Questions tagged [neurotransmitter]

Small molecules involved in the propagation of a nerve signal across the synapses.

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Differences between neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

According to the Wikipedia article on neuromodulation a neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down into a ...
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How does the dopamine spike from drugs compare quantitatively to pleasurable non-drug activities?

I did find this popular press article that quotes a researcher offering the following quantification: "in lab experiments done on animals, sex causes dopamine levels to jump from 100 to 200 units, and ...
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Where do the Ca ions that causes neurotransmitter release from synaptic bouton, come from?

I hope the information you share will help clarify the following doubts and gaps in my knowledge: Where do the Calcium ions in the influx (which then triggers the neurotransmitter vesicles) come from?...
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What are the chemicals in the gap at a synapse? [duplicate]

I am learning about (introductory level) biological psychology and the synapse structure came into mind. I do understand that neurotransmitters are transmitted between two neurons via the synapse ...
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What determines the influx of calcium ions in the voltage-gated ion channels?

Calcium channels play a crucial role in neuronal signaling by helping the synaptic vesicles to fuse through the synaptic active zone and release their neurotransmitters. My question is, at a given ...
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What is the difference between axon and dendron?

I have seen the following answers on the internet. 1. Dendron transmits signal towards cell body and axon transmits signal away from it 2. Axon is often myelinated and longer 3. Axon terminal end has ...
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Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

I was speaking with a substitute teacher of mine, and we were discussing whether neurotransmitters are part of the endocrine system or not. My class just spent an entire semester on the topic of the ...
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What causes sodium channels to open?

What triggers the opening of sodium channels in a neuronal membrane? Is it acetylcholine that activates sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane? Are sodium channels like receptors that have to ...
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What makes synaptic vesicle release probabilistic?

The fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the plasma membrane of the active zone (AZ) upon arrival of an action potential (AP) at the presynaptic compartment is a tightly regulated probabilistic ...
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Could we have endless pleasure?

Are there any studies that point out that we could have a device in the future or drug that could give us endless amount of pleasure by stimulating or blocking processes in the brain or nerve system? ...
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How long does it take the neurotransmitters to diffuse accross the synaptic cleft?

Neurotransmitters get from the pre-synaptic neuron to the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron by diffusion across the gap between these two (the synaptic cleft). My question is, how much time does ...
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What material fills the synaptic cleft? Is it water?

The synaptic cleft is the gap between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons, and neurotransmitters are transferred between the neurons within this region. What substance exits in this space, is ...
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How much is the motion speed of calcium ions in ion channels and neurons?

As far as I know, calcium ions moving in a Brownian manner are responsible for the performance of neurons and neuro-transmitters. My question is, how much kinetic energy these calcium ions have and ...
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How do organophosphates actually work?

The common explanation as to what the primary mechanism of action for organophosphates (and carbamates) is is the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and resulting buildup of acetylcholine ...
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What substances can selectively destroy certain cells?

Recently, I've watched a documentary about how, in the 1980s, people were buying and using drugs from the streets and then becoming paralyzed a few days afterwards. The drugs that they were using were ...
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Is NMDA produced in the body?

On the wiki page for NMDA it says that NMDA is a synthetic substance that mimics glutamate. So why does the body not use glutamate instead of NMDA? Also how is it possible that our body can produce ...
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Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles

I'm reading the following paper: http://jcs.biologists.org/content/123/6/819 The part I am really confused about is when they say: Exocytosis appears to use two alternative pathways: clathrin-...
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How do Neurotransmitters get into the neurons?

This may be a dumb question. I'm not a Neuroscientist. I'm just trying to learn more about the brain to improve my AI learning algorithms… I understand that there are different kinds of ...
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Can light function as a neurotransmitter?

Any animal with an eye has photoreceptors, which are essentially light-sensitive neurons. Green algae have channelrhodopsin, which are ion channels that open and close in response to light. Clearly, ...
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Action potential frequency presynaptic neuron comared with in post-synaptic neuron/ muscle cells

I am a physicist interested in knowing how the action potential frequency in a presynaptic neuron compares with that in a) a post-synaptic neuron and b) membrane depolarisation of muslce cells, ...
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To what extent does the distribution of nerual transmiters in the brain vary human to human?

Suppose $x$ is a position in the brain, and $n_i(x)$ is the density of neuro recepter $i$ around that point. Any given human will have some distribution of neruo recepters $n_i(x)$ through out there ...
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Solubility of lithium carbonate in blood

When a person with Bipolar Disorder ingests a pill of $\ce{Li_2CO_3}$ and it enters the stomach the pill cap is dissolved in the hydrochloric acid; however, when it gets absorbed in the blood how does ...
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Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named ...
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İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
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Is every neurotransmitter receptor an ion channel?

This is a rudimentary question--perhaps the answer is well known to biologists, but is every neurotransmitter receptor also an ion channel? For example, NMDAR is a glutamate receptor and cation ...
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How long does it take for a blocked dopamine receptor to be broken down by the body?

