Questions tagged [pathology]

The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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Intermediate species and the virus

Deforestation and extinction of species caused by man, is it related to vulnerable to thousands of microorganisms? https://rainforests.mongabay.com/09-consequences-of-deforestation.html "The ...
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Longevity and extent of transfection after SARS-COV-2 vaccination with Janssen

The Johnson vaccine, unlike the RNA vaccines from Pfizer & Moderna, uses a vector containing DNA encoding for the SARS-COV-2 spike protein. This vector DNA needs to enter the cell, allowing for ...
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Pathological mechanisms in asthma

What is known about the precise molecular mechanisms involved in asthma? For instance, is it known why the bronchi tissue alteration cannot be reversed? Were any new mechanisms discovered in the ...
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Why there aren't any pandemic diseases by prions?

Learning biology in school, I became interested in the fact that there aren't any diseases by prions which are globally infectious (as far as I know), unlike diseases by viruses (ex. COVID-19, SARS ...
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Is it possible to use PCR to test for Machado-Joseph disease?

Machado–Joseph disease (MJD) is a rare inherited neuromuscular disease that is caused by a mutation in the gene ATXN3. The protein encoded by this gene contains "CAG" repeats in the coding ...
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Does the false positive covid-19 PCR % referred to by Surkova & Nikolayevskyy in The Lancet mean % of all tests, or % of positive tests?

In False-positive COVID-19 results: hidden problems and costs it is said: The current rate of operational false-positive swab tests in the UK is unknown; preliminary estimates show it could be ...
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How are vaccines mass-produced?

I have a background in product design and so am familiar with with how most things are mass-produced — food, machines, etc. But I've been able to find very little information on how vaccines are mass-...
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Can you recognize this larvae that came from a human nose? (probable nasal myiasis?

Those larvae came at least four different times from the nose (inside - from the mucosal) of a 60 year old man from a tropical area in South America. He lives and works in a city with a tropical ...
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In terms of Prions is there a possibility, that other proteins apart from PRPC could be misfolded [closed]

This is as from research PRPC seems to be the cause of all Prion related diseases. Thank you
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Is it possible for a prion to have a short incubation period ie 1 week or 1 month?

I know that all prions so far have long incubation periods but is there a possibility for one to have a short incubation period, is there any evidence that suggests this is possible. Thank you
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How good are the hematologic parameters (e,g, IL6 or others) in predicting which patients will develop a severe COVID-19 disease?

Clinical implications of the hematologic profile of COVID-19 patients including cytokine storm, coagulation profile and thrombophilic complications are starting to be recognized. Hypercoagulability ...
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Why does touch the face make more likely to be infected?

Why is it risky to touch the face although there is no direct contact with into the nose, eyes and mouth? Is there any possibility that pathogens infect us from our facial skin? Suppose we have ...
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Can an epidemic span multiple countries?

Can an epidemic centralised in one area be still considered an epidemic if it spans multiple countries? If so what is the limit to the number of countries a disease can infect in one region before it ...
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Why do diseases in the tap water of developing countries affect people from developed countries more?

My siblings and I went abroad to a country that doesn't have drinkable tap water, but we did not know this at the time as the people who lived there used to drink it all the time with no issues. One ...
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Specific mechanism behind lethality of yellow coat color in mice

Our high school genetics chapter has some extra information about L.Cuenot. It only covered his research, and the fact that mice homozygous for yellow coat color would die before birth. It was an ...
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Cytology urine samples

Should we centrifuge clear urines first and then cytocentrifuge or just directly cytocentrifuge? This is done in CYTOLOGY.Should we centrifuge clear uruines first and then cytocentrifuge or just ...
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Are there any examples of viruses that have jumped from reptile to human?

I know that there are plenty of examples of zoonosis occurring from reptiles to humans that involve bacterial pathogens, (e.g. Salmonella) but are there any instances of viruses being transferred from ...
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Converting from RU/ML to AEU/ML

I'd like to know whether it is possible to convert from RU/ml to AEU/ml. I work in the ELISA department in our laboratory. We need to validate some kits by comparing results between our lab and ...
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Does anybody have an references to share or idea onhow the tumor behaviour changes as it grows from oligometastasis to polymetastasis?

I have looked at the literature and mostly scientist discuss about how a metastatic lesion is formed. But what I am interested to learn is how does a new metastatic lesion develop when there is ...
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With the 5$ covid19 test - an antigen test - , would trials (most likely) be independent?

Actual question What would typically cause antigen tests to give a false positive or false negative and would these causes be typically independent (if we run the test twice it won't automatically ...
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Can birds pass diseases to humans through contact surfaces?

My friend asked me the following question. She has a pigeon nesting on her window and the pigeon often touches the window, and my friend also sometimes touches the window (e.g. open and close it). The ...
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Topography of motor deficit and spasticity in UMNS

As a medical student, I have been told that upper motor neurone syndrome is a cause of motor deficit and spasticity. The motor deficit is said to be affecting predominantly the extensor apparatus at ...
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Are “tremors” and “ tetanic contractions” the same thing?

