Questions tagged [neurotransmitter]

Small molecules involved in the propagation of a nerve signal across the synapses.

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Correlation between morphology of neurons and neurotransmitters

Are there known significant (positive or negative) statistical correlations between the morphology type of neurons and the neurotransmitters that they use (presynaptic, i.e. transmitters that are ...
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What is the definition of an opioid, beyond that it's something that stimulates opioid receptors?

At first glance, this looks like a circular definition. Is there some way to definitively determine if a given molecule is or is not an opioid? (Medically or scientifically, not legally). I'm ...
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If I receive dopamine only from doing difficult things will I eventually enjoy them?

I've recently read a post from reddit about how dopamine affects our motivation. Author states: Dopamine is pleasure. Your brain craves more pleasure. You get too much pleasure and your brain ...
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140 views

If action potential is “all or nothing” then how are finely tuned signals sent from one neuron to another?

If the action potential is an "all or nothing" phenomenon, then how is one type of neurotransmitter secreted rather than another? Let's say, for example, if a neuron received an excitatory post ...
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What happens if nerve impulses go the wrong way?

So in nerve impulses, I get that the refractory period is important because it stops the action potentials going the wrong way along the axon. I have two questions: What would the impact be of the ...
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1answer
751 views

How does receptor downregulation/upregulation work?

My understanding is that if a cell is flooded with a certain neurotransmitter, it may decrease the density of that neurotransmitter. What I don't understand is how. Is it a direct physical result of ...
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Can dopamine antagonists be used as dopamine upregulation?

Can dopamine antagonists such as Thorazine that are used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar be used to upregulate dopamine in the long term in healthy (non schizophrenic or bipolar) users to get a ...
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1answer
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Do presynaptic neurons and postsynaptic neurons have different compositions of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters?

For example if certain neurotransmitter is released, will there be neurons that won’t be even potentially affected, because it doesn’t have such type receptors?
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Loss of nerves in asthma

This site says: VIP [vasoactive intestinal peptide] nerves are absent in severely asthmatic subjects. Mice with targeted deletion of the VIP gene exhibit histopathologic features of airway ...
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How does different sensory stimuli differ in nerve signal?

Every day, we experience different types of sensory stimulus, like heat, pain, cold, etc. However, in each case, the transmission of the stimulus to the brain through the neurones is carried on in ...
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1answer
438 views

What is a starter cell?

I am reading the paper Cooperative Subnetworks of Molecularly Similar Interneurons in Mouse Neocortex and a term "starter cell" apears there (page 6): This yielded tissue sections where SOM or ...
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996 views

Can human be emotionless?

Is it possible that a person can't produce, like, dopamine, serotonin, and other emotion hormones? Or, a part of the brain can't function to make one feel something?
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Do SSRIs downregulate or upregulate the 5-HT3 receptor?

What effect do SSRIs have on the expression of the ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor?
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What are the on-rate and off-rate constants for 5-HT1 receptors binding 5-HT?

The class of 5-HT1 receptors binds serotonin (5-HT) reversibly (Wikipedia). I'm interested in the on-rate and off-rate constants $k_{\text{on}}$ and $k_{\text{off}}$ of this process. So my question ...
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1answer
90 views

Why do SRIs help in serotonergic neurotransmission?

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) block the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT) which, according to Wikipedia, leads to an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. Now this book ...
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1answer
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How long does it take for dopamine to reach normal levels after a significant drop?

The building block sequence for is: Phenylalanine << Tyrosine << L-Dopa << Dopamine. It’s produced only in a few, very specific regions: Substantia Nigra and the Ventral Tegmental ...
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Charge distribution to neuron connections

How is charge generated by the action potential is distributed to all of the neuron connections? From what I understand the total charge transmitted by a neuron once it fires is same for every neuron. ...
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How long does a spiking signal last?

It is surprisingly hard to find information about the timing of neurons, in particular how long an action potential can contribute to the summation of a neuron. Is it on the order of milliseconds or ...
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1answer
271 views

How do sarcomeres coordinate contraction?

As can be seen from the figure if myosins from both sides apply equal force then how does muscle contract? And also how do actins resist tearing? Is there any kind of coordination between different ...
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1answer
424 views

Why are so many recreational drugs serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonists?

I found out that many psychoactive drugs partially activate the 5HT1A receptor. Looking at Wikipedia, these include MDMA, LSD, CBD, Psliocybin/Psilocin, amphetamine and various other psychedelics, and ...
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Understanding the brain: how are neurotransmitters released in the brain?

I have a basic knowledge of how neural networks work. A potential difference is created that forces sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium ions to flow which carries an electrical signal to the end ...
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2answers
868 views

What is synaptic clearance?

Please explain what the term synaptic clearance means. For example, what would dopamine synaptic clearance be? It is important to me in context of dopamine signaling variation due to difference in ...
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1answer
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What kind of changes “stays” in the neuron after the nervous impulse happened?

I often see in neuroscience textbooks about how the brain controls everything in the body with different tracts and etc, and it seems that information is always being transmitted, like there's no ...
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1answer
172 views

How does the brain manifest and realize the intention to resist sleep?

The question title says it all. What happens in my brain when I resist sleep? I would appreciate explanations on neurotransmitter changes, what areas of the brain activate to resist sleep, what can an ...
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Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
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Epigenetics and serotonin?