Do the blocked dopamine receptors get broken down by the body and if so how often ? In other words how long does it take for the dopamine receptors blocked by irreversible dopamine antagonists to ...
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Is the ACh receptor more permeable to sodium ions?

The AChR is permeable to sodium and potassium ions only and has a reversal potential of 0mV. However the Nernst potentials for sodium and potassium ions is ~ +60mV and -88mV respectively. Taking a ...
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Inhibitory effect of GABA through GABA(A) receptors

Over at Wikipedia, the following is written in the article about GABA(A) receptors: "Upon activation, the GABA(A) receptor selectively conducts Cl− through its pore. Cl- will flow out of the cell ...
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difference between neurotransmitters and hormones

I have been reading a lot about neurotransmitters and hormones but what's the difference between them both or are they the same? It's been confusing for a while now. Also, why do some ...
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Can acetylcholine leak away from the synapse and cause spasms?

I am currently studying Pharmacology and a question came to mind. We know that Acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter in the neuromuscular junction, both Sympathetic as Parasympathetic, but as I ...
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How outside signals creates different chemical composition in the brain? [closed]

Scenario A: I am walking down the street and my phone rings. I answer and I am told that my ticket that I registered last week was lucky and I won million EUR. Scenario B: I am walking down the ...
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Confusion about the construction of the rat's mental map

I'm reading the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I try to understand the following ...
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148 views

Does GABA help or hinder anxiety?

This article https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/smartphone-addiction-creates-imbalance-in-brain-300558945.html Says both The researchers performed MRS exams on the addicted youth prior to ...
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Does orgasm cause a dopamine crash?

There's some theory around that orgasm will cause a dopamine surge and drop, and that this can lead to a period of low mood or depression. A come down. Is this true, does orgasm have a negative ...
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Why does excess dopamine activity in the pleasure centers results in less pleasure in schizophrenics?

According to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is an excess of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens), and this contributes to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. I ...
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364 views

Which function do nicotinic receptors have in the periphery?

I came across this question today, it says: Nicotinic receptors stimulation is directly responsible for ….... I should fill the spaces by one of the following choices: Increasing the excitability ...
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Why do classic psychedelics not cause withdrawal, despite high tolerance?

"Classical" psychedelics, such as LSD, DMT, and Mescaline, are serotonin agonists that cause hallucinogenic effects. They are notorious for having rapid tolerance, such that after consuming such ...
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Where does the initial action potential come from?

When talking about action potentials we say that previous neurons caused an action potential in this neuron and that this neuron's action potential caused the same in further neurons. But what is the ...
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What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
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NMDA receptor mediated plasticity figure reference

Because most of this research is over a decade old, finding a paper with a figure that clearly shows that (neuronal) synaptic plasticity (such as long-term potentiation/LTP) is NMDA receptor mediated ...
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Visual maps of the neuronal membrane

There are lots of visual maps of the brain as a whole, especially the cortex, that show the distribution of "features" over a two-dimensional map, e.g. the Brodman areas (their morphology and their ...
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Correlation between morphology of neurons and neurotransmitters

Are there known significant (positive or negative) statistical correlations between the morphology type of neurons and the neurotransmitters that they use (presynaptic, i.e. transmitters that are ...
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What is the definition of an opioid, beyond that it's something that stimulates opioid receptors?

At first glance, this looks like a circular definition. Is there some way to definitively determine if a given molecule is or is not an opioid? (Medically or scientifically, not legally). I'm ...
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If I receive dopamine only from doing difficult things will I eventually enjoy them?

I've recently read a post from reddit about how dopamine affects our motivation. Author states: Dopamine is pleasure. Your brain craves more pleasure. You get too much pleasure and your brain ...
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If action potential is “all or nothing” then how are finely tuned signals sent from one neuron to another?

If the action potential is an "all or nothing" phenomenon, then how is one type of neurotransmitter secreted rather than another? Let's say, for example, if a neuron received an excitatory post ...
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Reward pathway sequence of events

So I've been reading a lot of papers on the reward pathway. But since I'm not schooled in any relevant knowledge I'm having trouble grasping the chain of events. Most papers detail just bits and ...
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What are the distinct neurochemical components of sexual pleasure?

Sexual activity is usually described as pleasurable. What neurochemical systems does sex activate? Does the presence or absence of a partner make a difference -- say, in the activation of the ...
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How does receptor downregulation/upregulation work?

My understanding is that if a cell is flooded with a certain neurotransmitter, it may decrease the density of that neurotransmitter. What I don't understand is how. Is it a direct physical result of ...
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Can dopamine antagonists be used as dopamine upregulation?

Can dopamine antagonists such as Thorazine that are used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar be used to upregulate dopamine in the long term in healthy (non schizophrenic or bipolar) users to get a ...
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How does different sensory stimuli differ in nerve signal?

Every day, we experience different types of sensory stimulus, like heat, pain, cold, etc. However, in each case, the transmission of the stimulus to the brain through the neurones is carried on in ...