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Questions tagged [neurotransmitter]

Small molecules involved in the propagation of a nerve signal across the synapses.

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15 votes
4 answers
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Is there a correlation between total neurons and intelligence?

Thanks for looking. First off, I am not a biologist, just a curious layman, so I apologize in advance if this isn't a "good" question. Please don't downvote me into oblivion. I read today ...
Matt Cashatt's user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
12k views

Why do Hot/Cold drinks taste sweeter once returning to room temperature?

Now, I know this is a very bizarre question, and I tried to find a correct exchange for this, but it might relate to biology/science as it being our taste buds and everything. I am so sorry if there ...
sparcut's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
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Why do antidepressants have a delayed onset of action?

Why do antidepressants take so long to reach efficacy? I've read of theories about it perhaps being due to the strength of negative feedback via serotonergic and adrenergic autoreceptors during the ...
Josh Pinto's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
518 views

Do mammals develop tolerance to anticholinergics?

I know that first generation H1 antagonists, commonly known as antihistamines have anticholinergic effects. Their sedative side effects go away due to tolerance, but as for their anticholinergic side ...
Josh Pinto's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
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Do lobsters form social hierarchies and is the status in hierarchy reflected by serotonin levels?

In his book 12 rules for life Jordan Peterson claims that: Consider serotonin, the chemical that governs posture and escape in the lobster. Low- ranking lobsters produce comparatively low levels of ...
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
389 views

Understanding the brain: how are neurotransmitters released in the brain?

I have a basic knowledge of how neural networks work. A potential difference is created that forces sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium ions to flow which carries an electrical signal to the end ...
Dirac's user avatar
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9 votes
4 answers
758 views

Why has evolution made neurons use spiking?

I'm going to be forward and say that I'm not a biologist. I don't claim to fully understand the functionality of a neuron from an electrical/chemical perspective... I'm curiously gazing from the ...
TND's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
3k views

How does the brain know where a signal came from? What is the addressing system

I am an electronic engineer so I am thinking about this from an electronics outlook. How does the addressing system work, As I see it, the nervous system is small parallel branches attached to larger ...
Shasam's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
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Is NMDA produced in the body?

On the wiki page for NMDA it says that NMDA is a synthetic substance that mimics glutamate. So why does the body not use glutamate instead of NMDA? Also how is it possible that our body can produce ...
user3665690's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
2k views

Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named ...
yathish's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
137 views

How long does a spiking signal last?

It is surprisingly hard to find information about the timing of neurons, in particular how long an action potential can contribute to the summation of a neuron. Is it on the order of milliseconds or ...
Lenar Hoyt's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
564 views

What stimulates a nociceptor?

For instance, when pressure is applied to the skin, what determines how much pressure results in nociceptor stimulation. And when a sharp object pierces the skin, why is pain, rather than simply touch,...
Meep's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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What is meant by "neurotransmitters flooding the brain"?

I frequently hear expressions like "Dopamine flooding the brain" or "X neurotransmitter flooding the brain" used to communicate with general audiences. For example: "Following [orgasm]? oxytocin ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
113 views

Are all Autoreceptors Downregulated by their Respective Endogenous Ligands?

I know that the 5-HT1A and $\alpha$2 adrenoreceptors receptors serve as autoreceptors for serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine respectively and are down-regulated by repeat exposure to their respective ...
Josh Pinto's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
721 views

Can acetylcholine leak away from the synapse and cause spasms?

I am currently studying Pharmacology and a question came to mind. We know that Acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter in the neuromuscular junction, both Sympathetic as Parasympathetic, but as I ...
Mateus Gutemberg's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
163 views

What controls gut motility?

I have two different papers. One claims that gut motility is reduced by stimulation of the Opioid κ and δ receptors. The receptors are activated by Morphine and certain derivatives, specifically ...
DcShank's user avatar
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6 votes
4 answers
573 views

Hebbian theory "fire together" clarification

Donald Hebb states it as follows: "Let us assume that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its stability.… ...
kalfasyan's user avatar
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2 answers
317 views

Neurons: how does the brain reduce electromagnetic interference?