In this article http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v17/n9/full/nn.3778.html it states that Increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat related ...
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Acetylcholine and muscles- excitatory or inhibitory? (muscle atonia and myasthenia gravis)

I have heard that acetylcholine can be excitatory or inhibitory, but I am confused as to which it is when it comes to muscles. On the one hand, I believe that muscle atonia during REM sleep is ...
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841 views

Can dietary monosodium glutamate intake induce restlestness?

The question is all in the title. More context: I like phở soup. I have noticed that I get restless after eating the phở soup at some restaurants. The effects are similar to the ones resulting from ...
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Neuroscience behind the crash

After experiencing things like stress, intense exercise, or using drugs such as caffeine and amphetamine, subjects often assume a depressive and lethargic state afterwards, known as a "crash." What is ...
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1answer
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Oscillatory electrical system using a chain of neurons

Many daily activities that we perform are result of inbuilt oscillatory circuits in our body. For example walking, breathing, heart beat, blinking, etc. The coding and decoding of stored memory also ...
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What happens in the synapse when cocaine administration occurs in the human brain

As far as i know when you accept cocaine in your blood some cocaine molecules reach some synapses in your brain and fill some Reuptake tunnels preventing the cell to simply "do not know that fired ...
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Is there a correlation between total neurons and intelligence?

Thanks for looking. First off, I am not a biologist, just a curious layman, so I apologize in advance if this isn't a "good" question. Please don't downvote me into oblivion. I read today that the ...
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1answer
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Is Norepinephrine beta2 adrenomimetic?

I know that it has alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 effects. It has beta2 receptor where epinephrine can effect. However, to say that it is beta adrenomimetic, I am not sure. That is ligand binding beta2 ...
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What are the physiological roles of Hydrogen sulfide?

I am thinking why hydrogen sulfide has its effects in the body. For instance, it is one Salmonella's virulence factor. I am not sure if such a balance equations holds H2O + H2S ←→ ... Actually, I ...
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4answers
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Are neural connections one-way?

I'm trying to think about how two neurons communicate, typically shown in pictures as an electric pulse traveling along a long, thin connective tissue. Is this depiction somewhat accurate, and if so, ...
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Gastroenteritis virus causing mutation of the Enterochromaffin cells

I am working on the solution to a worldwide problem: IBS or chronic diarrhea following a viral gastroenteritis infection. I think I have an answer. The only missing piece to the puzzle I found in a ...
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Why has evolution made neurons use spiking?

I'm going to be forward and say that I'm not a biologist. I don't claim to fully understand the functionality of a neuron from an electrical/chemical perspective... I'm curiously gazing from the ...
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Modern research or study on patterns in nerve signals

I am trying to find any recent study on pattern recognition in nerve signals. It does not really matter the part of the body where the research is focused on. It can be anything from studying activity ...
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2answers
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Resting and action membrane potential..?

In the resting membrane potential of neurons the inside of membrane is kept negative and outside of membrane is kept positive by the utilization of energy through Na-K Atpase pump, While during action ...
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Is it reasonable to assume that RNA polymerase would bind preferentially to the promoter of the long allele of the SERT gene?

I'm trying to come up with an idea for a school project (a hypothetical research study). I'm looking at depression and the serotonin transporter gene, which is highly expressed in the human ...
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1answer
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What is meant by “neurotransmitters flooding the brain”?

I frequently hear expressions like "Dopamine flooding the brain" or "X neurotransmitter flooding the brain" used to communicate with general audiences. For example: "Following [orgasm]? oxytocin ...
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How does the brain know where a signal came from? What is the addressing system

I am an electronic engineer so I am thinking about this from an electronics outlook. How does the addressing system work, As I see it, the nervous system is small parallel branches attached to larger ...
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Do humans have a “dominant” neurotransmitter system/sensitivity within their brain?

I've recently heard a podcast, in which Dr. Helen Fisher suggests that there are "4 broad personality types", and each one is associated with a particular neurotransmitter: The corresponding ...
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What is the physiological difference between snorting/swallowing cocaine

I know that mucosa inside the nose absorbs cocaine molecules when snorting cocaine, but what difference is there compared to swallowing? Also more cocaine administration equals more cocaine molecules ...
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Mechanical cause of loss of consciousness

Consciousness is an electrical and chemical interaction in the brain, caused by neurons firing and chemical interactions. How does a mechanical "force" cause this to stop working? i.e. How does a ...
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1answer
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Molecular cause of cramps, spasms and strengthening in muscles? (incl. intro to muscle contraction)

When motor neurons are stimulated to trigger an action potential, this potential propagates down the spine, eventually reaching a neuromuscular junction, causing the release of acetylcholine (ACh). ...
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1answer
882 views

How do muscle relaxants work?

Do they act directly on the muscle and actually relax muscle tissue and ease spasms, or do they just prevent your brain from receiving signals that inform you of tight muscles? In the latter case, ...
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2answers
463 views

Inverse of dopamine reuptake inhibitor?

The wikipedia article on the dopamine transporter gives examples of some drugs whose effects are mediated by the inhibition of the dopamine transporter, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Are there ...
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2answers
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Physiological indicators of happiness and well being

If I understand it correctly, levels of serotonin in the brain can indicate if a person is happy. What other physiological measures indicate happiness or well being for a humans? I am looking for ...
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Are there any neurotransmitters that trigger all neurons?

I'm reading into the basics of the nervous system, and am intrigued by neurotransmitters. I understand that certain neurotransmitters can trigger more than one neuron type, and may be used as ...