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Pharmacology is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function

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Why are semi log graphs used in drug Dose response curves?

Why are Dose response curves, as well as most biological graphs shown in semi log graphs and not normal graphs? What is the advantage of semi log graphs over regular graphs? I still haven't gotten an ...
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Can recreational use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adults change facial bone structure?

I've read that androgen affect bones because bones are sensitive to these hormones. Given such, could using AAS create desirable bone structure in, say, a man? For example if a man has a genetically ...
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1answer
18 views

Why is atropine a CNS stimulant, although it blocks the muscarinic receptors in the brain?

I know that atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, so why does atropine have excitatory actions on the brain while it is blocking muscarinic receptors?
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18 views

Retention period of fat soluble drug

Are fat-soluble drugs remain in the human body long after their usage? If they remain in the body, how it can be detected?
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21 views

Hematuria due to Nitric Oxide

Drug interactions between properly dosed NO and other medications are not expected, but side effects may include noisy breathing, hematuria, or possibly atelectasis. (pg.no:577; Goodman and Gilman ...
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2answers
58 views

Umbrella term for agonist, antagonist, inverse antagonist, etc.

For most receptors there exist different ligands that induce different responses. Depending on the response these different ligands can be classified into different groups such as agonists, ...
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1answer
28 views

Which kind of drugs get absorbed through epidermis?

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
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2answers
114 views

Humans have Cannabinoid receptors. Does that mean we're meant to consume cannabis?

I know the answer is no. But what then explains the name of these receptors being specific to Cannabinoid found in cannabis? Aren't Cannabinoid receptors exclusive to Cannabinoid? Why are they named ...
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1answer
44 views

İrreversible dopamine antagonist vs. Dopamine agonist

Can a dopamine agonist reverse the effects of an irreversible dopamine antagonist?
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0answers
94 views

Why do new atypical antipsychotics like Zyprexa cause TD at lower rates?

When the d2 receptors are blocked for long periods of time they tend to up regulate. This is what causes tardive dyskinesia. Why do the newer atypical anti psychotics cause such at a lower rate? ...
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1answer
169 views

Mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion

Is there any known mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion? This video explains a mechanism, but its inherently wrong because ATP dependent K+ channels will allow movement of K+ from ...
2
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1answer
46 views

Is an X ml dose of a drug at 50% bioavailability roughly equivalent to a 2X ml dose at 25% bioavailability?

For the sake of simplicity, assume: The two doses are the same drug metabolized in the exact same way, and the only difference is the amount that reaches the bloodstream (and thereafter the brain). ...
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45 views

What is the motivation behind fluorinated pharmaceuticals?

From what little research I've done, it appears that a significant portion of modern psychoactive drugs are fluorinated in one way or another (for example, Buproprion, Fluvoxamine, or any number of ...
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175 views

Does Povidone-Iodine that penetrates through the skin stays in the body (cells, liver etc)?

Here it says on povidone-iodine: "Route of Elimination: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical application and is not eliminated" "Clearance: Povidone-Iodine is intended for topical ...
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1answer
37 views

Does body fat percentage effect storage of fat soluble compounds?

Would a person with a higher body fat percentage store more of a fat soluble compound, or store for a longer time, than a person with a lower body fat percentage if they both consumed the same amount ...
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2answers
88 views

Is there any kind of antibiotic effective against fungi?

I know that antibiotics usually have properties affecting specifically bacterial cells, like by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. but do any antibiotics exist affecting eukaryotic cells, like yeast ...
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1answer
177 views

Compare affinity to potency h1 receptor

This quote from Miller (2004) makes it clear that the affinity of drugs for the H1 receptor does not correlate to sedation: Although both dosage and affinity for histamine H1 receptors play a part ...
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1answer
37 views

How do drugs tests check so many substances?