Do these two expressions have the same meaning? 1- Tetanic contractions in the skeletal muscles 2- Rythmic shaking of the hands (These two expressions are supposed to be two symptoms of Parkinson’s ...
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If Covid antibodies disappear after 2-3 months, will a vaccine still be effective?

It looks like there have been studies in China and also in Spain that suggest antibodies don't last very long or could disappear after some time. What does this mean for the effectiveness of a ...
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Could there be a pathogen which does not activate an immune response?

In order for the immune system to be stimulated to produce antibodies, there must be a surface protein of the invading pathogen which binds to a receptor on B cell surface somewhat loosely. We need ...
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Why is Incontinentia Pigmenti lethal?

I recently read that the X-linked dominant disorder incontinentia pigmenti is lethal in males and homozygous females. Why is it so? Is there any other effect of this disorder on the body, other than ...
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How can I obtain a uniform bacterial sample?

I'm currently doing a research project wherein I will be testing the antibiotic resistance of a bacterial sample. Due to a risk of contamination during transport, I'm not allowed to request a uniform ...
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How is minimum infectious dose defined?

I'm a bit confused by the concept of a minimum infectious dose (MID). It seems from what my research so far has turned up, that while any dose greater than 0 could potentially cause an infection, for ...
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Why are men more susceptible to severe COVID-19?

It seems that globally, men are more susceptible to severe COVID-19 than women: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/men-are-much-more-likely-to-die-from-coronavirus-but-why This is seen in ...
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How can poliovirus and other pathogens lead to permanent conditions if the bodies adaptive immune system is still functioning? [closed]

Wont the lymphatic system eventually create antibodies that completely eliminate the virus in the body?
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What is the cause of a protuberant belly in kwashiorkor?

Kwashiorkor is a PEM (Protein–energy malnutrition) usually characterised by a pot belly. Why is there a pot belly in the case of a malnutrition? I have found contradictory reasons. This paper says ...
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173 views

What is the principle behind Microagglutination test (MAT)?

Could some one please help me understand the principle behind the MAT. Also, is it only used to detect leptospira or can it be used to detect other pathogens as well? Kindly share links to papers if ...
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Edema and hydrostatic pressure

I'm currently studying Robbins basic pathology, and I'm confused about a specific statement: It states in the book that when hydrostatic pressure is low due to a lack of albumin synthesis, it leads ...
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How a pathologist would analyse this H&E image?

I am working on a project which involves writing computer software to analyse histological images. A typical image looks like this: It is a Hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy of breast cancer ...
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Can far-UVC light be safely used as germicide? (help understanding a paper)

I've been trying to familiarize myself with the literature on far UVC light as a germicide. My question mostly pertains to figure 4 of this paper. The paper investigates the efficacy of 207 nm light ...
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What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
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Are there any diseases that can harm and kill flies and mosquitoes? [closed]

For decades I have heard about how flies and mosquitoes carry diseases around and infect humans and indirectly kill them in mass numbers. Somehow these diseases do not appear to harm these insects, I ...
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Is COVID-19 claimed to get less deadly over time? If so, why?

From a TV news report of a press conference from (I think) the German Robert Koch Institute, I remember hearing an expert declare that he was expecting COVID-19 to get less deadly over time. ...
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how the coronavirus was distinguished?

I have read a lot about the outbreak of the coronavirus, I know that in january scientists had already sequenced the viral genome. How was the virus identified prior to the sequencing Given that ...
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Is there any disease in common between human and insects?

I am not asking about disease transferred by insects. I am wondering is there any disease that commonly make both human and insects sick?
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Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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Why is centriacinar emphysema more common in the upper lobes compared to the lower lobes?

I suspect it's because the upper lobes get less ventilated (the volume of their alveoli change less during respiration, and they receive less new air with each breath) compared to the lower lobes, and ...
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Are there any proteins not found in the brain that are affected by prions?

A prion is an abnormally folded protein that is capable of causing otherwise normal proteins to also misfold and become prions. They are responsible for causing diseases such as Kuru and Creutzfeldt–...
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Is there a minimum load below which an infectious agent will not cause disease?

Suppose a single smallpox virus is injected in an human adult's body. Will it cause disease in the host? Is there a minimum microbial load below which it will not cause disease?
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What disease does Saccharopolyspora erythraea cause?

For an examination assignment I have to find a disease caused by the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora erythraea, but I have searched the internet and have found no report of patients being infected ...
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Species specific White Blood Cells (WBC) composition

In our ongoing immunology undergrad course I learnt that neutrophil primarily fights off bacterial infection and lymphocyte is produced in response to viral infection. I also learnt that neutrophil ...
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176 views

Is there any biosafety level scale for plant pathogens?

Biosafety levels commonly defined on basis of human/animal pathogens, but what would be the biosafety levels for plant pathogens?
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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Why does bed bugs not carry disease?

Whenever I look up this topic, all I get is articles that say "Bed bugs don't carry disease...", but they never explain why? Is it something in their saliva that kills microbes? Something in their ...
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Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains?

Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains? Notes: Here's a photo of what a normal fruit on the tree looks like. Location is Zone 5, east of Toronto. There are about 20 other fruits on the ...

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