Questions tagged [pathology]

The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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1answer
32 views

Is there any biosafety level scale for plant pathogens?

Biosafety levels commonly defined on basis of human/animal pathogens, but what would be the biosafety levels for plant pathogens?
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8 views

Can PGPM include pathogenic growth promoters?

I am extremely confused with definition of P.G.P.M. (plant growth promoting microbes/microbiota)such as P.G.P.F (plant growth promoting fungi) and P.G.P.B. (plant growth promoting bacteria). In many ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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1answer
41 views

Why does bed bugs not carry disease?

Whenever I look up this topic, all I get is articles that say "Bed bugs don't carry disease...", but they never explain why? Is it something in their saliva that kills microbes? Something in their ...
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Why there are lipofuscin pigments in atrophic cell

I think in atrophy there is increase in degradation of intracellular organelle remnant, however I don't know why.
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2answers
139 views

Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains?

Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains? Notes: Here's a photo of what a normal fruit on the tree looks like. Location is Zone 5, east of Toronto. There are about 20 other fruits on the ...
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18 views

Do tendons thickened due to a tendon injury/pathology have the same strength as “normal” tendons?

I read in this 2015 study {1}: This study is the first to show that pathological tendons have sufficient levels of aligned fibrillar structure. Pathological tendons may compensate for areas of ...
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2answers
31 views

Does loss of dopaminergic neurons totally eliminate voluntary muscular control?

Breathing is a function that is not only autonomic, but can also be temporarily overridden and placed under voluntary control. In fact, you are now breathing manually. Now, suppose that someone has ...
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1answer
64 views

Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

Can a pathogenic organism be totally resistant to the human immune system? For the purpose of this question, the organism in question must cause a disease. Examples of organisms that would qualify as ...
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1answer
33 views

Growth on raspberry cane: What is it?

I have raspberries growing in my garden. One of the raspberry canes has some sort of growth on it. Size: Approximately 2 inches long Location: Zone 5; east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Date: April 4, ...
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1answer
117 views

Why do bulls-eye rashes look like they do?

People infected with Lyme Disease often present with an erythema migrans ("migrating redness") rash. Most often, these rashes are in the shape of a bulls-eye. Rash image. Presumably, this is a ...
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27 views

What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Is autoimmune disease associated with self-reactive B cells?

I'm a bit of an amateur, so excuse what may be a very naive question, but I somewhat understand how B cells that are self-reactive (bind to endogenous epitopes) are selected out during development. I ...
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1answer
77 views

How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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1answer
68 views

Alcohol effect on heart and vascular system

How does alcohol weaken heart muscles and why does it increase blood pressure both temporarily and long term? Is the long term effect due to increase of plaque or is it due to other effects?
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26 views

Does cataract condition cause red film when sun is shining?

Since two years ago I have a red film in my field of vision when the sunlight (or a white spot) is at the border (or even lightly behind) of the vision field, the red color is especially obvious at ...
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32 views

Can organ-accumulated iron get shed again?

Hemochromatosis can lead to an accumulation of iron in some organs. If the accumulated amount is not too high, will it go down again upon correction of blood iron levels?
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44 views

Open database of whole slide digital pathology images

I am looking for sequential image sections (stacks) of biological structures (such as liver, kidneys etc.) that I can download and use. Most of the pathology images I have found are either one image ...
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Muscular tetany and hypocalacemia

Decreased serum calcium level leads to increased excitability of neuron and at same time decreases the contractibilityof the muscle fibres.But still its causing tetany.Wouldn't these two counteract to ...
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0answers
80 views

How does alcohol interact with sympathomimetics to affect the cardiovascular system?

There is a fair amount of information on the cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and of sympathomimetics. How do they work? And how do their mechanisms interact? We know that similar pathologies ...
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2answers
65 views

Why don't people seem to die from salmonella in bites?

As far as I know, reptiles have salmonella in their mouths as part of their digestive process. Every time I hear about someone being bitten by an python or alligator or monitor either at a zoo or in ...
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1answer
46 views

Can endemic diseases be acute?