There are about 170 drugs banned for sports and many other drugs that can be used in crimes. How can blood tests practically detect so many different substances? Do they divide the sample into 170 ...
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1answer
41 views

Why warfarin is given as racemic mixture?

Warfarin is administered as a racemic mixture of S- and R- warfarin. S- warfarin is 3 to 5 times more potent than R- warfarin. So, what's the logic behind giving a mixture of it? Isn't administration ...
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1answer
247 views

Why DMSO is used as a control?

Coming from a non-biology background, I've realised many academic papers on experiments use DMSO as like a control. This is an example: KN-93, a specific inhibitor of CaMKII inhibits human hepatic ...
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0answers
20 views

What exactly causes SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclics to induce akathisia?

Such as too high neurotransmitter levels (serotonin/dopamine/other) or the method of drug delivery or some other reason? Please keep in mind I know very little about this subject, I apologize for the ...
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0answers
19 views

PK and PD models

I'm having trouble understanding PK and PD models in context. Are they carried out at each stage of drug development? Whats the context behind a fixed effect model and an emax model? Is the purpose of ...
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1answer
33 views

Can polystyrene sulfonate bind calcium or sodium in the gut? How?

Polystyrene sulfonate is used as a potassium binder to treat hyperkalemia in traumatic rhabdomyolysis, acute and chronic kidney disease. It is listed as an ion-exchange resin that can also remove ...
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2answers
65 views

Why is full cell/high antigen dose pertussis vaccine dangerous for adults?

I do remember that I have read (or heard) somewhere that as a human is older, the whole cell vaccine (and high antigen dose one) has more and more adverse effects. As it is consistent with the target ...
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28 views

If Methylphenidate is a DAT inhibitor, wouldn't it be expected to reduce the symptoms of Restless Leg Syndrome?

I know there have been some links established with ADHD and RLS. Assuming that RLS is a product of dopamine deficiency, wouldn't it be expected that a drug like Methylphenidate would ameliorate the ...
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0answers
33 views

What happens to the brain during meditation?

I've read several experiments on the internet according to which it is possible to reach a psychedelic state without taking any psychedelic drugs like DMT, LSD and other tryptamine derivatives. It ...
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1answer
135 views

Check on 23andme what type of CYP2D6 substrate metabolizer I am

CYP2D6 is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs. Which SNPs do I need to check on 23andme in order to determine if I'm a poor or ultrarapid ...
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19 views

Modern Classification of Introspective Psychopharmacological Drug Profiles?

In the effort to better relate neuronal mechanisms to states of mind, it makes sense to have - in addition to pharmacological classifications of drugs and imaging/physiology classifications of their ...
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32 views

Why do many texts use HSA (human serum albumin and plasma proteins interchangingly, although plasma proteins contain lot of others proteins?

While reading a text on pharmacokinetics, the author repeatedly used the term Human Serum Albumin for total plasma proteins, when discussing about drug binding. How is this logical? Can anyone explain....
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23 views

What are some good examples of open-source articles in which the synergy of two medicines is demonstrated?

I am doing research on Stochastic Cooperative Game Theory (a subfield in mathematics), which I will henceforth call SCGT for convenience. In this theory, entities can work together to receive a bigger ...
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1answer
599 views

How to make GABA pass the blood brain barrier?

I thought of methylating GABA at the gamma amino group in order to make it pass the blood brain barrier, but would it work? The goal is to make a sedative. Like GHB or benzodiazepines (I know that ...
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30 views

What amount of excess past the RDA of Niacin is considered to be hepatoxic?

Many sources suggest there's an upper limit at which anymore daily Niacin can be toxic, but some doctors recommend daily doses between 500-6000mg for those interested in lowering their triglycerides ...
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1answer
80 views

Why have certain plants evolved to contain psychoactive compounds?

