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Questions tagged [neurotransmitter]

Small molecules involved in the propagation of a nerve signal across the synapses.

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Why isn't D-deprenyl, isomer of l-deprenyl (selegiline) available as a drug?

Selegiline (l-deprenyl) is widely available in almost all countries as a prescription drug whereas it's isomer d-deprenyl which also acts as a NDRA (norepinephrine dopamine releasing agent) in ...
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1answer
150 views

How do organophosphates actually work?

The common explanation as to what the primary mechanism of action for organophosphates (and carbamates) is is the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and resulting buildup of acetylcholine ...
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How much is the motion speed of calcium ions in ion channels and neurons?

As far as I know, calcium ions moving in a Brownian manner are responsible for the performance of neurons and neuro-transmitters. My question is, how much kinetic energy these calcium ions have and ...
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What substances can selectively destroy certain cells?

Recently, I've watched a documentary about how, in the 1980s, people were buying and using drugs from the streets and then becoming paralyzed a few days afterwards. The drugs that they were using were ...
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1answer
508 views

Dopamine and other neurotransmitter release during music listening

I'm looking for any studies that show a positive curve in respects to music sessions in humans and neurotransmitter release (specifically dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin.) Any direct links would ...
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Is NMDA produced in the body?

On the wiki page for NMDA it says that NMDA is a synthetic substance that mimics glutamate. So why does the body not use glutamate instead of NMDA? Also how is it possible that our body can produce ...
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1answer
150 views

Reward pathway sequence of events

So I've been reading a lot of papers on the reward pathway. But since I'm not schooled in any relevant knowledge I'm having trouble grasping the chain of events. Most papers detail just bits and ...
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1answer
20 views

Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles

I'm reading the following paper: http://jcs.biologists.org/content/123/6/819 The part I am really confused about is when they say: Exocytosis appears to use two alternative pathways: clathrin-...
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697 views

Could an action potential produce few or more neurotransmitters based on the stimulus received?

I reckon that if you would be able to widen the AP width, it would produce more neurotransmitters in that larger time interval. Is that correct? Or does the neuron have a standard amount of ...
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1answer
141 views

How do Neurotransmitters get into the neurons?

This may be a dumb question. I'm not a Neuroscientist. I'm just trying to learn more about the brain to improve my AI learning algorithms… I understand that there are different kinds of ...
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2answers
621 views

What would happen if brain neurons did not reduce their sensitivity to neurotransmitters after prolonged exposure?

From my understanding, neurons decrease their sensitivity to neurotransmitters by reducing the amount of receptors on the cell membrane in response to sustained neurotransmitter activity. One ...
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1answer
360 views

Can acetylcholine leak away from the synapse and cause spasms?

I am currently studying Pharmacology and a question came to mind. We know that Acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter in the neuromuscular junction, both Sympathetic as Parasympathetic, but as I ...
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122 views

Can light function as a neurotransmitter?

Any animal with an eye has photoreceptors, which are essentially light-sensitive neurons. Green algae have channelrhodopsin, which are ion channels that open and close in response to light. Clearly, ...
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51 views

Action potential frequency presynaptic neuron comared with in post-synaptic neuron/ muscle cells

I am a physicist interested in knowing how the action potential frequency in a presynaptic neuron compares with that in a) a post-synaptic neuron and b) membrane depolarisation of muslce cells, ...
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1answer
88 views

How long does it take for a blocked dopamine receptor to be broken down by the body?

Do the blocked dopamine receptors get broken down by the body and if so how often ? In other words how long does it take for the dopamine receptors blocked by irreversible dopamine antagonists to ...
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25 views

To what extent does the distribution of nerual transmiters in the brain vary human to human?

Suppose $x$ is a position in the brain, and $n_i(x)$ is the density of neuro recepter $i$ around that point. Any given human will have some distribution of neruo recepters $n_i(x)$ through out there ...
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1answer
10k views

Serotonin - Does being aroused make you sleepy?

My Psychology text book says Serotonin causes "Sleep, arousal levels and emotion" Does this really mean that when you are being aroused, Serotonin is released, which in turn makes you sleepy? If so, ...
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48 views

Solubility of lithium carbonate in blood

When a person with Bipolar Disorder ingests a pill of $\ce{Li_2CO_3}$ and it enters the stomach the pill cap is dissolved in the hydrochloric acid; however, when it gets absorbed in the blood how does ...
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Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named ...
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1answer
320 views

İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
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1answer
68 views

Is every neurotransmitter receptor an ion channel?

This is a rudimentary question--perhaps the answer is well known to biologists, but is every neurotransmitter receptor also an ion channel? For example, NMDAR is a glutamate receptor and cation ...
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35 views

Are saturated fats beneficals for the brain's functions?

Are saturated fats beneficals for the brain's functions? if so, which kind of saturated fats? I found this information about medium-chain triglycerides (found in coconut oil), 1)it is smaller than ...
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1answer
111 views

Is the ACh receptor more permeable to sodium ions?

The AChR is permeable to sodium and potassium ions only and has a reversal potential of 0mV. However the Nernst potentials for sodium and potassium ions is ~ +60mV and -88mV respectively. Taking a ...
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1answer
42 views

Inhibitory effect of GABA through GABA(A) receptors

Over at Wikipedia, the following is written in the article about GABA(A) receptors: "Upon activation, the GABA(A) receptor selectively conducts Cl− through its pore. Cl- will flow out of the cell ...
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difference between neurotransmitters and hormones

I have been reading a lot about neurotransmitters and hormones but what's the difference between them both or are they the same? It's been confusing for a while now. Also, why do some ...
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122 views

What controls gut motility?

