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Questions tagged [pathology]

The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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Is autoimmune disease associated with self-reactive B cells?

I'm a bit of an amateur, so excuse what may be a very naive question, but I somewhat understand how B cells that are self-reactive (bind to endogenous epitopes) are selected out during development. I ...
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1answer
58 views

How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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Alcohol effect on heart and vascular system

How does alcohol weaken heart muscles and why does it increase blood pressure both temporarily and long term? Is the long term effect due to increase of plaque or is it due to other effects?
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Does cataract condition cause red film when sun is shining?

Since two years ago I have a red film in my field of vision when the sunlight (or a white spot) is at the border (or even lightly behind) of the vision field, the red color is especially obvious at ...
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Can organ-accumulated iron get shed again?

Hemochromatosis can lead to an accumulation of iron in some organs. If the accumulated amount is not too high, will it go down again upon correction of blood iron levels?
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Open database of whole slide digital pathology images

I am looking for sequential image sections (stacks) of biological structures (such as liver, kidneys etc.) that I can download and use. Most of the pathology images I have found are either one image ...
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Muscular tetany and hypocalacemia

Decreased serum calcium level leads to increased excitability of neuron and at same time decreases the contractibilityof the muscle fibres.But still its causing tetany.Wouldn't these two counteract to ...
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28 views

How does alcohol interact with sympathomimetics to affect the cardiovascular system?

There is a fair amount of information on the cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and of sympathomimetics. How do they work? And how do their mechanisms interact? We know that similar pathologies ...
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57 views

Why don't people seem to die from salmonella in bites?

As far as I know, reptiles have salmonella in their mouths as part of their digestive process. Every time I hear about someone being bitten by an python or alligator or monitor either at a zoo or in ...
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Can endemic diseases be acute?

Diseases can be classified as :endemic ,or pandemic,...etc. An endemic disease is an infectious disease which is generally or constantly found among people in a particular area. Disease conditions ...
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1answer
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Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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1answer
42 views

Why does arterial emboli flow in retrograde manner?

In artery blood flows with a pressure. When part of thrombus detaches it should flow along with the flow but it flows is retrograde manner.
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Red neurons - Acute neuronal injury

“Red neurons” are evident by about 12 to 24 hours after an irreversible hypoxic/ ischemic insult. The morphologic features consist of shrinkage of the cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, disappearance ...
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Acute calculous cholecystitis

The action of mucosal phospholipases hydrolyzes luminal lecithins to toxic lysolecithins. The normally protective glycoprotein mucus layer is disrupted, exposing the mucosal epithelium to the direct ...
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2answers
147 views

Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
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1answer
431 views

Is there a correlation between B12 deficiency and cardiovascular disease?

I've read in several health sites that state that high blood homocysteine, as well as low B12 intake, is not only correlated, but actually causes cardiovascular diseases. In order to verify those ...
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1answer
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How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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1answer
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HLA typing between siblings to identify a genetic disorder

If a patient suffering from a complex array of signs and symptoms for a disease and is having an 8/8 loci match with his sister who suffers no such symptoms can you conclude that the disease is an X-...
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Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
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Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
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1answer
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What is going on with these buccal epithelial cells?

A pooled saliva sample from a 70 year old male. What is happening with these cells? Are these cells undergoing normal apoptosis? In the video, the cytoplasmic movement looks liquefied and jelly-...
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1answer
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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How does the formation of tissue fluid and swelling during inflammation protect animals against pathogens?

Histamines produced by mast cells during inflammation cause blood vessel dilation and increase the permeability of blood vessels, resulting in plasma being forced out of the blood vessels and ...
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5answers
435 views

How does evolution eliminate problems that only cause diseases late in life?

Humans are vulnerable to heart attacks and strokes. Our modern diet leads to atherosclerosis, this already starts at a young age but it doesn't cause symptoms until an important artery is almost ...
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Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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Why do you get prion diseases from eating animal brains but not other parts of the animal?

