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Questions tagged [neuroscience]

The study of the structure and function of the nervous system and its components.

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263 views

Why bipolar neurons in retina transfer information via graded potentials?

Why should bipolar cells prefer graded potentials to action potentials? My attempt: I know that graded potentials are better in processing information since stimulus is directly proportional to ...
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201 views

Nature of transmarginal inhibition

I've recently become aware about existence of such phenomena. From my naive point of view, I understood it as existence of two general types of neural cells, one type serve inhibitory purpose and the ...
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452 views

What is a unitary post synaptic potential?

I am reading the paper Cooperative subnetworks of molecularly similar interneurons in mouse neocortex and have encountered the term: "Unitary (excitatory or inhibitory) post synaptic potential". I ...
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39 views

Do neurons feature a collective “resistance” to firing too often beyond the refactory period?

My understanding is that neurons are prevented from firing too often by a 2-part refactory period: an immediate inability to fire again for a period of time followed by an increased threshold for ...
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14 views

What motivation is there to create general, cross-species neural models which account for the variation between species in different environments?

The main components of human neuroanatomy have been mapped out. What attempt has there been to map a broad (many-species) spectrum of functional parts of the nervous system? Such a mapping could be ...
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120 views

What is the derivation of the rules of proportionality between axon conduction velocity and diameter?

We have been told that in myelinated fibres, conduction velocity is proportional to the diameter of the axon. In unmyelinated fibres, velocity is proportional to the square root of the diameter. Can ...
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26 views

Cytochrome Oxidase activity in neuronal cells

The abstract of this article says "...the entire neuron is often not metabolically homogeneous; most of the oxidative activity is usually found in dendrites." Why would the activity of cytochrome ...
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80 views

How screeching affects the body?

Most times when I hear a screech (such as moving a sharp object on a chalkboard thereby causing such unpleasant noise), my body twitches. There are also other unpleasant sounds that causes the ...
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42 views

Is the enteric nervous system found only in vertebrates?

The enteric nervous system is distinguished by being autonomous from the central nervous system and capable of independent action, such as the peristaltic reflex. For this reason the the intestines ...
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38 views

Forgot to cool slides before washing

I just finished an immunofluorescence experiment and I'm wondering what went wrong. The tissues seem dimmer than they should be. One mistake I made was: I completed the antigen retrieval step, in a ...
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101 views

Where to go next with clustered C elegans neuronal time series

I'm doing some independent research with the C Elegans nervous system (with the OpenWorm project) and was looking for some guidance as to where I should go next. Right now, I'm dealing with calcium ...
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70 views

Distribution of synaptic connections

What is the roughly the distribution of the various synaptic connections in the brain. Consider the following types: axoaxonic synapse between the axon of one neuron and the axon of another neuron. ...
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38 views

Immediate Early Genes during sleep

In Neuroscience 3rd ed by Bear et al. on page 607, immediate early genes are described as related to changing synaptic strength, yet have decreased expression during sleep. The explanation given is ...
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41 views

Gastroenteritis virus causing mutation of the Enterochromaffin cells

I am working on the solution to a worldwide problem: IBS or chronic diarrhea following a viral gastroenteritis infection. I think I have an answer. The only missing piece to the puzzle I found in a ...
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80 views

Systematic anticoagulant injection after a CVA

Since most of the cerebrovascular accident are ischemic ones, would it be usefull to have anticoagulant everywhere (we already have AEDs everywhere) so that everytime someone would have symptoms of a ...
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46 views

Stress regulation in mosquitoes

I was just trying to understand how in insects, specifically mosquitoes does the process of emergency responding, stress regulation take place? Or in simpler words how are flight, fright and fight ...
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1answer
46 views

Is the strength of presynaptic stimulus on the postsynaptic neuron affected more by the dendrites, or the cell body?

Is the strength of presynaptic stimulus on the postsynaptic neuron affected more by the properties of the dendrites & axon terminals, or the cell body & axon? Two years ago I asked a question ...
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1answer
172 views

How do nerve impulses travel so quickly?

Nerve impulses must travel incredibly fast to achieve the functions they do. However, I have been taught that sodium ions move down the axons by diffusion (thus causing depolarisation of the next part ...
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1answer
173 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
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17 views

What is the purpose of descending auditory signals from the brain?

What might the purpose be of the brain having descending auditory signals from the brain? My textbook is very vague about this and I am just curious.
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20 views

What are the advantages of bidirectional signalling in electrical synapses?

Electrical synapses are known for being very fast at communicating with other neurons. (1) What I often see in articles about electrical synapses is that they are bidirectional.(1) This is seen as a ...
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1answer
16 views

What determines the influx of calcium ions in the voltage-gated ion channels?

Calcium channels play a crucial role in neuronal signaling by helping the synaptic vesicles to fuse through the synaptic active zone and release their neurotransmitters. My question is, at a given ...
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1answer
21 views

What happens when the conductance of a sodium channel increases?

My intuition is that, since the concentration of sodium within a cell is higher than the extracellular concentration, when conductance increases, this corresponds to the channel being open and means ...
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17 views

A question about how the brain determines the source of a sound

If a person's eardrum vibrates, let's say, 440 times per second for 1 second, how does the brain know its because 1 sound source vibrated 440 times, as opposed to 440 sources vibrating once, one after ...
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9 views

Looking for books on How the limbic system works and it role in non-verbal behavior

This is my first post. I just read and I'm currently studying a book called "How everybody works" as a guide to understanding nonverbal behaviors. After I'm done studying it and while I experiment ...
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28 views

Is there a minimum amount a muscle can move? And thus, gaps in our movement?

