Questions tagged [pharmacology]

Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to drug exposure (Mabs)?

How do we explain the presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to exposure to a drug - specifically for monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)?
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Protein inhibitory process

I usually find substances that activates proteins, like ApoA-I, but I don't find substances that inhibit it. So in an experimental design, could I consider the absence of a drug that directly acts ...
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What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
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What would happen if VEGF was injected into a person?

Couldn't VEGF help with ligament recovery? I looked it up and found some studies in rats, but nothing on people. VEGF inhibitors tend to be used more often then VEGF. Why isn't VEGF being used in ...
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Application of molecular dynamics simulation (or alternatives) for the full pathways of protein interactions?

If one would like to control the biological system (e.g. to treat disease or aging/senescence) then one should introduce the drugs in the system, that initiate complex protein interaction pathways ...
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What physiological pathways lie behind inhalants hallucinogenic effect?

I searched through the web and surprisingly I found pretty much nothing on the physiology of hallucinogenic effects of inhalants. Any idea how people get high with inhalants (household and industrial ...
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What exactly does 'reverse use-dependence' mean?

I understand 'use-dependence' related to a drug, for instance, more angiotensin2 effects in a hypertensive more prominent is the action of angiotensin2 receptor blockers. But I do not get the term, '...
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What structural features make a molecule a potent opioid receptor agonist?

For instance, take morphine. It is used as a baseline for measuring the potency of opioid agonists. Its structure looks like this: But then, take heroin, around three times as potent, its structure ...
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Is it impossible to increase skeletal bone mass, as opposed to just bone density? [closed]

I've heard exercise and resistance/strength training increases the density, but doesn't increase mass. So basically, experimentally or theoretically possible at least, can modern science do this/is it ...
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Could certain drugs enable one to consistently eat above TDEE or BMR without fat gains?

I heard anabolic steroids and stuff like DNP and ephedrine and etc. can somewhat enable one to eat more and get away with it without much or any fat gain, despite eating more than the body would ...
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How are drugs distributed in regards to bone marrow?

I know that as volumes of distribution increase they correspond to the blood, then the vascular rich group (heart, kidneys, liver, brain if BBB permeable), then muscle then adipose. But things like ...
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Why does our body absorb toxic substances or toxic concentrations of a substance if it is capable of regulating gastrointestinal absorption?

Our gastrointestinal system is filled with regulatory molecules that place brakes in the absorption process. For instance, the food that we consume daily is filled with harmful substances that our ...
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Increased receptor occupancy by blocking non-target receptors?

Let's say we have drug X, which is a full agonist at receptor A and a partial agonist at receptor B. We also have drug Y, which has no affinity for receptor A, but is a potent full antagonist at ...
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What is a Archival Tumor Tissue ? For What Purpose is it collected?

Over the course of Conducting trials various tissue and tumor samples are collected from the patients. One such sample is the Archival Tumor Tissue. Could someone kindly clarify what is the meaning ...
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Do antimuscarinic drugs increase cAMP or cGMP

Activation of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 inhibits adenylate cyclase which reduces cAMP levels. It would be expected that antimuscarinics such as ipratropium would increase cAMP levels. However, ...
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How does the body detect irreversible binding to receptors?

I have read an article on Wikipedia about irreversible agonists and antagonists. These permanently bind to a target receptor on a cell. However, the receptor protein is then internalized and recycled ...
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Can (or have) antiviral drugs created drug-resistant viruses?

Evolution/emergence of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria is a known effect of extensive use of pharmaceutical antibiotics. Pharmaceutical antivirals have come into extensive use in recent decades – e....
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Influenza infections and drug design

Why is the neuraminidase used as a target for drugs against influenza virus instead of haemagglutinin? Is there some basic reason that this will make a more effective drug?
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What is the role of plasminogen used in the preparation of APSAC? (Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex)

What is the role of plasminogen in APSAC, and how is there indirect activation of plasmin through APSAC? Reference https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/fibrinolytic-agent
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Is reverse senescence/“anti-aging” actually scientifically possible among humans yet?

I have been very interested in this since I myself am interested in reversing my skin's aging/genes/damage/etc. I also am interested in volunteering any future genetic altering of skin quality. ...
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What happens to drug metabolism when CYP450 enzymes are presented with two substrates

What happens when two substances, both substrates for Cytochrome P450 metabolism, are both present in the bloodstream? For example, with sertraline and cannabidiol (CBD), if someone took a sertraline ...
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Does reversion of resistant strains to wild-type only occur when no more drug pressure is exerted

We always read that wild-type reversion of a resistant strain occurs when no more drug pressure is exerted. Could resistance reversion also occur under drug pressure, but from a drug other than the ...
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How does alcohol interact with sympathomimetics to affect the cardiovascular system?

There is a fair amount of information on the cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and of sympathomimetics. How do they work? And how do their mechanisms interact? We know that similar pathologies ...
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How does a CRISPR therapy work?

