Questions tagged [pathology]

The study of diseases, including their causes and effects.

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In pathology, what does “cystic degeneration” mean?

I've seen this term used in the context of many diseases but I haven't found any place that explains what it means. The only thing I got was "Degeneration forming a cyst". I want to know what this ...
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Can far-UVC light be safely used as germicide? (help understanding a paper)

I've been trying to familiarize myself with the literature on far UVC light as a germicide. My question mostly pertains to figure 4 of this paper. The paper investigates the efficacy of 207 nm light ...
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What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
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Are there any diseases that can harm and kill flies and mosquitoes?

For decades I have heard about how flies and mosquitoes carry diseases around and infect humans and indirectly kill them in mass numbers. Somehow these diseases do not appear to harm these insects, I ...
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Is COVID-19 claimed to get less deadly over time? If so, why?

From a TV news report of a press conference from (I think) the German Robert Koch Institute, I remember hearing an expert declare that he was expecting COVID-19 to get less deadly over time. ...
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how the coronavirus was distinguished?

I have read a lot about the outbreak of the coronavirus, I know that in january scientists had already sequenced the viral genome. How was the virus identified prior to the sequencing Given that ...
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Is there any disease in common between human and insects?

I am not asking about disease transferred by insects. I am wondering is there any disease that commonly make both human and insects sick?
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Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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Why is centriacinar emphysema more common in the upper lobes compared to the lower lobes?

I suspect it's because the upper lobes get less ventilated (the volume of their alveoli change less during respiration, and they receive less new air with each breath) compared to the lower lobes, and ...
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Way to analyze the functional relevance of human mutation in vivo

In the literature I „found“ a pointmutation in the protein coding sequence of an enzyme subunit to be a risk factor for a certain disease. It is not known whether the mutation leads to loss or gain ...
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Rods and Cones functioning in Achromatopsia affected individual

When facing genetically caused Achromatopsia have the cones still been developed by the individual or does the latter completely lack them? I have looked for evidence both online and on some more ...
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Why aren’t PCR test recommended for Herpes testing?

CDC does not recommend testing for Herpes, due to its inability to change patient’s sexual behavior and it’s high false-positive rate (https://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/screening.htm). According to ...
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Are there any proteins not found in the brain that are affected by prions?

A prion is an abnormally folded protein that is capable of causing otherwise normal proteins to also misfold and become prions. They are responsible for causing diseases such as Kuru and Creutzfeldt–...
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In metaplasia, is the new tissue type derived from stem cells or from the already present, “old” tissue type?

From Robbin's basic pathology: Metaplasia is thought to arise by the reprogramming of stem cells to differentiate along a new pathway rather than a phenotypic change (transdifferentiation) of ...
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Is there a minimum load below which an infectious agent will not cause disease?

Suppose a single smallpox virus is injected in an human adult's body. Will it cause disease in the host? Is there a minimum microbial load below which it will not cause disease?
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What disease does Saccharopolyspora erythraea cause?

For an examination assignment I have to find a disease caused by the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora erythraea, but I have searched the internet and have found no report of patients being infected ...
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Determination of the density of fungi sclerotia in soil

The garlic I planted in my garden last year was infected by white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum). I'd like to inspect how much of the white rot sclerotia is present in the soil. I've googled and found ...
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Species specific White Blood Cells (WBC) composition

In our ongoing immunology undergrad course I learnt that neutrophil primarily fights off bacterial infection and lymphocyte is produced in response to viral infection. I also learnt that neutrophil ...
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Is there any biosafety level scale for plant pathogens?

Biosafety levels commonly defined on basis of human/animal pathogens, but what would be the biosafety levels for plant pathogens?
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Can PGPM include pathogenic growth promoters?

I am extremely confused with definition of P.G.P.M. (plant growth promoting microbes/microbiota)such as P.G.P.F (plant growth promoting fungi) and P.G.P.B. (plant growth promoting bacteria). In many ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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Why does bed bugs not carry disease?

Whenever I look up this topic, all I get is articles that say "Bed bugs don't carry disease...", but they never explain why? Is it something in their saliva that kills microbes? Something in their ...
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Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains?

Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains? Notes: Here's a photo of what a normal fruit on the tree looks like. Location is Zone 5, east of Toronto. There are about 20 other fruits on the ...
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Do tendons thickened due to a tendon injury/pathology have the same strength as “normal” tendons?

