Questions tagged [pathology]

The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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What would it take for the cordyceps fungi to successfully infect a human and produce the same results as it does in insects

I know that as of now cordyceps are unable to infect humans due to our immune systems being much too strong to be overcome by it. But how much genetic difference separates a parasite that doesn't ...
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Why do diseases in the tap water of developing countries affect people from developed countries more?

My siblings and I went abroad to a country that doesn't have drinkable tap water, but we did not know this at the time as the people who lived there used to drink it all the time with no issues. One ...
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Specific mechanism behind lethality of yellow coat color in mice

Our high school genetics chapter has some extra information about L.Cuenot. It only covered his research, and the fact that mice homozygous for yellow coat color would die before birth. It was an ...
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Cytology urine samples

Should we centrifuge clear urines first and then cytocentrifuge or just directly cytocentrifuge? This is done in CYTOLOGY.Should we centrifuge clear uruines first and then cytocentrifuge or just ...
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Are there any examples of viruses that have jumped from reptile to human?

I know that there are plenty of examples of zoonosis occurring from reptiles to humans that involve bacterial pathogens, (e.g. Salmonella) but are there any instances of viruses being transferred from ...
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Converting from RU/ML to AEU/ML

I'd like to know whether it is possible to convert from RU/ml to AEU/ml. I work in the ELISA department in our laboratory. We need to validate some kits by comparing results between our lab and ...
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Does anybody have an references to share or idea onhow the tumor behaviour changes as it grows from oligometastasis to polymetastasis?

I have looked at the literature and mostly scientist discuss about how a metastatic lesion is formed. But what I am interested to learn is how does a new metastatic lesion develop when there is ...
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With the 5$ covid19 test - an antigen test - , would trials (most likely) be independent?

Actual question What would typically cause antigen tests to give a false positive or false negative and would these causes be typically independent (if we run the test twice it won't automatically ...
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Can birds pass diseases to humans through contact surfaces?

My friend asked me the following question. She has a pigeon nesting on her window and the pigeon often touches the window, and my friend also sometimes touches the window (e.g. open and close it). The ...
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Topography of motor deficit and spasticity in UMNS

As a medical student, I have been told that upper motor neurone syndrome is a cause of motor deficit and spasticity. The motor deficit is said to be affecting predominantly the extensor apparatus at ...
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Are “tremors” and “ tetanic contractions” the same thing?

Do these two expressions have the same meaning? 1- Tetanic contractions in the skeletal muscles 2- Rythmic shaking of the hands (These two expressions are supposed to be two symptoms of Parkinson’s ...
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If Covid antibodies disappear after 2-3 months, will a vaccine still be effective?

It looks like there have been studies in China and also in Spain that suggest antibodies don't last very long or could disappear after some time. What does this mean for the effectiveness of a ...
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Could there be a pathogen which does not activate an immune response?

In order for the immune system to be stimulated to produce antibodies, there must be a surface protein of the invading pathogen which binds to a receptor on B cell surface somewhat loosely. We need ...
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Why is Incontinentia Pigmenti lethal?

I recently read that the X-linked dominant disorder incontinentia pigmenti is lethal in males and homozygous females. Why is it so? Is there any other effect of this disorder on the body, other than ...
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A disease which is characterised by polycythemia and thrombocytopenia at the same time

I've read that polycythemia vera is associated with increased levels of RBC, WBC and/or platelets, but is there a disease associated with high levels of RBC and low levels of platelets?
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How can I obtain a uniform bacterial sample?

I'm currently doing a research project wherein I will be testing the antibiotic resistance of a bacterial sample. Due to a risk of contamination during transport, I'm not allowed to request a uniform ...
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How is minimum infectious dose defined?

I'm a bit confused by the concept of a minimum infectious dose (MID). It seems from what my research so far has turned up, that while any dose greater than 0 could potentially cause an infection, for ...
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Why are men more susceptible to severe COVID-19?

It seems that globally, men are more susceptible to severe COVID-19 than women: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/men-are-much-more-likely-to-die-from-coronavirus-but-why This is seen in ...
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How can poliovirus and other pathogens lead to permanent conditions if the bodies adaptive immune system is still functioning? [closed]

Wont the lymphatic system eventually create antibodies that completely eliminate the virus in the body?
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What is the cause of a protuberant belly in kwashiorkor?

Kwashiorkor is a PEM characterised usually by a pot belly. Of course, the obvious question, why is there a pot belly in the case of a malnutrition? I had been searching the cause of this for a while ...
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What is the principle behind Microagglutination test (MAT)?

Could some one please help me understand the principle behind the MAT. Also, is it only used to detect leptospira or can it be used to detect other pathogens as well? Kindly share links to papers if ...
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Edema and hydrostatic pressure

I'm currently studying Robbins basic pathology, and I'm confused about a specific statement: It states in the book that when hydrostatic pressure is low due to a lack of albumin synthesis, it leads ...
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How a pathologist would analyse this H&E image?