I read that the frequency of signal over neural ion channels in the brain can range from .19 Hz - 30 Hz at low voltage. For an interference example, AC electricity is 60 Hz at high voltage and ...
Nick's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
192 views

Can light function as a neurotransmitter?

Any animal with an eye has photoreceptors, which are essentially light-sensitive neurons. Green algae have channelrhodopsin, which are ion channels that open and close in response to light. Clearly, ...
StarlightDown's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
38k views

Calcium levels and nerve hyperexcitation

Why does lower blood calcium levels (or lower calcium levels in ECF) cause nervous hyperexcitaton? Why does it cause over stimulation of nerves and muscles and spasmic contractions of muscles? This is ...
user4059's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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What happens if nerve impulses go the wrong way?

So in nerve impulses, I get that the refractory period is important because it stops the action potentials going the wrong way along the axon. I have two questions: What would the impact be of the ...
emilysmith268's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
586 views

Dopamine and other neurotransmitter release during music listening

I'm looking for any studies that show a positive curve in respects to music sessions in humans and neurotransmitter release (specifically dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin.) Any direct links would ...
Macedon93's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
603 views

Can dopamine antagonists be used as dopamine upregulation?

Can dopamine antagonists such as Thorazine that are used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar be used to upregulate dopamine in the long term in healthy (non schizophrenic or bipolar) users to get a ...
kirill2485's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
104 views

How do anticholinesterase pesticides kill nematodes?

Compounds that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase are commonly used as pesticides. In animals with centralized respiratory systems controlled by the nervous system, poisoning with an ...
user73910's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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What is the definition of an opioid, beyond that it's something that stimulates opioid receptors?

At first glance, this looks like a circular definition. Is there some way to definitively determine if a given molecule is or is not an opioid? (Medically or scientifically, not legally). I'm ...
uhoh's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Why do classic psychedelics not cause withdrawal, despite high tolerance?

"Classical" psychedelics, such as LSD, DMT, and Mescaline, are serotonin agonists that cause hallucinogenic effects. They are notorious for having rapid tolerance, such that after consuming such ...
Daniel Grover's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
227 views

Do presynaptic neurons and postsynaptic neurons have different compositions of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters?

For example if certain neurotransmitter is released, will there be neurons that won’t be even potentially affected, because it doesn’t have such type receptors?
Vy.Iv's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
815 views

Could an action potential produce few or more neurotransmitters based on the stimulus received?

I reckon that if you would be able to widen the AP width, it would produce more neurotransmitters in that larger time interval. Is that correct? Or does the neuron have a standard amount of ...
kalfasyan's user avatar
  • 385
4 votes
3 answers
1k views

Mechanical cause of loss of consciousness

Consciousness is an electrical and chemical interaction in the brain, caused by neurons firing and chemical interactions. How does a mechanical "force" cause this to stop working? i.e. How does a ...
Laurence's user avatar
  • 115
4 votes
4 answers
9k views

Are neural connections one-way?

I'm trying to think about how two neurons communicate, typically shown in pictures as an electric pulse traveling along a long, thin connective tissue. Is this depiction somewhat accurate, and if so, ...
J.Todd's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
153 views

Oscillatory electrical system using a chain of neurons

Many daily activities that we perform are result of inbuilt oscillatory circuits in our body. For example walking, breathing, heart beat, blinking, etc. The coding and decoding of stored memory also ...
9Heads's user avatar
  • 249
4 votes
2 answers
641 views

Do humans have a "dominant" neurotransmitter system/sensitivity within their brain?

I've recently heard a podcast, in which Dr. Helen Fisher suggests that there are "4 broad personality types", and each one is associated with a particular neurotransmitter: The ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
  • 6,515
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

What happens in the synapse when cocaine administration occurs in the human brain

As far as i know when you accept cocaine in your blood some cocaine molecules reach some synapses in your brain and fill some Reuptake tunnels preventing the cell to simply "do not know that fired ...
Flux's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
528 views

Why does excess dopamine activity in the pleasure centers results in less pleasure in schizophrenics?

