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Questions tagged [pathology]

The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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Red neurons - Acute neuronal injury

“Red neurons” are evident by about 12 to 24 hours after an irreversible hypoxic/ ischemic insult. The morphologic features consist of shrinkage of the cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, disappearance ...
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Polycotyledonous seedlings and how these plants look like when they grow up

Occasionally, seeds I germinate may show three or even four cotyledons instead of the usual two (for the dicotyledonous clade). It is angiosperms I am talking about, and not gymnosperms which may ...
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30 views

What's this growing out of my squash?

This weird bubble filled with liquid was growing out of my butternut squash. Can anyone tell me what it is?
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36 views

Acute calculous cholecystitis

The action of mucosal phospholipases hydrolyzes luminal lecithins to toxic lysolecithins. The normally protective glycoprotein mucus layer is disrupted, exposing the mucosal epithelium to the direct ...
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2answers
122 views

Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
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What percentage of differentialy expressed genes associated with complex disease are located in the susceptibility region?

To uncover the mechanism of complex disease, GWAS and high-throughput gene expression analysis were performed. The former method will provide many disease-associated candidate sites on the genome, ...
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Why functional enzymes get denatured in coagulative necrosis?

In coagulative necrosis the architecture of dead tissues is preserved for at least some days. This is possibly due to denaturation of functional enzymes which causes cell lysis and therefore ...
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278 views

Is there a correlation between B12 deficiency and cardiovascular disease?

I've read in several health sites that state that high blood homocysteine, as well as low B12 intake, is not only correlated, but actually causes cardiovascular diseases. In order to verify those ...
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29 views

How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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HLA typing between siblings to identify a genetic disorder

If a patient suffering from a complex array of signs and symptoms for a disease and is having an 8/8 loci match with his sister who suffers no such symptoms can you conclude that the disease is an X-...
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55 views

Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
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76 views

Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
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62 views

What is going on with these buccal epithelial cells?

A pooled saliva sample from a 70 year old male. What is happening with these cells? Are these cells undergoing normal apoptosis? In the video, the cytoplasmic movement looks liquefied and jelly-...
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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How does the formation of tissue fluid and swelling during inflammation protect animals against pathogens?

Histamines produced by mast cells during inflammation cause blood vessel dilation and increase the permeability of blood vessels, resulting in plasma being forced out of the blood vessels and ...
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Lifelong Immunity Question Regarding Erysipelas And Scarlet fever

So my question is after you carry on Scarlet fever you develop lifetime immunity. But with Erysipelas you might develop recurrence type. What is the mechanism behind it? Both diseases are caused by ...
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101 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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Why do you get prion diseases from eating animal brains but not other parts of the animal?

Eating animal brains is considered a delicacy in parts of China. We know that eating animal brains can lead to prion related diseases. Prions are misfolded proteins that are potentially infectious. ...
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127 views

Can one type of bacteria cause several diseases? [closed]

If yes. Does it change its shape in every disease, or does it remain in the same shape and cause several diseases?
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124 views

What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
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178 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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General yellow fever question

After you are recovered from yellow fever can you become susceptible again or are you immune for life? My thinking is that you can become susceptible again
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3answers
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In humans, are diseases inevitable during old age?

Considering that dying "from old age" actually means that one dies from an illness related with aging, is it inevitable to eventually acquire diseases in old age?
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Are all diseases caused by organisms (microorganisms)? [closed]

Are there other causes? Or is it correct to say that all diseases are in fact caused by organisms (microorganisms)?
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What does “optimal balance of biological control” mean in nematodes?

I have been reading several articles on nematode life-history for my insects class. Several articles say that Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) are the only nematodes possessing an "optimal balance of ...
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Why is there a low rate of kidney disease related deaths in the Baltic countries?

A noticeable feature of the map of kidney disease related deaths is that the Baltic countries, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, etc have lower rates: Why is this?
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ABO-antigen and winter vomiting disease

If the NON-SECRETOR phenotype of ABO-antigen is protective against winter vomiting disease, how come 80% of the European population and most of the population world-wide are SECRETORS?
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Sickle cell life span

How long do sickle red blood cells "live" before being broken down in phagocytosis? I had trouble doing a normal search as it brings up life span of those inflicted with the disease. Also, I have ...
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What is the biomass of bacteria in an infected human

I was reading this question about the biomass of human gut bacteria, and was wondering what the mass of pathogens responsible for a disease would be. I've been able to find information about the ...
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1answer
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Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
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Does anyone know of a table/matrix that shows me relationships between cancer types?