Eating animal brains is considered a delicacy in parts of China. We know that eating animal brains can lead to prion related diseases. Prions are misfolded proteins that are potentially infectious. ...
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167 views

Can one type of bacteria cause several diseases? [closed]

If yes. Does it change its shape in every disease, or does it remain in the same shape and cause several diseases?
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1answer
187 views

What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
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2answers
275 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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3answers
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In humans, are diseases inevitable during old age?

Considering that dying "from old age" actually means that one dies from an illness related with aging, is it inevitable to eventually acquire diseases in old age?
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Are all diseases caused by organisms (microorganisms)? [closed]

Are there other causes? Or is it correct to say that all diseases are in fact caused by organisms (microorganisms)?
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What does “optimal balance of biological control” mean in nematodes?

I have been reading several articles on nematode life-history for my insects class. Several articles say that Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) are the only nematodes possessing an "optimal balance of ...
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Why is there a low rate of kidney disease related deaths in the Baltic countries?

A noticeable feature of the map of kidney disease related deaths is that the Baltic countries, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, etc have lower rates: Why is this?
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ABO-antigen and winter vomiting disease

If the NON-SECRETOR phenotype of ABO-antigen is protective against winter vomiting disease, how come 80% of the European population and most of the population world-wide are SECRETORS?
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993 views

Sickle cell life span

How long do sickle red blood cells "live" before being broken down in phagocytosis? I had trouble doing a normal search as it brings up life span of those inflicted with the disease. Also, I have ...
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1answer
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Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
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What would possible dangers really be from encountering alien microbiology?

From what I understand, our biological "enemies" on Earth are specifically designed to target us due to an "evolutionary arms race." With a few exceptions like aids, bird flu, mad cow and diseases ...
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New infectious diseases appear mainly as a result of chance mutations in pathogen genomes?

I am reading the book 'Homo Deus: A breief History of Humankid' by Harari. He mentions the following statement highlighted in the picture below (picture provided for context). I would be appreciated ...
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What is difference between the malaria (cross) types?

When the doctor does the diagnose she says "you have malaria. 2 crosses". Now, I've heard those crosses go from 1 to 5, and historically I've had from 1 to 4, but I wonder: what is the difference ...
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Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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744 views

Why is liquefactive necrosis only seen in brain?

Liquefactive necrosis is a type of necrosis uniquely observed in brain. This occurs due to breakdown of cellular proteins by the action of hydrolytic enzymes. In other parts of the body, usually a ...
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1answer
31 views

AntiTrypsin Enzyme [closed]

In a smoking patient, is the lung over digested because of a combination of smoking and a defect in the antitrypsin gene (prevents digestion from protease)? Or does smoking act the same as a patient ...
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346 views

What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
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316 views

What counts as a 'breach of the skin' for infections(like rabies) that spread via wounds?

I've been looking at several sources on how the virus spreads and they all mention that the skin has to be broken, but does it mean broken to the naked eye? A minor scratch where the skin appears ...
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How the glycogen accumulate intracellularly in the reversible cell injury?

As we know in reversible cell injury as the most common cause is ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation which decrease ATP & increase anaerobic glycolysis which depleting glycogen !!? But ...
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291 views

Can a human actually be “frightened to death?”

I've been watching some classic horror movies as of late, and a trope I see in many of them is where a person will see the big bad monster and "die of fright." I'm curious, for the average person, ...
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Can cancers caused due to viruses be contagious?

Generally, viruses are infectious in nature and there are several cancer-causing viruses that are known (i.e. oncovirus) My question is: Are these oncoviruses infectious in nature? If so, what is the ...
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Is it inevitable that antibiotics will become useless in the future due to bacteria immunities?

Antibiotics are developed in an ever smaller amount due to the difficulties of discovering new ones. Bacteria, on the other hand, keep "finding" more ways to render antibiotics ineffective, and they ...
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If a ubiquitously ill species existed, would that more or less falsify evolution? [closed]

It is true that a lot of members of our, and most other species, suffer from cancer, but it is still not ubiquitous nor does it exist throughout the individual's life. If a species existed, in which ...
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Why does the rain increase our chances of catching a cold?

Why do I catch cold after getting drenched in the rain? I don't catch cold after taking shower. What special quality does rain water have which increases the chance of getting a cold?