Afaik you can use CRISPR to edit genes of a cell. But how should therapy for a human work based on CRISPR? Can a drug perform it on vast numbers of ill cells?
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Why are $\beta_2$ receptors present on bronchial smooth muscles , considering that they have only parasympathetic innervation?

It is well known that the bronchial muscles have only parasympathetic innervation. But they still express $\beta_2$ receptors. How does this system still cause bronchial relaxation? What is the exact ...
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What characteristic(s) of inverse agonists allow for inhibitory effects?

I know that inverse agonists have similar structure to its complement agonist; and, as a result, they have the ability to bind to the same receptor, causing an inhibition of the pathway considered. ...
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531 views

Why are semi log graphs used in drug Dose response curves?

Why are Dose response curves, as well as most biological graphs shown in semi log graphs and not normal graphs? What is the advantage of semi log graphs over regular graphs? I still haven't gotten an ...
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Why is atropine a CNS stimulant, although it blocks the muscarinic receptors in the brain?

I know that atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, so why does atropine have excitatory actions on the brain while it is blocking muscarinic receptors?
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Hematuria due to Nitric Oxide

Drug interactions between properly dosed NO and other medications are not expected, but side effects may include noisy breathing, hematuria, or possibly atelectasis. (pg.no:577; Goodman and Gilman ...
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Umbrella term for agonist, antagonist, inverse antagonist, etc.

For most receptors there exist different ligands that induce different responses. Depending on the response these different ligands can be classified into different groups such as agonists, ...
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Which kind of drugs get absorbed through epidermis?

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
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Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named ...
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353 views

İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
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How long does it take for a blocked dopamine receptor to be broken down by the body?

Do the blocked dopamine receptors get broken down by the body and if so how often ? In other words how long does it take for the dopamine receptors blocked by irreversible dopamine antagonists to ...
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Why do new atypical antipsychotics like Zyprexa cause TD at lower rates?

When the d2 receptors are blocked for long periods of time they tend to up regulate. This is what causes tardive dyskinesia. Why do the newer atypical anti psychotics cause such at a lower rate? ...
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Mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion

Is there any known mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion? This video explains a mechanism, but its inherently wrong because ATP dependent K+ channels will allow movement of K+ from ...
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Is an X ml dose of a drug at 50% bioavailability roughly equivalent to a 2X ml dose at 25% bioavailability?

For the sake of simplicity, assume: The two doses are the same drug metabolized in the exact same way, and the only difference is the amount that reaches the bloodstream (and thereafter the brain). ...
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What is the motivation behind fluorinated pharmaceuticals?

From what little research I've done, it appears that a significant portion of modern psychoactive drugs are fluorinated in one way or another (for example, Buproprion, Fluvoxamine, or any number of ...
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Does Povidone-Iodine that penetrates through the skin stays in the body (cells, liver etc)?

Here it says on povidone-iodine: "Route of Elimination: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical application and is not eliminated" "Clearance: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical ...
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Does body fat percentage effect storage of fat soluble compounds?

Would a person with a higher body fat percentage store more of a fat soluble compound, or store for a longer time, than a person with a lower body fat percentage if they both consumed the same amount ...
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Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
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Compare affinity to potency h1 receptor

This quote from Miller (2004) makes it clear that the affinity of drugs for the H1 receptor does not correlate to sedation: Although both dosage and affinity for histamine H1 receptors play a part ...
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How do drugs tests check so many substances?

There are about 170 drugs banned for sports and many other drugs that can be used in crimes. How can blood tests practically detect so many different substances? Do they divide the sample into 170 ...
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Why warfarin is given as racemic mixture?

Warfarin is administered as a racemic mixture of S- and R- warfarin. S- warfarin is 3 to 5 times more potent than R- warfarin. So, what's the logic behind giving a mixture of it? Isn't administration ...
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Why DMSO is used as a control?

Coming from a non-biology background, I've realised many academic papers on experiments use DMSO as like a control. This is an example: KN-93, a specific inhibitor of CaMKII inhibits human hepatic ...
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What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
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Can polystyrene sulfonate bind calcium or sodium in the gut? How?

Polystyrene sulfonate is used as a potassium binder to treat hyperkalemia in traumatic rhabdomyolysis, acute and chronic kidney disease. It is listed as an ion-exchange resin that can also remove ...
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Why is full cell/high antigen dose pertussis vaccine dangerous for adults?

I do remember that I have read (or heard) somewhere that as a human is older, the whole cell vaccine (and high antigen dose one) has more and more adverse effects. As it is consistent with the target ...
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What happens to the brain during meditation?

I've read several experiments on the internet according to which it is possible to reach a psychedelic state without taking any psychedelic drugs like DMT, LSD and other tryptamine derivatives. It ...
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Check on 23andme what type of CYP2D6 substrate metabolizer I am

CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs. Which SNPs do I need to check on 23andme in order to determine if I'm a poor or ultrarapid ...