I have two different papers. One claims that gut motility is reduced by stimulation of the Opioid κ and δ receptors. The receptors are activated by Morphine and certain derivatives, specifically ...
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3answers
7k views

Why do Hot/Cold drinks taste sweeter once returning to room temperature?

Now, I know this is a very bizarre question, and I tried to find a correct exchange for this, but it might relate to biology/science as it being our taste buds and everything. I am so sorry if there ...
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1answer
437 views

What stimulates a nociceptor?

For instance, when pressure is applied to the skin, what determines how much pressure results in nociceptor stimulation. And when a sharp object pierces the skin, why is pain, rather than simply touch,...
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1answer
227 views

All neuromodulators (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine) act only on metabotropic receptors? [closed]

All neuromodulators like dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine act only on metabotropic receptors?
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1answer
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How outside signals creates different chemical composition in the brain? [closed]

Scenario A: I am walking down the street and my phone rings. I answer and I am told that my ticket that I registered last week was lucky and I won million EUR. Scenario B: I am walking down the ...
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1answer
6k views

Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...
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1answer
73 views

Confusion about the construction of the rat's mental map

I'm reading the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I try to understand the following ...
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1answer
554 views

Does orgasm cause a dopamine crash?

There's some theory around that orgasm will cause a dopamine surge and drop, and that this can lead to a period of low mood or depression. A come down. Is this true, does orgasm have a negative ...
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1answer
131 views

Does GABA help or hinder anxiety?

This article https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/smartphone-addiction-creates-imbalance-in-brain-300558945.html Says both The researchers performed MRS exams on the addicted youth prior to ...
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1answer
395 views

Why does excess dopamine activity in the pleasure centers results in less pleasure in schizophrenics?

According to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is an excess of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens), and this contributes to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. I ...
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1answer
317 views

Which function do nicotinic receptors have in the periphery?

I came across this question today, it says: Nicotinic receptors stimulation is directly responsible for ….... I should fill the spaces by one of the following choices: Increasing the excitability ...
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1answer
715 views

Why do classic psychedelics not cause withdrawal, despite high tolerance?

"Classical" psychedelics, such as LSD, DMT, and Mescaline, are serotonin agonists that cause hallucinogenic effects. They are notorious for having rapid tolerance, such that after consuming such ...
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1answer
262 views

Where does the initial action potential come from?

When talking about action potentials we say that previous neurons caused an action potential in this neuron and that this neuron's action potential caused the same in further neurons. But what is the ...
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689 views

What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
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4answers
444 views

Hebbian theory “fire together” clarification

Donald Hebb states it as follows: "Let us assume that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its stability.… ...
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Calcium levels and nerve hyperexcitation

Why does lower blood calcium levels (or lower calcium levels in ECF) cause nervous hyperexcitaton? Why does it cause over stimulation of nerves and muscles and spasmic contractions of muscles? This is ...
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1answer
63 views

NMDA receptor mediated plasticity figure reference

Because most of this research is over a decade old, finding a paper with a figure that clearly shows that (neuronal) synaptic plasticity (such as long-term potentiation/LTP) is NMDA receptor mediated ...
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2answers
124 views

What are the distinct neurochemical components of sexual pleasure?

Sexual activity is usually described as pleasurable. What neurochemical systems does sex activate? Does the presence or absence of a partner make a difference -- say, in the activation of the ...
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55 views

Visual maps of the neuronal membrane

There are lots of visual maps of the brain as a whole, especially the cortex, that show the distribution of "features" over a two-dimensional map, e.g. the Brodman areas (their morphology and their ...
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1answer
35 views

Correlation between morphology of neurons and neurotransmitters

Are there known significant (positive or negative) statistical correlations between the morphology type of neurons and the neurotransmitters that they use (presynaptic, i.e. transmitters that are ...
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1answer
895 views

What is the definition of an opioid, beyond that it's something that stimulates opioid receptors?

At first glance, this looks like a circular definition. Is there some way to definitively determine if a given molecule is or is not an opioid? (Medically or scientifically, not legally). I'm ...
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112 views

If I receive dopamine only from doing difficult things will I eventually enjoy them?

I've recently read a post from reddit about how dopamine affects our motivation. Author states: Dopamine is pleasure. Your brain craves more pleasure. You get too much pleasure and your brain ...
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1answer
118 views

If action potential is “all or nothing” then how are finely tuned signals sent from one neuron to another?

If the action potential is an "all or nothing" phenomenon, then how is one type of neurotransmitter secreted rather than another? Let's say, for example, if a neuron received an excitatory post ...
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1answer
625 views

What happens if nerve impulses go the wrong way?

So in nerve impulses, I get that the refractory period is important because it stops the action potentials going the wrong way along the axon. I have two questions: What would the impact be of the ...
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1answer
686 views

How does receptor downregulation/upregulation work?

My understanding is that if a cell is flooded with a certain neurotransmitter, it may decrease the density of that neurotransmitter. What I don't understand is how. Is it a direct physical result of ...