resistance of a neuron

I am about to simulate a neuron activity with the "Leaky Integrate and Fire" neuron model. But for that I need the membrane resistance. I was really looking a lot online, but I just cant find a value. ...
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Real unipolar neurons do indeed exist in human?

I studied that the unipolar neuron in human body are not really unipolar but they're pseoudounipolar neurons. On the other hand according to what I understood from wikipedia (neuron) there are real ...
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32 views

Pearson correlation of neural responses with it's linear estimation

I am trying to anderstand the following fact from this article (page 13): How can single neurons predict behavior Suppose I have a linear estimation of a stimulus: $ \hat{s} = \mathbf{w}^T(\mathbf{r} ...
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How do the connections from V1 to V2 form during early development of the human brain?

I am wondering how corticocortical efferents from layer I and II in V1 develop to forward visual information to layer IV in V2. Is there topology preservation in these connections from the beginning ...
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44 views

Limits of brain neuronal spatial mapping

It is being claimed that brain maps the world space in (roughly) 1-to-1 correspondance of a place to a neuron (link1, link2). My question is: as the mapping happens in 1-to-1 manner, then is it ...
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228 views

How does an increased amplitude affect nerve conduction velocity?

My professor said that increasing the amplitude (the amount of depolarization e.g. depolarizing from -80 mV instead of -50 mV) leads to a greater conduction velocity.
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Regarding cryonics, why can't you freeze a living body and then thaw it later, fully functional?

Cryonics is very popular in science fiction today, as a method of preserving animals, including humans, for long time storage and thawing the tissue later in the future. What is the difficulties with ...
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159 views

Biology Experiment Data (Hodgkin-Huxley)

I'm doing research into the Hodgkin-Huxley Model from an electronics/mathematics perspective and I'm looking to find actual numerical results from experiments on squid axons. I want to compare the ...
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90 views

Does Dorsal Raphe Nuclei firing pattern change in response to voluntary breathing?

I'm reading this paper, which discusses how Serotonin may be involved in motor functions of mammals: 5-HT and motor control: a hypothesis . The paper includes the following diagram of the Dorsal ...
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1answer
61 views

How do developing neurons become tuned to fire only on receiving specific inputs?

Research has uncovered neurons that seem to "listen" for specific inputs and fire only when these inputs are received. For example, neurons in the visual cortex may fire at a higher rate when visual ...
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47 views

Why is there no solid evidence (histological, fMRI) that the vestibular hair cells of the inner ear contribute to 53% of the respiratory drive?

There are these papers which strongly imply that the inner ear hair cells, and not the medulla, is primarily the driving factor in the CO2 drive reflex https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130842 ...
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31 views

Can we “learn” reflexes?

Can we force our bodies to react to situations faster than our brain can think about them? Some reflexes I can think of off the top of my head: knee jerk reflex retracting hand when touching a hot ...
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30 views

How long does it take the neurotransmitters to diffuse accross the synaptic cleft?

Neurotransmitters get from the pre-synaptic neuron to the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron by diffusion across the gap between these two (the synaptic cleft). My question is, how much time does ...
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Congenital deafness: can cochlear implants always improve hearing at any age?

People with congenital deafness may acquire a cochlear implant at a later age and be able to hear. Given that it seems there is a curve for synaptic plasticity of different circuits: (1) Cochlear ...
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42 views

What substances can selectively destroy certain cells?

Recently, I've watched a documentary about how, in the 1980s, people were buying and using drugs from the streets and then becoming paralyzed a few days afterwards. The drugs that they were using were ...
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41 views

Are large cell bodies of neurons harder to depolarize than small cell bodies of neurons?

In order for the axon to initiate an action potential, we know that the axon initial segment must be brought to threshold. So my question is as follows: Say we have the minimum charge input, "X", ...
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61 views

What is the difference in the electrical excitability between a “large diameter soma” and a “large diameter axon”

There are two stereotyped statements that I have seen during my coursework regarding electric properties of neurons: Large diameter axons propagate action potentials more quickly than small diameter ...
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48 views

Do non-human primates have mental disorders like humans?

I was at the zoo today and watched a gorilla pick at a scab on its finger, compulsively, until it started bleeding. Is this OCD or is it just a nervous thing that non-human primates do at the zoo? Do ...
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58 views

What is the status of the “Free Energy Principle” as a theory of living organisms?

The free energy principle states that biological organisms maintain their order by minimizing a function called variational free energy (VFE). While it is the case that the minimum to VFE also ...
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32 views

excitatory-inhibitory synapse ratio

For each inhibitory synapse, how many excitatory synapses are in the brain? It is the same ratio along the animal kingdom or nervous system areas?
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63 views

Understanding the derivation of the Nernst equation

I am trying to understand how the Nernst equation can be derived and am mostly referring to the explanation given in the book Theoretical Neuroscience by Dayan and Abbott. Given we have a ...
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18 views

Does intermittent fasting promote neurogenesis through the same mechanism as aerobic exercises?

I heard that intermittent fasting promote neurogenesis through the secretion of BDNF, I heard aerobic exercises does the same through BDNF. Now, I am wondering if there are other mechanisms through ...
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Are $DCX^{-}PSA-NCAM^{+}$ neurons the result of adult neurogenesis in human being?