Plants such as marijuana (Cannabis) and kratom (Mitragena speciosa) contain compounds that affect the human brain. Why have these plants evolved to incorporate substances like THC and mitragynine into ...
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7 views

Naming two sections about specific antiviral activity in IU/mL and IU/mg

I'm translating a Russian document about a drug product. One of the sections is named "Специфическая активность" (Specific activity) and describes how to assess this parameter - measured in IU/mL. It ...
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2answers
55 views

How can ionized amino acid form be important for the catalytic activity?

I can imagine that protonated amino acid form, particularly at the active site, is important for the catalytic activity so hydrogen bonds can be created between the substrate and the enzyme. However, ...
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31 views

Dose-adjusted trough concentrations

What is the meaning of increased and low dose-adjusted trough concentrations of drugs? How is that related to metabolism of drug?
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34 views

Physiological Effect of Mannitol

Which Starling Force is affected by Mannitol? I am either thinking hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid (because it increases interstitial fluid volume) or hydrostatic pressure of capillary (...
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2answers
786 views

How to calculate relative organ weight for a lab animal?

I am trying to calculate relative organ weight for a rat. Anyone knows of a proper formula. It needs to be expressed in g/kg BW.
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51 views

Is burnt THC still psychoactive?

Asking from a more practical angle. If one smokes a joint - does the THC in the embers contribute to getting high - or is it only the THC released by the heat of the smoke in the not-burning section ...
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1answer
364 views

How can some residues in the active site of enzymes be protonated with a pKa < 7?

It is reported in many papers, that some residues in the active site of enzymes need to be protonated to get functional enzyme, where these residues have a low pKa (for let us say 5). How can that ...
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261 views

Why is mdma neurotoxic but psilocin isn't?

There seems to be little evidence that classic tryptamines like lsd and psilocin (magic mushrooms) are neurotoxic, however mdma and some tryptamines that have some mdma like effects like AMT and 5-...
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1answer
95 views

How did Shulgin take cognizance of the dosage of a new substance?

We know that Alexander Shulgin synthesized MDMA, 2C compounds and several other tryptamine derivatives and phenethylamines. But how did he find out that the average dosage of an unknown compound is X ...
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1answer
54 views

How could this molecule affect the body? (Lysergic acid derivative)

First of all, could you please help me name this molecule? I think the name of it is something like this: N,N-pentamethylene lysergic acid. Secondly, my main question is what could be the pharmacology ...
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1answer
67 views

Are drug-gene interactions predictable? [closed]

I have been reading about drug-gene interactions and pharmacogenetic tests. I haven't been able to find many resources that define the process of testing for possible drug-gene interactions without ...
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1answer
181 views

Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%?

Below is a table of atmospheric composition. Could humans breathe if the average methane content of the atmosphere increased to 1%? Table 7a-1: Current Average composition of the atmosphere up to ...
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1answer
73 views

Can someone please explain the following jargon to a layman

I was reading an article on a substance called apigenin: Apigenin can inhibit both aromatase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) with the inhibition of 17β-HSD being unique to apigenin ...
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1answer
57 views

What factors may lead to a difference in whole-cell potency compared to cell-free potency?

For studies of protein-ligand binding, the reported whole-cell potency may be higher or lower compared to measured cell-free potencies. For decreased potency, this may represent an increase in non-...
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0answers
45 views

Why was the intramuscular route selected for palivizumab administration to infants, instead of the subcutaneous route?

The majority of monoclonal antibodies administered by an extravascular route to adults are administered subcutaneously. Does anyone know or have hypotheses about the reasoning behind why palivizumab ...
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32 views

How much and how often to maximise caffeine's effects? (for humans) [closed]

In regards to human's enhanced mental state from caffeine, how much and how often should a human take caffeine to have the most mind altering effect with the least amount of withdrawal symptoms? This ...
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32 views

Can one refer to pieces of proteins produced by enzymatic digestion as “enzymatic lysates”?

A Russian text I'm translating says this: The location of post-translational modification (PTM) sites was determined using the “bottom-up” approach commonly used in this field. In accordance with ...