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The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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Is there a correlation between B12 deficiency and cardiovascular disease?

I've read in several health sites that state that high blood homocysteine, as well as low B12 intake, is not only correlated, but actually causes cardiovascular diseases. In order to verify those ...
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1answer
22 views

How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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1answer
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HLA typing between siblings to identify a genetic disorder

If a patient suffering from a complex array of signs and symptoms for a disease and is having an 8/8 loci match with his sister who suffers no such symptoms can you conclude that the disease is an X-...
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1answer
31 views

Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
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26 views

Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
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1answer
53 views

What is going on with these buccal epithelial cells?

A pooled saliva sample from a 70 year old male. What is happening with these cells? Are these cells undergoing normal apoptosis? In the video, the cytoplasmic movement looks liquefied and jelly-...
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1answer
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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8 views

How does the formation of tissue fluid and swelling during inflammation protect animals against pathogens?

Histamines produced by mast cells during inflammation cause blood vessel dilation and increase the permeability of blood vessels, resulting in plasma being forced out of the blood vessels and ...
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Lifelong Immunity Question Regarding Erysipelas And Scarlet fever

So my question is after you carry on Scarlet fever you develop lifetime immunity. But with Erysipelas you might develop recurrence type. What is the mechanism behind it? Both diseases are caused by ...
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Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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1answer
54 views

Why do you get prion diseases from eating animal brains but not other parts of the animal?

Eating animal brains is considered a delicacy in parts of China. We know that eating animal brains can lead to prion related diseases. Prions are misfolded proteins that are potentially infectious. ...
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43 views

Can one type of bacteria cause several diseases? [closed]

If yes. Does it change its shape in every disease, or does it remain in the same shape and cause several diseases?
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49 views

What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
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2answers
71 views

Why does the rabies virus have such a long incubation period?

So there was a case in India, where a man developed rabies 25 yrs after the dog bite. Source: https://www.google.co.in/amp/s/m.timesofindia.com/city/goa/25-yrs-after-dog-bite-man-gets-dies-of-rabies/...
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General yellow fever question

After you are recovered from yellow fever can you become susceptible again or are you immune for life? My thinking is that you can become susceptible again
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3answers
102 views

In humans, are diseases inevitable during old age?

Considering that dying "from old age" actually means that one dies from an illness related with aging, is it inevitable to eventually acquire diseases in old age?
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Are all diseases caused by organisms (microorganisms)? [closed]

Are there other causes? Or is it correct to say that all diseases are in fact caused by organisms (microorganisms)?
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What does “optimal balance of biological control” mean in nematodes?

I have been reading several articles on nematode life-history for my insects class. Several articles say that Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) are the only nematodes possessing an "optimal balance of ...
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0answers
24 views

Why is there a low rate of kidney disease related deaths in the Baltic countries?

A noticeable feature of the map of kidney disease related deaths is that the Baltic countries, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, etc have lower rates: Why is this?
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ABO-antigen and winter vomiting disease

If the NON-SECRETOR phenotype of ABO-antigen is protective against winter vomiting disease, how come 80% of the European population and most of the population world-wide are SECRETORS?
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1answer
201 views

Sickle cell life span

How long do sickle red blood cells "live" before being broken down in phagocytosis? I had trouble doing a normal search as it brings up life span of those inflicted with the disease. Also, I have ...
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0answers
33 views

What is the biomass of bacteria in an infected human

I was reading this question about the biomass of human gut bacteria, and was wondering what the mass of pathogens responsible for a disease would be. I've been able to find information about the ...
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1answer
45 views

Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
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Does anyone know of a table/matrix that shows me relationships between cancer types?

Does anyone know of a table that links different cancers/can visually show me through a table or network whether the incidence of one cancer affects the incidence of a second cancer? I imagine the ...
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40 views

What would possible dangers really be from encountering alien microbiology?

From what I understand, our biological "enemies" on Earth are specifically designed to target us due to an "evolutionary arms race." With a few exceptions like aids, bird flu, mad cow and diseases ...
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1answer
26 views

New infectious diseases appear mainly as a result of chance mutations in pathogen genomes?

I am reading the book 'Homo Deus: A breief History of Humankid' by Harari. He mentions the following statement highlighted in the picture below (picture provided for context). I would be appreciated ...
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Hepcidin-Iron Homeostasis

I learnt that mutation in HAMP Gene causes decrease in hepcidin that leads to iron over-absorption from intestine. In the absence of such mutation,i.e., a secondary iron overload such as in Post-...
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What is difference between the malaria (cross) types?