According to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is an excess of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens), and this contributes to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. I ...
soeci92's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
774 views

What would happen if brain neurons did not reduce their sensitivity to neurotransmitters after prolonged exposure?

From my understanding, neurons decrease their sensitivity to neurotransmitters by reducing the amount of receptors on the cell membrane in response to sustained neurotransmitter activity. One ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
  • 6,515
4 votes
1 answer
259 views

Are serotonin levels in humans affected by light?

I'm reading this Wikipedia article on light therapy and noticed a peculiar statement: The production of the hormone melatonin, a sleep regulator, is inhibited by light and permitted by darkness ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
  • 6,515
4 votes
0 answers
58 views

Does Doxylamine have any Influence on the Monoaminergic System?

Does doxylamine have any affects on the monoaminergic system? Specifically I am interested in adrenergic or serotonergic activity but additional information on its dopaminergic activity won't hurt ...
Josh Pinto's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
3k views

Is there such thing as "half-life" of dopamine?

If a dopamine is released at T=0 and binds to receptor D2, what determines the time when the concentration of this neurotransmitter bound to the receptor reaches half of the original concentration? In ...
Alex Stone's user avatar
  • 6,515
3 votes
2 answers
991 views

What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
EMMs2008's user avatar
  • 265
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

What material fills the synaptic cleft? Is it water?

The synaptic cleft is the gap between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons, and neurotransmitters are transferred between the neurons within this region. What substance exits in this space, is ...
Alex L's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
2 answers
926 views

Can dietary monosodium glutamate intake induce restlestness?

The question is all in the title. More context: I like phở soup. I have noticed that I get restless after eating the phở soup at some restaurants. The effects are similar to the ones resulting from ...
Erwan Legrand's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
528 views

Is the ACh receptor more permeable to sodium ions?

The AChR is permeable to sodium and potassium ions only and has a reversal potential of 0mV. However the Nernst potentials for sodium and potassium ions is ~ +60mV and -88mV respectively. Taking a ...
ogu01's user avatar
  • 93
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

What are the physiological roles of Hydrogen sulfide?

I am thinking why hydrogen sulfide has its effects in the body. For instance, it is one Salmonella's virulence factor. I am not sure if such a balance equations holds H2O + H2S ←→ ... Actually, I ...
Léo Léopold Hertz 준영's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
973 views

Is there a difference between human neuron cells compared to those of other animals?

Thanks for looking. Firstly, I am nowhere near biologist, just a student, so my apologies if this isn't a "good" question. Background: So I was searching about intelligence, brains and ...
Zombie Chibi XD's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
742 views

İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
user57928's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
91 views

Confusion about the construction of the rat's mental map

I'm reading the article "A Topological Paradigm for Hippocampal Spatial Map Formation Using Persistent Homology" by Y. Dabaghian, F. Mémoli, L. Frank, G. Carlsson I try to understand the following ...
palio's user avatar
  • 155
3 votes
1 answer
187 views

Does GABA help or hinder anxiety?

This article https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/smartphone-addiction-creates-imbalance-in-brain-300558945.html Says both The researchers performed MRS exams on the addicted youth prior to ...
Chloe's user avatar
  • 133
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

What is a starter cell?

I am reading the paper Cooperative Subnetworks of Molecularly Similar Interneurons in Mouse Neocortex and a term "starter cell" apears there (page 6): This yielded tissue sections where SOM or ...
user135172's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
164 views

Neuroscience behind the crash

After experiencing things like stress, intense exercise, or using drugs such as caffeine and amphetamine, subjects often assume a depressive and lethargic state afterwards, known as a "crash." What is ...
SorcererofDM's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
918 views

How do muscle relaxants work?

Do they act directly on the muscle and actually relax muscle tissue and ease spasms, or do they just prevent your brain from receiving signals that inform you of tight muscles? In the latter case, ...
Emi Matro's user avatar
  • 215