I read in this 2015 study {1}: This study is the first to show that pathological tendons have sufficient levels of aligned fibrillar structure. Pathological tendons may compensate for areas of ...
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Does loss of dopaminergic neurons totally eliminate voluntary muscular control?

Breathing is a function that is not only autonomic, but can also be temporarily overridden and placed under voluntary control. In fact, you are now breathing manually. Now, suppose that someone has ...
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Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

Can a pathogenic organism be totally resistant to the human immune system? For the purpose of this question, the organism in question must cause a disease. Examples of organisms that would qualify as ...
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Growth on raspberry cane: What is it?

I have raspberries growing in my garden. One of the raspberry canes has some sort of growth on it. Size: Approximately 2 inches long Location: Zone 5; east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Date: April 4, ...
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Why do bulls-eye rashes look like they do?

People infected with Lyme Disease often present with an erythema migrans ("migrating redness") rash. Most often, these rashes are in the shape of a bulls-eye. Rash image. Presumably, this is a ...
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What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Is autoimmune disease associated with self-reactive B cells?

I'm a bit of an amateur, so excuse what may be a very naive question, but I somewhat understand how B cells that are self-reactive (bind to endogenous epitopes) are selected out during development. I ...
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How do viral vaccines work?

I have read that a vaccine against a pathogen typically works by using a dead or weakened version of that pathogen and then inciting an immune response against the pathogen so that the immune system ...
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Alcohol effect on heart and vascular system

How does alcohol weaken heart muscles and why does it increase blood pressure both temporarily and long term? Is the long term effect due to increase of plaque or is it due to other effects?
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Does cataract condition cause red film when sun is shining?

Since two years ago I have a red film in my field of vision when the sunlight (or a white spot) is at the border (or even lightly behind) of the vision field, the red color is especially obvious at ...
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Can organ-accumulated iron get shed again?

Hemochromatosis can lead to an accumulation of iron in some organs. If the accumulated amount is not too high, will it go down again upon correction of blood iron levels?
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Open database of whole slide digital pathology images

I am looking for sequential image sections (stacks) of biological structures (such as liver, kidneys etc.) that I can download and use. Most of the pathology images I have found are either one image ...
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How does alcohol interact with sympathomimetics to affect the cardiovascular system?

There is a fair amount of information on the cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and of sympathomimetics. How do they work? And how do their mechanisms interact? We know that similar pathologies ...
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Why don't people seem to die from salmonella in bites?

As far as I know, reptiles have salmonella in their mouths as part of their digestive process. Every time I hear about someone being bitten by an python or alligator or monitor either at a zoo or in ...
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Can endemic diseases be acute?

Diseases can be classified as :endemic ,or pandemic,...etc. An endemic disease is an infectious disease which is generally or constantly found among people in a particular area. Disease conditions ...
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Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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Why does arterial emboli flow in retrograde manner?

In artery blood flows with a pressure. When part of thrombus detaches it should flow along with the flow but it flows is retrograde manner.
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Red neurons - Acute neuronal injury

“Red neurons” are evident by about 12 to 24 hours after an irreversible hypoxic/ ischemic insult. The morphologic features consist of shrinkage of the cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, disappearance ...
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Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
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Is there a correlation between B12 deficiency and cardiovascular disease?

I've read in several health sites that state that high blood homocysteine, as well as low B12 intake, is not only correlated, but actually causes cardiovascular diseases. In order to verify those ...
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How do PrP mutations lead to prion disease?

My understanding is: The PrP gene in human cells is expressed as both PrP-c (normal protein) and PrP-sc (prion disease protein). This happens post transcriptionally, that is, the normal and the ...
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HLA typing between siblings to identify a genetic disorder

If a patient suffering from a complex array of signs and symptoms for a disease and is having an 8/8 loci match with his sister who suffers no such symptoms can you conclude that the disease is an X-...
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Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
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281 views

Polar renal scarring in pyelonephritis?

Why does infection and scarring occurs at poles in Vesicoureteric reflux but not in Obstructive pyelonephritis? It is said in Robbins that, it is due to polar papillae being flattened or concave ...
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What is going on with these buccal epithelial cells?

A pooled saliva sample from a 70 year old male. What is happening with these cells? Are these cells undergoing normal apoptosis? In the video, the cytoplasmic movement looks liquefied and jelly-...
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Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
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How does evolution eliminate problems that only cause diseases late in life?

Humans are vulnerable to heart attacks and strokes. Our modern diet leads to atherosclerosis, this already starts at a young age but it doesn't cause symptoms until an important artery is almost ...

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