When the doctor does the diagnose she says "you have malaria. 2 crosses". Now, I've heard those crosses go from 1 to 5, and historically I've had from 1 to 4, but I wonder: what is the difference ...
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1answer
30 views

Genetics… Translocation

Can a Translocation of chromosomal parts occur between an autosome and an allosome? If it occurs in between allosomes,what could be the effect of Robertsonian Translocation between an X and a Y ...
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1answer
424 views

Why is liquefactive necrosis only seen in brain?

Liquefactive necrosis is a type of necrosis uniquely observed in brain. This occurs due to breakdown of cellular proteins by the action of hydrolytic enzymes. In other parts of the body, usually a ...
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1answer
29 views

AntiTrypsin Enzyme [closed]

In a smoking patient, is the lung over digested because of a combination of smoking and a defect in the antitrypsin gene (prevents digestion from protease)? Or does smoking act the same as a patient ...
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0answers
143 views

What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
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1answer
126 views

What counts as a 'breach of the skin' for infections(like rabies) that spread via wounds?

I've been looking at several sources on how the virus spreads and they all mention that the skin has to be broken, but does it mean broken to the naked eye? A minor scratch where the skin appears ...
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0answers
41 views

How the glycogen accumulate intracellularly in the reversible cell injury?

As we know in reversible cell injury as the most common cause is ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation which decrease ATP & increase anaerobic glycolysis which depleting glycogen !!? But ...
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285 views

Can a human actually be “frightened to death?”

I've been watching some classic horror movies as of late, and a trope I see in many of them is where a person will see the big bad monster and "die of fright." I'm curious, for the average person, ...
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Can cancers caused due to viruses be contagious?

Generally, viruses are infectious in nature and there are several cancer-causing viruses that are known (i.e. oncovirus) My question is: Are these oncoviruses infectious in nature? If so, what is the ...
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71 views

Is it inevitable that antibiotics will become useless in the future due to bacteria immunities?

Antibiotics are developed in an ever smaller amount due to the difficulties of discovering new ones. Bacteria, on the other hand, keep "finding" more ways to render antibiotics ineffective, and they ...
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2answers
124 views

If a ubiquitously ill species existed, would that more or less falsify evolution? [closed]

It is true that a lot of members of our, and most other species, suffer from cancer, but it is still not ubiquitous nor does it exist throughout the individual's life. If a species existed, in which ...
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1answer
92 views

Why does the rain increase our chances of catching a cold?

Why do I catch cold after getting drenched in the rain? I don't catch cold after taking shower. What special quality does rain water have which increases the chance of getting a cold?
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2answers
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Is diabetes (type 2) a genetic disease?

My friend's father has diabetes (who was diagnosed with diabetes long after my friend's birth). The doctor told the friend that he has more chances of getting diabetes than a normal person and he ...
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0answers
26 views

How can a waterborne disease be transmitted [closed]

If a disease is waterborne [as in it is based in the digestive tract], what ways can it be contracted other than the obvious drinking of infected water?
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2answers
291 views

Are all animal species prone to cannibalism induced prion infection?

Humans have the tendency to get certain prion diseases when eating human flesh. It's known animals can get prion diseases as well. Does cannibalism among other animal species also make them more ...
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203 views

What is “multiple” myeloma?

Multiple myeloma, commonly referred to as myeloma, is a cancer of the plasma cells found in the bone marrow.(source) Is there any significance in calling myeloma as "MULTIPLE" myeloma?
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59 views

Does catching a cold give you an “effective” advantage against future colds?

By effective advantage I mean that if I catch a cold now and then recover fully, does this actually reduce my probability of catching a future cold. I understand that the body can build up anti-bodies ...
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23 views

Microalbuminuria in inflammation of urinary tract

Albumin is excreted into urine (albuminuria) in nephrotic syndrome and in certain inflammatory conditions of urinary tract.$^1$ How is inflammation in urinary tract related to increase in albumin ...
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38 views

Diagnosing pathogenic illnesses with DNA analysis?

I am wondering if there are techniques for diagnosing pathogenic illnesses with DNA analysis. For example, imagine a person has a staph infection on their skin. A scraping could be taken and then ...
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67 views

Why have deadly pathogens evolved? [duplicate]

First, please note that I am not a biologist and have near to none knowledge in the field. I've come to wonder about pathogens which will ultimately kill the host they infect. I know that certain ...
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1answer
78 views

Are viruses more common due to modernity?

Is there any evidence to say whether in the past viruses like the cold virus were less common? I wonder if high density living and globalisation mean that the cold virus mutates and spreads much more ...
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How quickly do bacteria lose genes after selection has been removed? [duplicate]

If bacteria are subject to a biocide and then that biocide is removed from the population, how quickly will they lose that gene that encodes for resistance?
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What is the difference between an active and inactive T helper cell?

1- Are all inactive T helper cells "T memory cells" ? 2- Is there anything such as active T memory cells ? 3- I have noticed that there is also a third type of T helper cells but i dont know what it ...