Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [pathophysiology]

A tag used for questions on the mechanisms responsible for the initiation, development, and treatment of pathological processes in humans and animals.

1
vote
0answers
44 views

How does alcohol interact with sympathomimetics to affect the cardiovascular system?

There is a fair amount of information on the cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and of sympathomimetics. How do they work? And how do their mechanisms interact? We know that similar pathologies ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Why ketoacidosis is less common in patients of Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus?

The other day my teacher said ketone bodies are mostly formed when insulin is less and NIDDM type diabetes mellitus has less chances to grow ketosis. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000320.htm P. ...
1
vote
1answer
241 views

What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
20
votes
3answers
438 views

Why is the heart adversely impacted by chronic psychological stress, yet it benefits from routine physical exercise?

Chronic psychological stress is commonly said to be deleterious to the heart, and predispose one to cardiovascular disease. Yet the opposite is said about regular aerobic exercise. Physiologically, ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

Triose phosphate isomerase deficiency, a rare condition, is the only glycolytic enzymopathy that is lethal. This deficiency is characterized by severe hemolytic anemia and neurodegeneration. How can ...
1
vote
1answer
548 views

Effect of forced breathing on RBC size

Microcytosis, i.e. decrease in the size of RBCs occurs: – In iron deficiency anaemia, – During prolonged forced breathing and – When osmotic pressure of the blood is increased. I am ...
3
votes
0answers
274 views

How does Reissner's membrane rupture cause Ménière's disease symptoms?

In Ménière's disease, an ednolymphatic hydrops (EH) in scala media leads to a distention and, eventually, rupture of Reissner's membrane. This results in an influx of K+-rich endolymph into the Na+-...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Why gout attacks mostly big toe?

A gout attack typically causes pain, swelling, redness, and warmth (inflammation) in a single joint, most often the big toe. What makes big toe more susceptible for gout? Also I was said that it ...
2
votes
0answers
88 views

Loss of nerves in asthma

This site says: VIP [vasoactive intestinal peptide] nerves are absent in severely asthmatic subjects. Mice with targeted deletion of the VIP gene exhibit histopathologic features of airway ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

How does vitamin C increase iron uptake?

I've read that vitamin C increases the iron uptake in the human body. How does that work, physiologically?
3
votes
2answers
111 views

Pneumonia in children after abdominal operations

This textbook says: Consequently, young children are prone to suffer from pneumonia after abdominal operations, because they resist breathing (being abdominal) due to pain. As a result the ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Why are valves preferentially affected in endocarditis?

The inside of the heart is covered by endothelium throughout. Why are valves predisposed to endocarditis? I know it can affect other structires like the septum, chordae etc. But why the valves? ...
4
votes
1answer
12k views

Pathophysiology of pink frothy sputum in pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is a condition where fluid leaks into the alveolar spaces. This can be due to to hemodynamic causes like left heart failure and pulmonary venous obstruction or microvascular injury or ...
1
vote
0answers
906 views

Why do leukemia and lymphoma cause “night sweats”?

One of the symptoms of these blood cancers is sleep hyperhidrosis (aka night sweats). Also referred to as one of the B-symptoms, it may be used for prognosis. What is the the mechanism behind the ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

How can low cholesterol cause mortality?

I am studying processes 1. stroke, 2. heart disease, and 3. cancer, and their mechanisms associated with low cholesterol which is a result of lowering cholesterol especially in elderly, Low ...
23
votes
1answer
7k views

Why do you die if you cannot breathe?

I was wondering what the actual reason for death by suffocation is. Obviously it is related to oxygen deprivation. But what is the underlying cause of death? Is it due to insufficient oxygen for ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

How much is local blood non-Newtonian in Pathophysiology?

I am studying the Barus effect / Merrington effect / die swell / extrudate swell, which is a characteristic of non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquids (Introduction to the phenomenon in this video) i.e. ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Why does mud therapy work by some pain related diseases?

Apparently, some users here agree there is no ion exchange through the skin. Mud therapy has some therapeutic effect for pain related diseases. As an anecdotal example, I experienced pain relief by ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

How many diseases can be linked to disruption in the microbiome of a human?

I was listing to the radio and heard recent research found a link between children and higher cases of asthma when certain bacteria are missing from the microbiome. How many other diseases can be ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Can light pollution cause cancer?

Impaired circadian rhythm is associated with cancer. Light pollution affects the circadian rhythm and the circadian rhythm affects the metabolism. But what is the (molecular) connection between ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

Where does the exudate comes from during inflammation?

During inflammation transudate and exudate is formed by vessels. I would like to make sure if it comes from arterioles, venules, or both, and the reason why.
2
votes
0answers
60 views

How to gauge the clinical significance of specific cell type presence?