Diseases can be classified as :endemic ,or pandemic,...etc. An endemic disease is an infectious disease which is generally or constantly found among people in a particular area. Disease conditions ...
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1answer
19 views

Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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1answer
81 views

Why does arterial emboli flow in retrograde manner?

In artery blood flows with a pressure. When part of thrombus detaches it should flow along with the flow but it flows is retrograde manner.
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2answers
225 views

Red neurons - Acute neuronal injury

“Red neurons” are evident by about 12 to 24 hours after an irreversible hypoxic/ ischemic insult. The morphologic features consist of shrinkage of the cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, disappearance ...
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Acute calculous cholecystitis

The action of mucosal phospholipases hydrolyzes luminal lecithins to toxic lysolecithins. The normally protective glycoprotein mucus layer is disrupted, exposing the mucosal epithelium to the direct ...
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2answers
206 views

Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
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1answer
608 views

Is there a correlation between B12 deficiency and cardiovascular disease?

I've read in several health sites that state that high blood homocysteine, as well as low B12 intake, is not only correlated, but actually causes cardiovascular diseases. In order to verify those ...
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1answer
42 views

How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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1answer
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HLA typing between siblings to identify a genetic disorder

If a patient suffering from a complex array of signs and symptoms for a disease and is having an 8/8 loci match with his sister who suffers no such symptoms can you conclude that the disease is an X-...
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1answer
123 views

Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
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1answer
161 views

Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
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1answer
79 views

What is going on with these buccal epithelial cells?

A pooled saliva sample from a 70 year old male. What is happening with these cells? Are these cells undergoing normal apoptosis? In the video, the cytoplasmic movement looks liquefied and jelly-...
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1answer
78 views

Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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5answers
730 views

How does evolution eliminate problems that only cause diseases late in life?

Humans are vulnerable to heart attacks and strokes. Our modern diet leads to atherosclerosis, this already starts at a young age but it doesn't cause symptoms until an important artery is almost ...
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158 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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1answer
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Why do you get prion diseases from eating animal brains but not other parts of the animal?

Eating animal brains is considered a delicacy in parts of China. We know that eating animal brains can lead to prion related diseases. Prions are misfolded proteins that are potentially infectious. ...
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1answer
274 views

Can one type of bacteria cause several diseases? [closed]

If yes. Does it change its shape in every disease, or does it remain in the same shape and cause several diseases?
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1answer
293 views

What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
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2answers
365 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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3answers
197 views

In humans, are diseases inevitable during old age?

Considering that dying "from old age" actually means that one dies from an illness related with aging, is it inevitable to eventually acquire diseases in old age?
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1answer
107 views

Are all diseases caused by organisms (microorganisms)? [closed]

Are there other causes? Or is it correct to say that all diseases are in fact caused by organisms (microorganisms)?
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25 views

What does “optimal balance of biological control” mean in nematodes?

I have been reading several articles on nematode life-history for my insects class. Several articles say that Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) are the only nematodes possessing an "optimal balance of ...
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Why is there a low rate of kidney disease related deaths in the Baltic countries?

A noticeable feature of the map of kidney disease related deaths is that the Baltic countries, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, etc have lower rates: Why is this?
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1answer
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Sickle cell life span

How long do sickle red blood cells "live" before being broken down in phagocytosis? I had trouble doing a normal search as it brings up life span of those inflicted with the disease. Also, I have ...
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1answer
59 views

Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
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1answer
43 views

New infectious diseases appear mainly as a result of chance mutations in pathogen genomes?

I am reading the book 'Homo Deus: A breief History of Humankid' by Harari. He mentions the following statement highlighted in the picture below (picture provided for context). I would be appreciated ...
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0answers
22 views

What is difference between the malaria (cross) types?

When the doctor does the diagnose she says "you have malaria. 2 crosses". Now, I've heard those crosses go from 1 to 5, and historically I've had from 1 to 4, but I wonder: what is the difference ...
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1answer
34 views

Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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1answer
957 views

Why is liquefactive necrosis only seen in brain?

Liquefactive necrosis is a type of necrosis uniquely observed in brain. This occurs due to breakdown of cellular proteins by the action of hydrolytic enzymes. In other parts of the body, usually a ...