Lately I've been thinking about something, based on my knowledge my chain of reasoning works like this... When you want to move a muscle your brain sends an electrical nervous impulse along the chain ...
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17 views

Does the prefrontal cortex fold over the diencephalon (limbic lobe) during embryogenesis?

The frontal lobe as the top of the vertebrate brain, does it fold over the diencephalon during embryogenesis and development of the brain?
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43 views

Is it possible to have action potentials in cells lacking both dendrites and axons?

I'm reading Kandel. Chapter 3 states the following: Because the initial segment of the axon has the highest density of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and therefore the lowest threshold for ...
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54 views

Why does an increase in extracellular Sodium concentration increases action potential amplitude?

The title says it - I wonder why an increase in extracellular Sodium (Na+) concentration increases action potential amplitude? What I understand: I understand that an influx of positively charged Na+...
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23 views

The role of voltage-gated ion channels in chemical synapses

I am trying to understand the mechanisms underlying action potential generation on the cellular level. Typically, there is an emphasis on voltage-dependent permeability changes of Potassium (K+) and ...
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22 views

How are humanized antibodies made?

What kind of antigen is used to provoke/induce an immune response if you are trying to make therapeutic humanized antibodies for cancer and alzheimer's disease? For example, if you wanted to make an ...
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29 views

What trajectory do action potentials take, from initial visual stimulus all the way to motor function?

Say we see a mosquito, and our brain tells us 'hey that's a mosquito, you should kill it.' Then we move our hands and slap/clap it. The initial visual stimulus is translated to an action potential ...
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19 views

why do space persons struggle to walk after they returned from space station?

I remember a scene in my childhood (1990s) a cosmonaut was chaired away from a capsule just landed in Kazakhstan (USSR). He lived in space about 200 days. I guess that he might have lost some ...
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23 views

Can GENESIS simulation software be adapted to other types of tissues?

GENESIS simulation software http://genesis-sim.org/ is designed for neurobiological systems and it is able to inculude in the simulation the different resolution levels - starting from the molecular ...
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2answers
40 views

Does loss of dopaminergic neurons totally eliminate voluntary muscular control?

Breathing is a function that is not only autonomic, but can also be temporarily overridden and placed under voluntary control. In fact, you are now breathing manually. Now, suppose that someone has ...
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25 views

What is the outer boundary of oligodendrocyte myelination?

The sensory and motor neurons comprising the spinal cord and brain stem have the interesting property that different structural components belonging to the same neuron can occupy both the PNS and CNS. ...
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20 views

How many neurons do we have in our forearm?

I am developing a neural interface, getting signals from the forearm and mapping them to hand gestures. The question we have at the moment is what is the upper bound of information bandwidth that we ...
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33 views

What cell types comprise the median eminence and the tuber cinereum?

I have tried pretty hard to get a detailed description of what exactly the median eminence and the tuber cinereum are but to no avail. I am very familiar with their anatomical relationships (spatially)...
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21 views

Does eosinophil-derived neurotoxin attack the helminth nervous system?

I had always assumed that EDN's purpose was to attack the nervous systems of helminths and similar multicellular parasitic organisms, given the function of eosinophils. The enzyme was named due to its ...
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20 views

How can different ion channels of the same type have different cell responses?

The NMDA receptor is an ion channel and contributes to synaptic plasticity and memory. It is said that calcium ion flux through the receptor is critical for this mechanism. However, there are other ...
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19 views

Stem cells therapy for stroke via thecal sac?

According to this video posted below, stem cells for stroke patients can be induced to thecal sack, below the spinal cord. Those stem cells would make their way up to the brain. https://youtu.be/...
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62 views

Is there still a convincing argument/evidence that adult neurogenesis does not exist/play an essential role in NON-Human Primates?

Adult neurogenesis in human-being is a debated topic, and will probably take several years to get resolved. I am under impression that it is relatively easier to settle the debate on non-human ...
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22 views

Do reflex movements involve information processing?

According to Reflex A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs ...
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61 views

Action potential frequency presynaptic neuron comared with in post-synaptic neuron/ muscle cells

I am a physicist interested in knowing how the action potential frequency in a presynaptic neuron compares with that in a) a post-synaptic neuron and b) membrane depolarisation of muslce cells, ...
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254 views

How does acetylcholine (aCh) cause erection?

I have read this article on physiology of erection : Activation of cholinergic receptors on the endothelial cell by acetylcholine or stretching of the endothelial cells as a result of increased ...
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57 views

Sound volume drop when falling asleep in an airplane

Note: This question has nothing to do with pressure change. When I'm flying in an aircraft at cruising altitude, the monotonous sound often lulls me to sleep. I've noticed that just as I am on the ...
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79 views

Modern Classification of Introspective Psychopharmacological Drug Profiles?

In the effort to better relate neuronal mechanisms to states of mind, it makes sense to have - in addition to pharmacological classifications of drugs and imaging/physiology classifications of their ...
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77 views

Electrical field stimulation of neurons: what are commonly used stimulation protocols and which are physiological?

I am doing a labproject with primary mouse nerve cultures (hippocampus and midbrain) and part of the experiments involve performing electrical field stimulation on these neurons. For now we have ...
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58 views

“Secondary refractory period” of class 1 neurons?

In Izhikevich's Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience, p. 199, one learns about a class of neurons that can be forced to fire with maximal frequency: Injecting a constant current of appropriate size (...
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333 views

Distribution of the number of synapses per neuron

There is a mean number of synapses per neuron in the human brain which is not very well known, but is of order 10,000. (Some say, it's about 6,000, other say it's about 50,000.) What is known about ...