How does one decide whether the presence of certain cell types is clinically important or negligible? Would the presence of certain cells in conjunction with other symptoms be enough, or should it be ...
0
votes
1answer
402 views

Similarity between a heart attack and a spasm

When someone is having a heart attack, could it be considered , in some situations, a spasm? Below, I have written how I believe the process may work. The heart is basically a muscle working ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Why is sarcoma more prevalent and common in right heart?

Ewing's sarcoma or Ewing sarcoma is a malignant small, round, blue cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. It is more common in right heart than ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Predictive Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Bipolar Disorder

Are there any validated SNPs that are either predictive of developing bipolar spectrum disorder or are associated with its pathophysiology?
0
votes
1answer
29k views

What are the risks of elevating the legs too regularly and when tired?

I started to to think the pathophysiology of elevating legs high next to the wall too often and when you are tired. I think possible manifestations some damage to valves of the veins (No!) because ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Recovering Coma patient with theoretical full knowledge of heart function

In coma, there is the medullary depression (stage of agony). Spontaneous respiration and circulation cease i.e. vasomotor center. There is no full circulatory and respiratory support. Assume you ...
8
votes
1answer
635 views

How does myopia develop, exactly?

Recently I was reading about myopia and I understood a few basic facts about it: Its initial cause is a constant spasm in the ciliary muscle. To do less work, the eyeball elongates a tiny bit. During ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the biological reason for a burst appendix being potentially lethal?

Given that the appendix does not seem to be used by the human body, what is the biological reason that it is potentially lethal when this organ bursts? Also, what would cause the 'burst'?
3
votes
1answer
96 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here in ...
3
votes
1answer
101 views

Hypersensitivity Simultaneously in Ear canals

I got experimental data where hypersensitivity (i.e. tonic pain when touching ear canal) was recognised for about 100 minutes. I do not know which type of hypersensitivity is this one. IgM can ...
2
votes
1answer
246 views

Fast standing and the heart's insufficient accommodation of the increased venous return

Assume you are 45 minutes on the supine position. Furthermore: you stand all of a sudden and fast and without sympaticus activity. The venous return (smooth musculature of vessels) accommodates ...
4
votes
1answer
532 views

What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
2
votes
1answer
118 views

To diagnose osteomyelitis of vertebral column in chronic kidney failure

Assume you suspect amyloidosis because of the history of the patient: problem with vertebral column and "purulent" (serous, fibrous, or hemorrhagic) inflammation when patient very young. Now, the ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the cause of dry cough?

I first thought this question in the case of the cause of dry throat after 3-day recovery of dry cough? but then I realised that the cause of dry cough can be a general thing. Assume the person ...
1
vote
1answer
376 views

Can Serous inflammation on pleura pulmonalis cause dry cough and runny nouse?

I am interested in the mechanism between the dry cough and runny nose (serous inflammation) here. I started to think how Acute respiratory viral infection is causing the dry cough. The serous ...
0
votes
1answer
262 views

Parallel Autonomic regulation of Cough and Runny Nose

I describe here the serous inflammation of runny nose. Cough is mediated by Cough center. I think Runny nose is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system and probably by some reflex. Assume ...
1
vote
0answers
201 views

What are the mechanisms of disabling extrinsic control of heart?

I started this thread by thinking this question but I developed it further below What is the mechanism maintaining refractory period of pacemakers? My conjecture is that the mechanism is the ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Which ionic channels of Pacemakers can work in very low frequencies in extrasystole?

At frequency 0-3 Hz. Like computer processors which can work at low frequencies and controlling under- and overvoltage. Normal most significant channels are Ca2+ and K+ that are changing. However, I ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Is Sinus node conduction necessary for heart beating?

Assume a patient with previous cardial infaction which SA node not possible to activate action potential anymore. However, SA trying to beat unsuccessfully repeatedly waisting energy. Therefore, I ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Manifestations of open foramen ovale in adults

I read that foramen ovale opens in 30% of adults. I do not know how much of these openings can then close again. Probably, none. It is not pathogenic if no symptoms. It allows blood to enter from ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

Nervous system: Pain and Pleasure?

If you have a constant pain in your body, why does a greater pain or pleasure make you not feel the original pain?
1
vote
1answer
127 views

What is ischaemia exactly?

I think it is decreased blood supply to organs and tissues. I also think it is the stopped circulation. However, both ones cannot be right, I think. What is ischaemia exactly?
19
votes
3answers
11k views

What causes a 'stuffy' or 'runny' nose when you have a cold?

When humans get the common cold, a common symptom is a stuffy or runny nose. Is that the body's immune response or is that the virus's doing?