I am working on a project which involves writing computer software to analyse histological images. A typical image looks like this: It is a Hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy of breast cancer ...
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In pathology, what does “cystic degeneration” mean?

I've seen this term used in the context of many diseases but I haven't found any place that explains what it means. The only thing I got was "Degeneration forming a cyst". I want to know what this ...
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Can far-UVC light be safely used as germicide? (help understanding a paper)

I've been trying to familiarize myself with the literature on far UVC light as a germicide. My question mostly pertains to figure 4 of this paper. The paper investigates the efficacy of 207 nm light ...
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What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
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Are there any diseases that can harm and kill flies and mosquitoes? [closed]

For decades I have heard about how flies and mosquitoes carry diseases around and infect humans and indirectly kill them in mass numbers. Somehow these diseases do not appear to harm these insects, I ...
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855 views

Is COVID-19 claimed to get less deadly over time? If so, why?

From a TV news report of a press conference from (I think) the German Robert Koch Institute, I remember hearing an expert declare that he was expecting COVID-19 to get less deadly over time. ...
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203 views

how the coronavirus was distinguished?

I have read a lot about the outbreak of the coronavirus, I know that in january scientists had already sequenced the viral genome. How was the virus identified prior to the sequencing Given that ...
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Is there any disease in common between human and insects?

I am not asking about disease transferred by insects. I am wondering is there any disease that commonly make both human and insects sick?
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Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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Why is centriacinar emphysema more common in the upper lobes compared to the lower lobes?

I suspect it's because the upper lobes get less ventilated (the volume of their alveoli change less during respiration, and they receive less new air with each breath) compared to the lower lobes, and ...
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Way to analyze the functional relevance of human mutation in vivo

In the literature I „found“ a pointmutation in the protein coding sequence of an enzyme subunit to be a risk factor for a certain disease. It is not known whether the mutation leads to loss or gain ...
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3answers
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Are there any proteins not found in the brain that are affected by prions?

A prion is an abnormally folded protein that is capable of causing otherwise normal proteins to also misfold and become prions. They are responsible for causing diseases such as Kuru and Creutzfeldt–...
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Is there a minimum load below which an infectious agent will not cause disease?

Suppose a single smallpox virus is injected in an human adult's body. Will it cause disease in the host? Is there a minimum microbial load below which it will not cause disease?
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What disease does Saccharopolyspora erythraea cause?

For an examination assignment I have to find a disease caused by the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora erythraea, but I have searched the internet and have found no report of patients being infected ...
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Species specific White Blood Cells (WBC) composition

In our ongoing immunology undergrad course I learnt that neutrophil primarily fights off bacterial infection and lymphocyte is produced in response to viral infection. I also learnt that neutrophil ...
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Is there any biosafety level scale for plant pathogens?

Biosafety levels commonly defined on basis of human/animal pathogens, but what would be the biosafety levels for plant pathogens?
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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1answer
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Why does bed bugs not carry disease?

Whenever I look up this topic, all I get is articles that say "Bed bugs don't carry disease...", but they never explain why? Is it something in their saliva that kills microbes? Something in their ...
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Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains?

Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains? Notes: Here's a photo of what a normal fruit on the tree looks like. Location is Zone 5, east of Toronto. There are about 20 other fruits on the ...
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Does loss of dopaminergic neurons totally eliminate voluntary muscular control?

Breathing is a function that is not only autonomic, but can also be temporarily overridden and placed under voluntary control. In fact, you are now breathing manually. Now, suppose that someone has ...
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Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

Can a pathogenic organism be totally resistant to the human immune system? For the purpose of this question, the organism in question must cause a disease. Examples of organisms that would qualify as ...
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Growth on raspberry cane: What is it?

I have raspberries growing in my garden. One of the raspberry canes has some sort of growth on it. Size: Approximately 2 inches long Location: Zone 5; east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Date: April 4, ...
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Why do bulls-eye rashes look like they do?

People infected with Lyme Disease often present with an erythema migrans ("migrating redness") rash. Most often, these rashes are in the shape of a bulls-eye. Rash image. Presumably, this is a ...
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What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Is autoimmune disease associated with self-reactive B cells?

I'm a bit of an amateur, so excuse what may be a very naive question, but I somewhat understand how B cells that are self-reactive (bind to endogenous epitopes) are selected out during development. I ...
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How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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Alcohol effect on heart and vascular system

How does alcohol weaken heart muscles and why does it increase blood pressure both temporarily and long term? Is the long term effect due to increase of plaque or is it due to other effects?
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Does cataract condition cause red film when sun is shining?

Since two years ago I have a red film in my field of vision when the sunlight (or a white spot) is at the border (or even lightly behind) of the vision field, the red color is especially obvious at ...

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