Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-2
votes
2answers
44 views

What is the sensitivity of modern High-throughput Screening techniques? [closed]

Are there examples of drugs that we know work in humans but were shown to be failed to be picked up by HTS? I'm struggling to find literature on thinking about false negative rates (false positives ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

What degree of influence do SNPs have on activity of ligands at receptors?

I know that generally, evolution tends to evolve towards having some wiggle room in respect to effect of polymorphisms on binding of endogenous ligands, but with synthetic ligands, especially modern ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Does GABA enhance or inhibit negative effects of glutamate?

A study on NCBI studied the correlation between a depressive mood and chronic pain. I researched this because today I noticed unusual emotional volatility as a result of 2 days of acute back pain ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Can severe vasoconstriction increase systolic blood pressure?

I know that, vasoconstriction results in increased total peripheral resistance which is responsible for the rise in diastolic blood pressure. Also, cardiac output is responsible for the systolic blood ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How does noradrenaline result in rise of systolic blood pressure even when the cardiac output is decreasing?

Systolic blood pressure[SBP] depends on the cardiac output. When Nor adrenaline is given there is vasoconstriction due to alpha-1 action on blood vessel, vasoconstriction results in increased total ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Is there an antidote for caffeine, e.g. as a supplicant for caffeine-intolerant persons?

First, let me state I'm not talking about a medical emergency. No one is in a serious condition. My girlfriend is, we think, caffeine-intolerant. She loves the smell of coffee and the habit of coffee ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Why is prothrombin time used to monitor warfarin and not activated partial thromboplastin time?

Warfarin is said to change prothrombin time (PT) but not activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (for practical purposes at least anyways, not really sure). But looking at the mechanism of action ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Area under the curve in a drug concentration curve

I am not from a background on pharamacokinetics and trying to learn some concepts. I noticed that the definition for AUC involve the first 24 hours. For example in here AUC is defined as "the area ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Same target receptor different mechanism of action?

If different drugs have the same receptor as a target, does that imply that they have the same mechanism of action?
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Why is ACE2 not used as drug against covid? [closed]

Can ACE2 be produced and used as drug against covid? I read it is the receptor molecule. If it is in the organism the virus should bind to it and could not attack cells anymore? Is that right?
4
votes
1answer
54 views

Why do the calicheamicins bind to DNA at the minor, rather than the major, groove?

I am trying to understand why some drugs bind only to the minor groove and not to the major groove. More specifically, I am interested in calicheamicins. They target DNA and cause strand scission. ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

how does acetic acid induce pain?

how does acetic acid induce pain? I am finding the whole mechanism of it but cannot find any papers or writings. please help. If you have links that would be nice too.
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Is this trial that reversed aging in humans worth taking seriously?

In September 2019 Fahy et al. published results from the TRIIM (Thymus Regeneration, Immunorestoration, and Insulin Mitigation) trial. Their stated goals were to investigate whether they could restore ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Do biologists use the word “solubilize” to mean “dissolve”?

I work with biologists who often use the word "solubilize" to mean "dissolve". Is this correct usage? I keep correcting them (I'm not a biologist, but I help with writing), and we argue about it. Not ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Difference between rate of elimination and clearance? [closed]

I honesty don't get the difference. I need a simple explanation so that I can grasp it. Rate of elimination is
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Why does plasma protein saturation of a drug increase its volume of distribution and clearance rate?

I need help understanding this statement from Goodman and Gilman's "The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics:" For a drug that is metabolized by the liver with a low intrinsic clearance-...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Does the zeta potential of a nanoparticle generally take into account ligand charge?

For example, if I had a quantum dot nanoparticle with conjugated linker peptides capped with polyarginine tracts. Would the localization of negative charge from arginine change the zeta potential ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Is ampicillin a good choice of drug to treat a urinary tract infection caused by E.coli

Is ampicillin a good choice of drug to treat a urinary tract infection (cystitis) caused by E.coli? How does the environment of the urinary tract effect its ability to treat the bacteria. When ...
1
vote
1answer
439 views

Why don't anti-viral drugs like “Acyclovir” work against coronaviruses?

I've always used Acyclovir to treat cold sores, why doesn't it work on other viruses? How do coronaviruses differ from herpesviruses?
1
vote
0answers
48 views

What disposition means in the context of registering clinical studies?

I was diving into the AACT database, and in the studies table I had noticed some columns containing the term disposition such as: ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Why is Ibuprofen contraindicated in asthma patients?

So yesterday a patient showed up at the clinic with a massive swelling in his left face region. Upon examination it was found to be due to infected first premolar. Dentist recommended him to get the ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Does the composition of a meal play a big, or small, role in food's thermogenic effect on the body?

Reading in: "Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk / Calories: Total Macronutrient Intake, Energy Expenditure, and Net Energy Stores" [NCBI Resources]: "The thermogenic ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Combining MAOIs with Stimulants [closed]

Is it dangerous to combine MAOIs with stimulants? According to wikpedia, Parnate, for example, "leads to an increase in the availability of monoamines, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

What is “irrational” drug/molecule design?

Both the papers "Directed evolution: the 'rational' basis for 'irrational' design" by Tobin et al. and "Rational and 'Irrational' Design of Proteins and Their Use in Biotechnology" ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Are omeprazole and other members estrogenic and/or antiandrenergic?

