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Questions tagged [pharmacodynamics]

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What is the role of plasminogen used in the preparation of APSAC? (Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex)

What is the role of plasminogen in APSAC, and how is there indirect activation of plasmin through APSAC? Reference https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/fibrinolytic-agent
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1answer
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Is an X ml dose of a drug at 50% bioavailability roughly equivalent to a 2X ml dose at 25% bioavailability?

For the sake of simplicity, assume: The two doses are the same drug metabolized in the exact same way, and the only difference is the amount that reaches the bloodstream (and thereafter the brain). ...
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1answer
260 views

Does Povidone-Iodine that penetrates through the skin stays in the body (cells, liver etc)?

Here it says on povidone-iodine: "Route of Elimination: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical application and is not eliminated" "Clearance: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical ...
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PK and PD models

I'm having trouble understanding PK and PD models in context. Are they carried out at each stage of drug development? Whats the context behind a fixed effect model and an emax model? Is the purpose of ...
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1answer
1k views

How to make GABA pass the blood brain barrier?

I thought of methylating GABA at the gamma amino group in order to make it pass the blood brain barrier, but would it work? The goal is to make a sedative. Like GHB or benzodiazepines (I know that ...
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1answer
498 views

Why do classic psychedelics not cause withdrawal, despite high tolerance?

"Classical" psychedelics, such as LSD, DMT, and Mescaline, are serotonin agonists that cause hallucinogenic effects. They are notorious for having rapid tolerance, such that after consuming such ...
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1answer
135 views

How did Shulgin take cognizance of the dosage of a new substance?

We know that Alexander Shulgin synthesized MDMA, 2C compounds and several other tryptamine derivatives and phenethylamines. But how did he find out that the average dosage of an unknown compound is X ...
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1answer
57 views

How could this molecule affect the body? (Lysergic acid derivative)

First of all, could you please help me name this molecule? I think the name of it is something like this: N,N-pentamethylene lysergic acid. Secondly, my main question is what could be the pharmacology ...
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1answer
182 views

Estimation of tissue-partition coefficients and clearance for liposomic nanoparticles

I am working on developing a PBPK model for liposomic nanoparticles used to deliver drugs to fells in the bloodstream. However, I do not have any in vivo data or in vitro data. Given only chemical and ...
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1answer
102 views

Cell nanoparticle dynamics within blood

I am trying to mathematically model the dynamics of a particular cell in circulation and its binding to another nanoparticle that is intravenously injected. The concentration of this cell is very low (...
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2answers
251 views

Why is alcohol such a weak drug?

Most day to day drugs such as caffeine and paracetamol require a dosage in milligrams to have the desired effect. Why then, does it take many tens of grams of alcohol to have a tangible/noticeable ...
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1answer
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How does paracetamol work?

Hinz et al. 2008 found that COX-2 may be inhibited by paracetamol, and this is attributed to it's analgesic and antipyretic properties. However there are other more recent claims from Andersson et al.,...
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383 views

Why is cisplatin a very potent antineoplastic for testicular cancer, but not necessarily for other cancers?

Cisplatin (structure below) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent which is very effective in the treatment of some cancers. Its introduction was responsible for improving the cure rate for ...
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0answers
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Why is there only adrenoreceptors and no active adrenergic innervation in bronchus and uterus?

Our bronchus and uterus has beta adrenoreceptors, but they have no active sympathetic nervous system innervation in these organs. Was there a sympathetic innervation in trachea and uterus, earlier, ...
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2answers
267 views

Is there a specific mechanism for the delivery of pain medication?

For example, when one takes aspirin or ibuprofen does the chemical get dispersed to all pain receptor? My question really is, how does the chemical know where to target in the body? I figure wherever ...
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2answers
1k views

Why do different pain killers have different effects on people?

I've noticed some pain killers working great for me, while others have no effect. Works for me Aspirin APC † Naproxen Doesn't work for me Paracetamol Diclofenac Tramadol I doubt there is ...
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58 views

Thermochemistry of gabapentin

So I am taking a new class at my institution called Theoretic Nuclear Thermochemical Pharmacology, (I know big name, it's an elective from a real pioneering fronteirsman in our department :P) and I am ...
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2answers
72 views

Simulating Drug Entry in Protein and binding?

Is there any simulation protocol or paper which can simulate the dynamics of drug entry and interaction with the target protein?
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1answer
101 views

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists?

Why are many anti-malaria drugs gap junction antagonists? My professor recently just mentioned that many of the anti-malaria drugs block gap junctions. i am wondering if this blocking is important ...
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0answers
75 views

Pharmacodynamics of Ethinyl estradiol + Drospirenone and interactions with istotertinoin

Does pharmacodynamics of Ethinyl estradiol + Drospirenone in OCP pills like (Yaz, Yasminelle etc.) while using isotretinoin (Axotret, Roaccutane etc.) is changed? Does isotretinoin weakens the OCP ...
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1answer
69 views

Function of an VEGF inhibitor in the treatment of macular degeneration

I'm working on a short presentation of treatments of macular degeneration for a biomedical optics seminar on macular degeneration. Since I don't have any relevant medical or biological background (B....
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1answer
120 views

Dimethyltryptamine and Sigma 1-type opioid receptor interaction

Where exactly do dimethyltryptamine and sigma 1-type opioid receptor interact? I read in this When the Endogenous Hallucinogenic Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Meets the Sigma-1 Receptor but it ...
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312 views

Why can't sodium butyrate be delivered orally in humans and other mammals?

I think I know why -- bioavailability problems but since I have no firm evidence to support this theory I thought I would ask the biology stackexchange community for their input. I'd like some firm ...