Does anyone know of a table that links different cancers/can visually show me through a table or network whether the incidence of one cancer affects the incidence of a second cancer? I imagine the ...
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44 views

What would possible dangers really be from encountering alien microbiology?

From what I understand, our biological "enemies" on Earth are specifically designed to target us due to an "evolutionary arms race." With a few exceptions like aids, bird flu, mad cow and diseases ...
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1answer
27 views

New infectious diseases appear mainly as a result of chance mutations in pathogen genomes?

I am reading the book 'Homo Deus: A breief History of Humankid' by Harari. He mentions the following statement highlighted in the picture below (picture provided for context). I would be appreciated ...
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9 views

Hepcidin-Iron Homeostasis

I learnt that mutation in HAMP Gene causes decrease in hepcidin that leads to iron over-absorption from intestine. In the absence of such mutation,i.e., a secondary iron overload such as in Post-...
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What is difference between the malaria (cross) types?

When the doctor does the diagnose she says "you have malaria. 2 crosses". Now, I've heard those crosses go from 1 to 5, and historically I've had from 1 to 4, but I wonder: what is the difference ...
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Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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619 views

Why is liquefactive necrosis only seen in brain?

Liquefactive necrosis is a type of necrosis uniquely observed in brain. This occurs due to breakdown of cellular proteins by the action of hydrolytic enzymes. In other parts of the body, usually a ...
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1answer
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AntiTrypsin Enzyme [closed]

In a smoking patient, is the lung over digested because of a combination of smoking and a defect in the antitrypsin gene (prevents digestion from protease)? Or does smoking act the same as a patient ...
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297 views

What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
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232 views

What counts as a 'breach of the skin' for infections(like rabies) that spread via wounds?

I've been looking at several sources on how the virus spreads and they all mention that the skin has to be broken, but does it mean broken to the naked eye? A minor scratch where the skin appears ...
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How the glycogen accumulate intracellularly in the reversible cell injury?

As we know in reversible cell injury as the most common cause is ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation which decrease ATP & increase anaerobic glycolysis which depleting glycogen !!? But ...
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288 views

Can a human actually be “frightened to death?”

I've been watching some classic horror movies as of late, and a trope I see in many of them is where a person will see the big bad monster and "die of fright." I'm curious, for the average person, ...
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Can cancers caused due to viruses be contagious?

Generally, viruses are infectious in nature and there are several cancer-causing viruses that are known (i.e. oncovirus) My question is: Are these oncoviruses infectious in nature? If so, what is the ...
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Is it inevitable that antibiotics will become useless in the future due to bacteria immunities?

Antibiotics are developed in an ever smaller amount due to the difficulties of discovering new ones. Bacteria, on the other hand, keep "finding" more ways to render antibiotics ineffective, and they ...
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If a ubiquitously ill species existed, would that more or less falsify evolution? [closed]

It is true that a lot of members of our, and most other species, suffer from cancer, but it is still not ubiquitous nor does it exist throughout the individual's life. If a species existed, in which ...
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346 views

Why does the rain increase our chances of catching a cold?

Why do I catch cold after getting drenched in the rain? I don't catch cold after taking shower. What special quality does rain water have which increases the chance of getting a cold?
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2answers
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Is diabetes (type 2) a genetic disease?

My friend's father has diabetes (who was diagnosed with diabetes long after my friend's birth). The doctor told the friend that he has more chances of getting diabetes than a normal person and he ...
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0answers
27 views

How can a waterborne disease be transmitted [closed]

If a disease is waterborne [as in it is based in the digestive tract], what ways can it be contracted other than the obvious drinking of infected water?
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2answers
473 views

Are all animal species prone to cannibalism induced prion infection?

Humans have the tendency to get certain prion diseases when eating human flesh. It's known animals can get prion diseases as well. Does cannibalism among other animal species also make them more ...
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211 views

What is “multiple” myeloma?

Multiple myeloma, commonly referred to as myeloma, is a cancer of the plasma cells found in the bone marrow.(source) Is there any significance in calling myeloma as "MULTIPLE" myeloma?