As of 2020, omeprazole is a widely used OTC medicine for various types of acute heartburn and some other gastrointestinal disorders. Almost every time I read about it I read that one of the possible ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

How exactly can a drug affecting squalene epoxidase affect the methylation cycle, necessitating the use of 5-MTHF?

I found a case report in which the authors say that Terbinafine might have possibly affected the methylation cycle in a patient, necessitating the prescription of 5-methylfolate to correct the ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

A question about dicumarol

I know that dicumarol was discovered in moldy sweet clover as it caused hemorrhage in cattles, but if someone had thromboembolic disorders causing uncontrolled thrombosis,would it be fine to eat moldy ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Why is therapeutic index a ratio instead of an interval?

The therapeutic index of a drug is defined as its toxic dose ($TD_{50}$) divided by its effective dose ($ED_{50}$). Why is it defined as a ratio rather than the difference $TD_{50} - ED_{50}$? For ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the difference between Molecular and Cellular tolerance?

Although I've read that there are three types of tolerance, molecular cellular and behavioural, I cannot seem to find any mechanism of cellular other than desensitization of receptors. If someone can ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Is PrEP used for anything other than HIV?

In the field of HIV prevention, PrEP is an abbreviation of pre-exposure prophylaxis. This is a very generic term. Are any diseases other than HIV prevented using a similar approach? Do they use the ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

How does the dopamine spike from drugs compare quantitatively to pleasurable non-drug activities?

I did find this popular press article that quotes a researcher offering the following quantification: "in lab experiments done on animals, sex causes dopamine levels to jump from 100 to 200 units, and ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

What is the relevance of the constant in the clearance equation?

I have seen the equation for drug half lives described variously as (0.7xVd)/Cl, (0.693xVd)/Cl, and (ln2xVd)/Cl. What is the origin of this numerical constant in the numerator? What does it signify?
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Is it true that ethanol can have some positive effects?

I recently was reading this inforgrafics about excessive alcohol use. It is written: No one should begin drinking or drink more frequently based on potential health benefits I am surprised. Is ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

What are miotic agents, like carbachol, used for in intraocular lens implant surgery (cataract surgery)?

Wikipedia mentions that carbachol (a cholinergic agent) is used in cataract surgery to produce miosis, but not why. I looked it up and all I could find were two articles (1, 2), saying it's used to ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Can a drug induce specific mechanism of resistance in tumors?

For example, can a drug that targets a given protein induce overexpression of that protein or increase the copy number of the gene coding that protein? I strongly suspect that antineoplastic ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Gaba and Magnesium

I read read that magnesium divalent ion binds to gaba receptors and induces the same effects as if gaba has binded. Does anyone know what happens to the gaba that would have been synthesised and ...
3
votes
0answers
23 views

Could Racemic Epinephrine be used to Treat Anaphylaxis? [closed]

To be clear, this question is not a personal health question nor a question seeking health advice, it is only a theoretical question born of a curiosity for the pharmacology and biochemistry of ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Does ingestion of alcohol with methylphenidate make it act more like dexmethylphenidate?

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It is the racemic mixture of d-MPH and l-MPH. According to the binding profile info on Wikipedia, based on studies, it is at ...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

Why males are more prone to cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks than females?

I often see more people of males undergoing treatment for heart disease. It is often said that female reproductive hormone (oestrogen) has some cardio-protective action by preventing constriction of ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

Can a person be infected with Polio even after vaccination in childhood?

We know that a person develops antibodies by active immunisation after the administration of vaccines (either in dead form / live attenuated form). Is there any chance of developing the same disease ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Are there pre-synaptic alpha 2 receptors in the post-ganglionic synapses of the heart?

Are there pre-synaptic alpha 2 receptors in the post-ganglionic synapses of the heart? I haven't found any sources that clearly state whether they do or not. I'm also not sure if they exist in most ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Why do some texts say that noncompetitive antagonist dose no change in ED50 of agonist in Dose-respond curve?

Competitive antagonists increase the ED50 while the Emax remains the same. Non-competitive antagonists do not change the ED50 while decreases the Emax. I wonder how does this happen as Non-...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

Pharmacokinetics and cell-membrane permeability of Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate

【My Question】 (1) Please tell me the pharmacokinetics of this ATP (or Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate) when it is administered orally or intravenously. In particular, Does this material has ...
1
vote
1answer
212 views

Difference between “controlled release” vs “prolonged release”

My sister is using the epilepsy drug Tegretol which has both CR and retard (previous naming for prolonged release according to https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/5932/smpc) versions in different ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Can you predict what the metabolites of pipradrol would be? Are they similar to those of methylphenidate? [closed]

As these drugs are structurally very similar, I am curious about how the body would handle them. Ritalinic acid is a major metabolite of methylphenidate, but that's about all I know. Thanks ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Protein inhibitory process

I usually find substances that activates proteins, like ApoA-I, but I don't find substances that inhibit it. So in an experimental design, could I consider the absence of a drug that directly acts ...
2
votes
0answers
142 views

What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

What would happen if VEGF was injected into a person?

Couldn't VEGF help with ligament recovery? I looked it up and found some studies in rats, but nothing on people. VEGF inhibitors tend to be used more often then VEGF. Why isn't VEGF being used in ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Application of molecular dynamics simulation (or alternatives) for the full pathways of protein interactions?

If one would like to control the biological system (e.g. to treat disease or aging/senescence) then one should introduce the drugs in the system, that initiate complex protein interaction pathways ...

1
2 3 4 5
8