A recent study by Sorrells et al. (2018) has stirred a debate whether human being really do have adult neurogenesis in hippocampus or not. In a following paper- Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: a ...
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43 views

Once neurotransmitters bind to its receptors, how does the post synaptic neuron “know” when to start a new action potential?

My textbook seems to gloss over this subject. Once the post-synaptic receptors are activated, do they cause particular ion channels to open, letting positive charge into the cell and inching the ...
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VC06 neuron of c.elegans

My understanding was that all neurons and their synapses of worm c.elegans are already listed. As source of this map I'm using following databases (both should contain same information): ...
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38 views

is it possible to use electroshock to temporary stop gross motor functions directly on the neural pathway?

Is it possible to modify that procedure and use it to send a small electroshock on the specific neural pathway and temporarily stop that gross motor function? When the microphone detects unwanted ...
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0answers
43 views

Camera and the eye (filtering information)

How does a camera recreate a very similar perceptual stimulus (through the photo) for us to see compared to the person directly viewing the object of interest with their eye? My questions stems from ...
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How does the body regenerate nerves?

If neurons come from neuroblasts which come from neuro stem cells that are embryonic, how is it possible for an adult to regenerate nerve tissue? Are neuro stem cells created during later stages of ...
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26 views

Do neurons have agency with respect to modulation of spike timings?

I am aware of the mechanism of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and its ability to cause Long Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long Term Depression (LTD). So far, I've been viewing neurons as input-...
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59 views

Detailed working of the voltage-gated sodium channel

Hodgkin and Huxley formulated the ion currents through the three voltage-gated ion channels Na, K, and L as $$\sum_{k}I_{k}=g_{\rm Na}\,m^{3}h\,(u-E_{\rm Na})+g_{\rm K}\,n^{4}\,(u-E_{\rm K% })+g_{L}\,...
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128 views

How does the brain’s limbic system work together to form a working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory?

In the past few days, I was reading about the limbic system and how its components (hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, etc.) cooperate. Among papers and forum posts I read about how those ...
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29 views

Can there be multiple EPSPs with constant current injection to a neuron?

I am performing a current clamp experiment and measuring the change in membrane potential of a neuron with different current injections. A constant current of 50pA is injected to the neuron for 100ms. ...
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45 views

How are neuromodulator receptors distributed?

Irrespective of where, when and how neuromodulators are released, eventually they are detected by some receptors in the membrane of a target neuron (typically G protein–coupled receptors) ...
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36 views

Calcium and nitric oxide: does a numerical relationship exist?

Currently, I am trying to understand how nitric oxide and calcium are related during the production of the former (I am not a biologist nor a chemist, so my knowledge about these topics is very poor). ...
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123 views

An introduction to nuclei in the pons?

I have a couple of questions regarding the nuclei in the pons, thus I figured it would be best to frame the main question in the way that I did. My main question, however, is whether the basal ...
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109 views

How are the axons in the white matter bundled?

I wonder if the following question concerning the axons in the white matter does make sense. It is common knowledge that white matter is "composed mainly of bundles of myelinated axons" resp. is "...
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91 views

How is chloride concentrated in nerve cells?

Bear, Connors and Paradiso describe in depth the electrical behaviour of the neuron. This depends upon a 20:1 concentration within the cytoplasm of potassium ions AND chloride ions. All subsequent ...
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157 views

What does synapses hold together?

From three answers to the same question at Quora I've learned of three forces that keep synapses together: They are held together by cell adhesion molecules (e.g. neurexin and neuroligin). They are ...
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32 views

Distribution of dendritic spike generating ion channels on the dendritic tree

Is there evidence that dendritic spike generating ion channels are distributed unevenly on the dendritic tree, with higher density near the branching points of the tree than along the unbranched ...
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48 views

If we had children wear an apparatus swapping e.g. Red and Blue colors, would their perception adapt?

In the context of neuroscience and philosophy, one difficult question is what makes colors so peculiar and vivid if they're just signals encoding light intensity coming from certain receptors -- an ...
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44 views

3D Object Modelling in the Brain

Could somebody point out the neuroscience literature dedicated to the modelling of 3D objects in the human mind? I'm interested in the brain regions, and particularly the details of the circuitry, ...
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38 views

Drinking and eating ability of infants soon after birth

How do infants know how to eat, drink without being taught? How do they get this ability soon after birth?
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46 views

Distribution of sodium–potassium pumps

How are sodium–potassium pumps distributed over the membrane of a neuron? Where are the most, where are the fewest? Or does this dependent on the type of neuron? Are there known and understandable ...
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64 views

What is the degree distribution of synapses per neuron in the human brain?

I believe the mean number of synapses per neuron in the human cortex is around 6000. What is the distribution around that average, either for the cortex or for the whole human brain? E.g., is it ...
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2answers
1k views

Special visceral efferent

Why are special visceral efferent nerves are named as such? They are supplying motor impulses to muscles of pharyngeal arch, which are both skeletal(facial) and visceral(laryngeal) 1, so why only ...
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73 views

Longest pathway from sensory to motor neurons

How long is the longest pathway a neural signal can take starting from a sensory neuron and ending at a motor neuron (without loops)? [This is a purely theoretical question concerning only the ...
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208 views

Can nerves in the human body be spliced with a form of electric wire?

This may be a ridiculous question, and is hypothetical, but I'd like a well-supported answer. Is it possible to splice copper wire (for example) into the human nervous system? Would the charge ...